|Analysis of Human Conditional Discrimination|
|Tuesday, October 8, 2013|
|11:00 AM–12:20 PM |
|Yucatan IV (Fiesta Americana)|
|Area: EAB/DEV; Domain: Experimental Analysis|
|Chair: Agustin Daniel Gomez Fuentes (Universidad Veracruzana)|
|CE Instructor: Agustin Daniel Gomez Fuentes, Ph.D.|
The studies of human conditional discrimination have used two types of experimental arrangements; matching-to-sample first and second orders. In the first arrangement, a matching to sample stimulus and two or more comparison stimuli are presented; in the second, in addition to aforementioned stimuli, were presented two second order stimuli. Goldiamond (1966) and Cumming and Berryman (1965) has shown that matching-to-sample procedures can be used in the experimental analysis of behavioral phenomena that are conceived as complex variants of discriminative control. In this symposium it is presented four studies that used matching-to-sample arrangements. The first experiment used different types of contingencies in human adults; the second evaluated the effect of conceptual training on extradimensional transfer test; in the third it was evaluated the direct training, modeling and following rules on discrimination task; and the fourth evaluated the effect of habilitation on writing active mode as a result of exposure to the language reactive modes. Results discussed the factors that influence the performance in human conditional discrimination. Keywords: conditional-discrimination, and human. Is this a data-based presentation? Because this abstract is the symposium presentation. The individual papers have their own data base.
|Keyword(s): Human conditional discrimination|
|Conceptual training and its effect on extradimensional transference|
|MARIA ELENA RODRIGUEZ PEREZ (Universidad de Guadalajara), Angelica Nuño Fragoso (University of Guadalajara)|
|Abstract: In this experiment, it was developed a conceptual training task using paintings as stimuli which could be matched in any of two dimensions: by theme (still life, portrait, landscape or social scenes) or technique (pointillism, cubism, expressionism or impressionism). In every trial, participants had to fill in a blank second-order matching-to-sample array by choosing from paintings provided by the experimenter and according to a signaled specific matching criterion (similar or different theme/technique). It was considered that this procedure may promote substitution-contingency behavior since it required being congruent with changing matching criteria. After training, participants were exposed to a transfer test in which they had to match paintings using the untrained dimension. The experimental design considered six groups which differed by the type of descriptions required during training (open, close, none) and the dimension used as matching criterion. Two control groups were exposed to the transfer test without training to compare conceptual demand of each dimension. Data showed that using descriptions (either in a close or open format) during matching is essential to perform correctly during transference. Participants trained on technique and probed on theme had a better performance during transference but only when open descriptions were required.
Key words: matching-to-sample, behavior, adjustment|
|Direct training, modeling and rule-following using conditional discrimination|
|LUIS HERNANDO SILVA CASTILLO (Universidad de Guadalajara), Milton Andres Miranda Herrera (Universidad de Guadalajara), Maria Elena Rodriguez Perez (Universidad de Guadalajara)|
|Abstract: Research using conditional discrimination tasks has revealed different types of learning. In this experiment, three types of trainings were used: direct exposure to contingencies (direct training), exposure to a confederate learning model (modeling), and the use of an explicit matching criterion in each trial (rule-following). In order to find out about the functional similarities among these three types of trainings, three groups of Mexican engineering students were trained in a second-order matching-to-sample task. After training, transference tests were used to evaluate the complexity of learning. The same research protocol was used with Colombian psychology students with an exception. Participants were paid according to their outcomes during training and tests. Data were similar within both populations when comparing direct and rule-following trainings. All participants learned and showed high transference of learning when exposed to a rule-following training. Only a few participants learned with the direct training. However, results differed within populations when exposed to the modeling training. Almost all participants that were paid learned the conditional discrimination meanwhile none of the unpaid participants did. These results highlight the possible effect of payment on attention and motivational conditions when observing a learning model.
Key words: matching to sample, rule-following, modeling, learning complexity|
Kind of Contingencies and Transfer of Matching-to-Sample Performance in Human Adults
|EDGAR EDUARDO MONTES CASTRO (Universidad de Guadalajara-Mexico), Mario Serrano (Universidad Veracruzana-CEICAH)|
College students were exposed to different matching-to-sample procedures. For two groups, discriminative and delta functions of comparison stimuli varied or not between trials. For yoked groups, stimulus functions also varied but the instrumental response was not required and the feedback was non-contingent. Transfer tests using new stimuli, features, dimensions and relations were conducted after training. Performances in transfer tests were higher for participants exposed to the matching-to-sample training in which stimulus functions varied and the instrumental response was required than for remaining participants. Results are discussed in terms of the necessary and sufficient conditions for generalized matching-to-sample performance as rule-governed behavior.
Habilitation of an Active Linguistic Mode Under Different Reactive Linguistic Modes
|GELACIO GUZMAN DIAZ (Universidad Veracruzana-IPyE), Agustin Daniel Gomez Fuentes (Universidad Veracruzana), Mario Serrano (Universidad Veracruzana-CEICAH), Enoc Obed De la Sancha Villa (Universidad Veracruzana-IPyE), Zaira Jacqueline GarcÃa PÃ©rez (Universidad Veracruzana)|
Three groups of college students were exposed to a non-contingent matching-to-sample task and two transfer tests. Three additional groups were exposed to transfer tests only. For all groups, matching responses in transfer tests consisted in the specification of the shape and color of a comparison stimulus by writing. Between groups, stimuli were presented in different modalities: visual, auditory or as texts. Participants exposed to the non-contingent task using visual and textual stimuli showed slightly higher transfer performances that participants exposed directly to transfer tests. Using auditory stimuli, performances were higher for participants exposed directly to tests than for participants exposed to the non-contingent task. In general terms, stimuli presented as texts produced a higher percentage of correct responses that stimuli presented in either visual or auditory modalities. Results are discussed in relation to previous experiments on rule-governed behavior using the generalized matching-to-sample paradigm. Keywords: modes, language, matching-to-sample.