Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


31st Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2005

Event Details

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Poster Session #403
#403 Poster Session – EAB
Monday, May 30, 2005
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Southwest Exhibit Hall (Lower Level)
86. Vicarious Trial-and-Error Behavior in Hamsters Foraging for Food
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
FELIPE CABRERA (University of Guadalajara, Mexico), Francois Tonneau (University of Guadalajara, Mexico)
Abstract: Spatial memory in nonhuman animals is often tested in radial mazes. In this experiment, we examined some properties of the foraging behavior of hamsters. We used the analog of an open-field maze (110 x 110 cm) with eight baited poles arranged in a circle (without arms to connect the central start box with the poles). On each trial, a hamster was placed at the center of the open field and allowed to make 10 successive choices, correct or not. On the trials where only correct choices were made, the hamsters made more partial choices (that is, partial head movements directed at the top of a pole) as the number of previous choices increased. On trials with errors, partial choices were less frequent. This result is consistent with the vicarious trial-and-error phenomenon described by Tolman (1932), in which the subjects look (or run) back and forth at the choice point before making a complete choice.
87. Effects of Free Access to Water and Food on Body Weight and Food and Water Intake Under a Partial Food Deprivation Schedule
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
ANTONIO LOPEZ-ESPINOZA (University of Guadalajara, Mexico), Hector Martinez Sanchez (University of Guadalajara, Mexico), Alejandra Marquez (University of Guadalajara, Mexico)
Abstract: After fifteen days of free access to water and food, ten albino rats (3-month-old at the beginning of the experiment), were exposed to fifteen days of partial food deprivation with 7 g of food by day, followed by 3 days of free access of food. This cycle deprivation – free access was repeated for other 2 times. Water was freely available during the experiment. Control group was exposed to free access all the time. When deprivation was removed, food and water consumption increased, while body weight was recovered. Results confirmed previous data about post-deprivation effects related to changes in body weight and food and water consumption after one period of deprivation food. Key words: deprivation, free access, post-deprivation effects, water and food consumption, body weight, rats.
88. A Comparison of Two Discrimination Training Procedures: An Application of a Multiple-Sequence Variation of the Multiple Baseline Design
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
DEREK D. REED (Syracuse University), Florence D. DiGennaro Reed (Syracuse University), Laura Lee McIntyre (Syracuse University)
Abstract: The ability to discriminate among objects has been identified as pivotal; however, children with developmental disabilities often exhibit particular difficulties discriminating among stimuli (Ward & Yu, 2000). This study aimed to identify ways of maximizing discrimination training through the use of a relatively novel single case experimental design, a multiple-sequence variation of the multiple-baseline design. In contrast to the traditional multiple-baseline design, the multiple-baseline—multiple-sequence (MBL-MS) allows comparison between and within participants in an effort to examine sequencing effects. This design, as described by Noell and Gresham (2001), is an efficient way to compare teaching sequences and efficacy of the training while subsequently minimizing time. Six children diagnosed with developmental delays were asked to identify picture cards (e.g., animals, foods, toys, etc.) in a 1 to 1 setting. The auditory-visual training required each child to identify the correct picture when its name was stated. In the visual-visual training, the individual was required to identify the correct picture when a similar picture card was presented. Results will be discussed in terms of teaching multiple-discrimination to children to maximize the development of pivotal behaviors. Furthermore, the effectiveness of a multiple-sequence variation of the multiple baseline design will be examined.
89. Treatment Integrity Failures in Fixed Time Schedules: An Analysis of Two Failure Types
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
KRISTIN FARR (Florida Institute of Technology), David A. Wilder (Florida Institute of Technology), Claire C. St. Peter (University of Florida)
Abstract: Although several articles exist on the failure of researchers to evaluate and report treatment integrity data, few researchers have attempted to systematically evaluate the effects of compromised treatment integrity on intervention plans. The current study examined the effects of degraded levels of treatment integrity on fixed time NCR schedules. A human operant methodology was employed in a reversal design to evaluate the effects in a systematic, time efficient and ethical manner. Undergraduate psychology students served as participants. For most participants results indicate the errors of commission were more detrimental than errors of omission. Even at ninety percent treatment integrity NCR treatment effects were compromised in comission phases. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed.
90. Evaluative Conditioning: Timing and Salience of Stimuli
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
ANNE C. MACASKILL (Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand), Maree J. Hunt (Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand), David N. Harper (Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand), Marc Wilson (Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand)
Abstract: Evaluative conditioning is a process through which neutral stimuli acquire valence after being paired with positive or negative stimuli. Replicating Olson and Fazio (1999), participants in the current study were exposed to a series of such pairings in the context of a vigilance task. Valence changes were then measured both explicitly using a Likert rating scale, and implicitly using the implicit associations test (IAT). Evidence for conditioning was found using IAT reaction time data, but not participants’ explicit ratings. Two manipulations the would be predicted to influence conditioning if evaluative conditioning is best viewed as a form of Pavolvian conditioning were then carried out. One of the salience manipulations produced the expected result while a second salience manipulation and a change in the timing of CS and US presentations did not.
91. Within-Subject, Within-Session Yoked VR/VI Schedules with Rats: Extending Catania et al. (1977)
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
PAUL A. ROKOSZ (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Matthew E. Andrzejewski (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
Abstract: Designed to replicate and extend Catania et al.(1977), the current study investigated the influence of various reinforcement schedules and yoking procedures on rates of lever-pressing in rats. Initially, two leader rats were conditioned under variable-ratio reinforcement schedules; their inter-reinforcement intervals formed the bases of variable interval schedules for yoked counterparts. Leader and yoked conditions were eventually reversed. During the second phase, the number of responses per reinforcement of leader rats on variable-interval schedules determined the inter-reinforcer ratios for their respective yoked counterparts. Leader and yoked conditions were once again switched between rats. In the final phase, rats were yoked to themselves using a multiple schedule arrangement; behavior under one type of reinforcement schedule determined the inter-reinforcer-intervals or ratios of the following schedule; subsequent behavior determined the intervals or ratios for a reversion to the initial type of schedule, and so on. Consistent with the results of the Catania et al. (1977), variable-ratio reinforcement schedules consistently produced higher rates of response than did variable-interval schedules. The current study extended the paradigm to rats, and also demonstrates that individual rats are sensitive to the feedback of timing features of different schedules of reinforcement within the same session.
92. Differential Resurgence and Response Elimination
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
STEPHANIE P. DA SILVA (West Virginia University), Kennon Andy Lattal (West Virginia University), Adam H. Doughty (University of Kansas, Parsons)
Abstract: Resurgence is the transient recovery of previously reinforced, but presently extinguished, responding when more recently reinforced responding is extinguished. It was examined whether unequal resurgence would follow different response-elimination procedures. There were three conditions in each experiment. In Condition 1, pigeons pecked under a multiple variable-interval (VI) VI schedule. In Condition 2, pecking was eliminated in different ways across components. In Condition 3, extinction was effected for all responding, and resurgence was compared across components. Importantly, the response-elimination procedures in Condition 2 varied across experiments. Experiment 1 showed greater resurgence, and an earlier onset of it, after a differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior (DRO) schedule than after a VI schedule correlated with pecking a different key. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that the differential resurgence in Experiment 1 probably was not due to conditional stimulus control or the periodicity of food delivery. Experiment 4 showed similar resurgence after either a DRO schedule or a VI schedule correlated with treadle pressing. Experiment 5 showed greater resurgence, and/or an earlier onset of it, after a VI schedule correlated with treadle pressing than after a VI schedule correlated with pecking a different key. The relation of these results to an understanding of resurgence is discussed.
93. The Effects of Stimulus Range on the Central Tendency Effect in Stimulus Generalization
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CHRISTINE WEGNER (University of North Dakota), Adam Derenne (University of North Dakota)
Abstract: Recent research on stimulus generalization has shown that increasing the range of the stimuli used during the test increases the frequency of responses to the S+. This research investigated whether the stimulus range also affects the so-called central tendency effect: The tendency for the generalization gradient to shift towards middling stimulus values. College undergraduates were trained and tested with horizontal lines that varied in length. Depending on the condition, the overall test range was either wide or narrow. Also, some participants were trained with an S+ that was near the center of the test range while others were trained with an S+ that was either extremely short or extremely long. The results showed that both the range and the relative position of the S+ influenced the accuracy of responding.
94. From Rags to Riches: Rich Schedule of Reinforcement Affects Fixed-Ratio Response Rate Function
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CHRIS MAZZARA (Central Michigan University), Drew Fox (Central Michigan University), Mark P. Reilly (Central Michigan University)
Abstract: The goal of the current study was to examine how fixed-ratio response rates change as a function of the context in which they are presented. Specifically, ratio functions were generated alone and in the presence of a multiple schedule that alternated FR 5 with increasing fixed ratios in the alternate component. Four Sprague Dawley rats were trained to lever press under fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement. The ratio value doubled each day starting with 2 and ending with 256. Next, the same FR function was constructed in the context of a multiple schedule in which a constant FR 5 alternated with the geometrically increasing FR across sessions. Preliminary data indicate that overall response rates were lower, and that the highest ratio that maintained response rate was lower in the context of the multiple FR 5 schedule. Results will be discussed in terms of contemporary mathematical models of behavior such as Herrnstein’s Matching Law and Killeen’s Mathematical Principles of Reinforcement. This study can have implications for topics such as schedule interactions, motivation, response time and relative reinforcer value.
95. Discounting of Delayed Hypothetical Food and Monetary Outcomes: Effects of Amount
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
ANA A. BAUMANN (Utah State University), Delores Dorton (Utah State University), Megan T. Ryan (Utah State University), Amy Odum (Utah State University)
Abstract: Previous research has suggested that delayed hypothetical food outcomes are discounted more steeply than delayed hypothetical monetary outcomes. This difference could reflect the degree to which consumable and non-consumable reinforcers are discounted. Prior studies used a relatively large amount of food, however, which could be discounted differently than money for multiple reasons. We examined the effects of reward magnitude on differential discounting of food and money. Participants who did not report eating disorders answered questions about which of two options they would prefer: an immediate adjusting outcome or a delayed constant outcome. The delay varied from 1 day to 2 years. There were two outcome types, tested separately: food and money. There were two delayed outcome amounts, tested across groups. The delayed constant outcome was either $100 worth of the participant’s favorite food and $100 or $10 worth of the participant’s favorite food and $10. Participants experienced the outcome types in different orders. They did not actually receive any of the outcomes, but were compensated with class credit for their participation. Food was discounted more steeply than money for both groups. This result indicates that steeper discounting of primary, consumable outcomes is a robust phenomenon across different outcome amounts.
96. Choice, Token Reinforcement, and Sensitivity to Remote Consequences
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
RACHELLE L. YANKELEVITZ (University of Florida), Timothy D. Hackenberg (University of Florida)
Abstract: Four pigeons chose between fixed-interval (FI) and progressive-interval (PI) schedules of token reinforcement with stimulus lamps serving as token reinforcers. The FI schedule requirements remained constant within a condition but varied across conditions, from 32 to 64 s. The PI schedule began at 0 s but increased by 8 s with each reinforcer delivered by that schedule. Completion of the FI schedule reset the PI schedule to 0 s on the subsequent trial. The main independent variable was the delay to the exchange period (when each token was exchangeable for 2-s food). Exchange periods occurred either on each choice trial (immediate exchange) or massed after eleven choice trials (delayed exchange). Switch points increased as a function of FI size, especially under immediate exchange-delay conditions. At a given FI value, switching occurred earlier in the delayed exchange than in the immediate exchange, indicating greater control by remote consequences. The results suggest that the delay to the exchange period broadens the time frame over which choices are sensitive to reinforcement variables in a diminishing returns task.
97. Effects of Response Cost in a Time-Place Learning Paradigm
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
JACOB NORRIS (Texas Christian University), Natalie Rose Bruner (Illinois Wesleyan University), James D. Dougan (Illinois Wesleyan University)
Abstract: Reinforcers often occur in different places at different times, and a time-place learning paradigm is one in which behavior must occur at the right place and at the right time if reinforcement is to occur. Previous studies in our lab have suggested that response cost has a major impact on time-place learning. Evidence for time-place learning was stronger when the cost for switching between locations was relatively high. Evidence for time-place learning was relatively weak when the response cost was lower. The present study extends our previous research. Rats pressed bars for food reinforcement in open field with two feeding stations. At the start of a session only one feeding station was operative. Halfway through the session the second station became operative and the first station ceased to be operative. To maximize reinforcement, rats needed to move from one station to the other with time as the only cue. Results have implications for theories of timing and the role of response cost in learning.
98. Catania & Reynolds (1968) Versus Fleshler & Hoffmann (1962): Log Survivor Analyses of Rats Responding on Constant Probability Variable Interval Schedules
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
BLAKE A. HUTSELL (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale), Eric A. Jacobs (Southern Illinois University, Carbondale)
Abstract: In ongoing research, we are comparing performances maintained by schedules generated by Catania & Reynolds (1968) and Flesher & Hoffman (1962) algorithms to determine if response patterning is affected by the choice of method. Specifically, we are using log-survivor analyses to determine if the choice of algorithm affects bout initiation rate, bout length, and/or within-bout response rate. Rats’ lever pressing was maintained by variable interval schedules with values ranging from 30 s to 480 s, depending upon condition. Within-subject comparisons of responding maintained by schedules generated with each algorithm were performed. Preliminary results suggest that the two progressions do not have systematically different effects on responding.
99. Integrating Behavioural and Neurological Evidence in a Computational Model of Habituation and Sensitization
Area: EAB; Domain: Theory
OSCAR GARCIA LEAL (University of Guadalajara, Mexico), Pablo Adarraga Morales (Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain)
Abstract: The integration of behavioural evidence with data proceeding of studies realized to cellular and molecular levels is essential to advance in the understanding of the mechanisms that are in the base of the adaptation capacities of the organisms in the ontogenetic time. From our point of view, the use of computational techniques, through mathematical modelling developed from a behavioural frame, is a fruitful alternative in this goal.In this poster, a computational model of the mechanisms involved in the habituation and sensitization of responses is proposed. This model has been elaborated from the consideration of evidence proceeding of studies realized to a cellular level with simple organism Aplysia californica.The model simulates the main properties and parameters of both behavioural phenomena considered. In the poster the computational model is examined in detail. Some results are presented about simulations of the main effects of parameters relevant to both phenomena. Main results are analyzed from a behavioural point of view.
100. An Exploration of the Dimensions of Context in Intermingled Concurrent and Concurrent-Chains Choice Situations
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
PAUL ROMANOWICH (University of California, San Diego), Shawn R. Charlton (University of California, San Diego), Edmund J. Fantino (University of California, San Diego)
Abstract: Although it has been empirically demonstrated that context effects choice, the exact dimensions of context remain elusive. In order to better understand these contextual effects, the experiment reported in this poster used concurrent VI/VI schedules (component A) alternating with concurrent-chains VI/VI schedules (component B). Each component lasted for 8 trials then switched to the other component. For component A, the schedule values were VI 40/VI 40, VI 120/VI 120, and VI 360/VI 360. For component B, the experiment used a single concurrent-chain with initial-links VI 60/VI 60 and terminal-links VI 30/VI 90. According to current quantitative models, choice distribution in each component should be independent of the schedule values in the other component. However, it is also possible that choice is influenced by the overall rate of reinforcement, in which case choice behavior in each component would vary as a function of the rates of reinforcement in each component. This poster describes the impact of the three concurrent schedule contexts on choice in the concurrent-chain context. Further discussion is given to the implications of these findings on current quantitative models of choice.
101. The Effects of Yoking Caloric Intake to Decrease Biting
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
ANA PALACIOS (Teachers College, Columbia University), Robin A. Nuzzolo-Gomez (Teachers College, Columbia University), Rebecca Roderick (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: This study tested the effects of yoking caloric intake in order to decrease hand/wrist biting. The participant in this study was an 8-year old female, diagnosed with autism, and was functioning at a listener with emerging reader/writer levels of verbal behavior. The dependent variable in this study was biting, which was defined as any contact made from the mouth to the body from the participant to herself or to another. The independent variable was yoking caloric intake. Levels of caloric intake were kept stable during baseline, and data were recorded on the number of times the participant bit herself or another. In the treatment condition, the participant’s levels of caloric intake were doubled from that of baseline conditions, and data were taken on the number of biting emitted at the same time. Results show that yoking caloric intake significantly decreased the number of biting as compared to baseline levels.
102. Effects of Sharing and Not Sharing Non-differential Consequences on the Choice Between Individual and Social Contingencies in Partial Altruism in Adults
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
NORA RANGEL (University of Guadalajara, Mexico), Emilio Ribes Iñesta (University of Guadalajara, Mexico), Alejandra Zaragoza Scherman (University of Guadalajara, Mexico), Claudia Magana (University of Guadalajara, Mexico), Ana Georgina Lopez (University of Guadalajara, Mexico)
Abstract: Two simultaneous puzzles were solved on separate computer screens by college students designed to 4 different dyads, (ages: between 20 and 30). Subjects were awarded a CD at the end of the experiment. All subjects could place pieces in their own puzzle (individual contingency) and in their peers’ puzzle (social contingency). They could also track both their performance and their partner’s. Dyads were exposed to two baseline sessions and then to a sequence of two experimental conditions: 1) partial altruism with non-shared consequences, in which each participant had a counter that registered his/her own earnings; 2) partial altruism with shared consequences, in which earnings produced by both participants in one session were registered in one common counter (at the end of the session points were divided in equal amounts among subjects). All dyads chose to respond socially since the first experimental session.
103. Delay Discounting of College Students with and Without Bulimic Symptoms
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
ANDREA M. BEGOTKA (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee), Joanna R.H. Thompson (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee), Douglas W. Woods (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)
Abstract: Individuals with bulimia nervosa show greater reactions to stress and more negative emotionality, elevated rates of personality disorders, novelty seeking, and impulsivity (Klein & Walsh, 2003). Additionally, there is an increased prevalence of self-injurious behaviors and substance use disorders among bulimics and within their family, suggesting a general propensity to impulsivity in bulimics (Klein & Walsh, 2003). Behavioral impulsivity often refers to deficient motor inhibition, weak behavioral restraints, and an inability to resist temptations or delay gratification (Crean, de Wit, & Richards, 2000). Behavioral impulsivity is commonly studied in the behavioral literature with non-pathological and pathological conditions presumed to include impulsive characteristics such as cigarette smoking, alcohol and substance abuse, and pathological gambling. These studies have typically included delay-discounting questionnaires and/or tasks to determine if individuals engaging in impulsive acts discount delayed rewards at a steeper rate than individuals not engaging in these behaviors. Bulimia, although thought to include an impulsive characteristic, has never been studied in these types of paradigms. The present study will examine college students with and without bulimic symptoms on a standard delay-discounting task. Identifying differences in delay discounting related to bulimia could be beneficial in developing treatments for this population that target impulsivity.
104. Promoting Self-Control and Increased Engagement in Physical Therapy Tasks in Individuals with Acquired Brain Injury
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
DONNA DELIA (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: Due to their failure to engage in physical therapy exercises, three adult males with acquired brain injury served as participants in a study, which manipulated reinforcer dimensions, implemented progressive delays to reinforcement, and introduced concurrent activity to increase their self-control and engagement in physical therapy tasks. Natural baseline, assesing their duration of engagement following verbal prompts; choice baseline, indicating their preference for smaller, immediate reinforcers versus larger reinforcers, contingent upon engaging for longer than baseline; and self-control training, involving progressively longer delays to larger reinforcers, were implemented. The study extends upon previous research via reduction of the magnitude of the larger reinforcers while sustaining preference for this choice option.
105. Examining the Verbal Behavior and Response Allocation After Delivery of Inaccurate and Accurate Rules During Video Poker Playing
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
BETHANY A. HOLTON (Southern Illinois University), Jennifer A. Delaney (Southern Illinois University), Ashton J. Robinson (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: The current study investigated the effects of inaccurate versus accurate rules on verbal behavior and responding during video poker. Twenty participants completed a three phase experiment involving an acquisition period and a concurrent reinforcement schedule. Initially, participants were free to allocate their responses between two variations of a poker game while simultaneously talking aloud. In one variation participants were allowed free choice of 5-card poker play, whereas the other variation was a poker hand played automatically by computer game following one button click by the participant. Rates of responding, spoken verbal behavior, probability errors made, number of chips won, and response allocation were measured for each participant. In phases 2 and 3 participants were verbally informed with one of two types of rules, accurate or inaccurate, regarding the probability of errors that were made by the automatically played hand variation. Both of these phases were counterbalanced for all participants and the previously mentioned dependent variables were assessed during each phase. The results indicate that individuals switched their response allocation on the basis of the type of rule given by the experimenter. In terms of spoken verbal behavior, a verbal protocol analysis revealed idiosyncratic rules generated by each of the participants.
106. EAHB-SIG Student Paper Award Winner: Functional Interdependence of Mands and Tacts in Preschool Children
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
ANNA I. PETURSDOTTIR (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Skinner’s (1957) analysis of verbal behavior proposes that the mand and the tact are functionally independent verbal operants, each of which is acquired through a unique history of reinforcement. This study attempted to replicate the findings of Lamarre and Holland (1985), who empirically demonstrated the functional independence of mands and tacts in typically developing preschool children. Four children participated in the study. All of them were initially trained to complete two 4-piece assembly tasks. Three children were trained to tact the four pieces that comprised one of the assembly tasks, and to mand for the four pieces that comprised the other task, using arbitrary response forms. The remaining child received tact training only, and only on one task. The effects of training on the untrained operant were evaluated in a multiple-probe design across assembly tasks. Following mand training, 3 out of 3 children reliably emitted tacts under testing conditions. The effects of the tact training, on the other hand, differed across participants. The results differ from those of Lamarre and Holland. However, from the point of view of Skinner’s analysis, they are not necessarily unexpected. Future research should attempt to identify variables that affect transfer of control between mand and tact relations.Faculty Advisors: James E. Carr (Western Michigan University) and Jack Michael (Western Michigan University)
107. Comparison of Speed of Acquisition of Response Differentiation and Stimulus Discrimination in Adult Humans
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MANISH VAIDYA (University of North Texas), Yusuke Hayashi (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Response differentiation and stimulus discrimination are two basic component responses required in complex tasks. Barrett and Lindsley (1962) demonstrated that the method of simultaneously and independently measuring response differentiation and stimulus discrimination through repeated, continuous, and controlled observations, was sensitive to individualized deficits in differentiating two responses and discriminating two stimuli in children with severe mental retardation. This study was an attempt to systematically replicate Barrett and Linsley (1962) in adult humans. A yellow square was presented either in the left or right of the computer screen at 30 s interval. Subjects emitted a response by pressing either “A” or “L” key on the keyboard, or by pressing both keys at the same time. A point and a melodic sound was delivered contingent on pressing “A” key when a yellow square was presented in the left of the screen on a FR10 schedule. A session lasted for 10 min in which a yellow square was presented 10 times in each position. The results demonstrated that the procedure was sensitive in measuring the speed of acquisition of response differentiation and stimulus discrimination and that all subjects acquired response differentiation faster than stimulus discrimination under this procedure
108. The Manipulation of Hues, Cues, and Physiological Arousal in Persons with Acquired Brain Injury
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
HOLLY L. BIHLER (Southern Illinois University), Ashton J. Robinson (Southern Illinois University), Jennifer A. Delaney (Southern Illinois University), Kimberly Moore (Southern Illinois University), Jeffrey E. Dillen (Southern Illinois University), John M. Guercio (Center for Comprehensive Services)
Abstract: A common problem observed with person with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) is their tendency to act impulsively when agitated. Previous literature has demonstrated that color can come to serve as a cue for eliciting certain emotions. In this study, three persons with ABI completed a match-to-sample training program. An equivalence class consisting of a staff member’s picture, a color, and a calming word or phrase was established. Physiological measures were taken on each participant while they were shown a picture of a staff member; these measures were taken at baseline and again after completing the test for equivalence. Physiological indices of relaxation were then paired with the colored cures mentioned above. This was done to form appropriate frames of coordination between the colored cues and the relaxation response. Follow-up physiological measures were taken on all galvanic skin response and heart rate responses.
109. Seeing Learning Change on the Standard Celeration Chart: The Effects of Visual Feedback on the Learning of Fluent Letter Sound and Number Discriminations
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
SARAH A. LAW (University of North Texas), Kathryne Balch Schooley (University of North Texas), Jesus Rosales-Ruiz (University of North Texas)
Abstract: This study assesses the effects of visual performance feedback on the rate of correct responding, generalization and retention of letter-sound and number discriminations. The participant is a kindergartner who has an in-home tutoring program for her academic skills. A multi-element design will be used to compare the effects of visual performance feedback versus no visual performance feedback via the Standard Celeration Chart. In the visual performance feedback condition the child will record their best performance of the day on the Standard Celeration Chart. In the non-visual performance feedback condition the child will record their best performance of the day on a new Standard Celeration Chart each session so that all previous performance is not visually present to the child. One set of letter-sounds and number discriminations are taught using visual performance feedback and the 2nd set of letter-sound and number discriminations are taught without using visual performance feedback. During baseline all letters and numbers are tested in the see-say task and in the hear/write task using a duration measure. After baseline, the use of 10 sec and 30 sec timings and aims will continue until the fluency criterion is met. After training is completed, all the stimuli will be tested under baseline conditions to evaluate the generalization across tasks. A month later, the baseline test will be repeated to test for the retention of letter-sound and number discriminations. Data are in progress.
110. A Heart Rate Model of Visual Discrimination Learning
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
DAVID WAYNE MITCHELL (Southwest Missouri State University)
Abstract: This study assessed changes in heart rate (HR) during visual discrimination learning. One hundred and four adults were tested on a synchronous reinforcement visual discrimination task (SRVDT). The SRVDT consisted of two stimuli presented simultaneously, one to the left and right of the participant's midline, for 16 laterally counterbalanced trials: 2 Baseline Trials (no auditory reinforcement was provided); 10 Learning Trials (an auditory reinforcer was presented and maintained while the participant visually fixated on the contingent stimulus); 2 Maintenance Trials (no auditory reinforcement was provided); 2 Relearning Trials (the auditory reinforcement was reinstated). A trial was defined as the accumulation of 5 seconds of total visual fixation time to the pair of stimuli. The stimuli contained two salient components; a pattern of disjointed L-shapes and a cluster of + shapes. The contingent stimulus (S+) differed in that a pattern of T-shapes were embedded within the L-shapes. Distinct changes in HR were observed as a function of successful discrimination learning. The direction (acceleration or deceleration) and trend (slope of HR within trials) of these changes in HR are argued to represent specific stages of visual discrimination learning. A theoretical HR model of visual discrimination learning is proposed.
111. Shaping Simple Tactile Discriminations in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
JEREMY A. BIESBROUCK (University of Nevada, Reno), W. Larry Williams (University of Nevada, Reno), Marianne L. Jackson (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: The current poster examines the steps required in shaping simple discriminations within the tactile modality. Two developmental disabled adults were trained using a backward chaining procedure to contact stimuli within a custom apparatus. Participants were reinforced for choosing the stimulus identical to a presented sample stimulus. Results are discussed regarding difficulties in shaping tactile discriminations, as well as potential implications relating to stimulus equivalence within the tactile modality for individuals with developmental disabilities.
112. The Role of Training Structures in Stimulus Equivalence Research
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MEDEA RAWLS (University of North Texas), Manish Vaidya (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Saunders & Green, 1999, examined stimulus equivalence research and proposed a hypothesis about the effects of each training structure, linear, many-to-one, and one-to-many, on equivalence formation. The current experiment sought to more precisely understand the role of training structures in stimulus equivalence research. A within-subject comparison of the three training structures was conducted with 4 subjects. Three, 3 class/3 member sets of arbitrary stimuli were trained with different training structure for stimulus equivalence. During each session the subjects were exposed to one block containing 36 training trials and 72 testing trials for each set of stimuli. Sessions continued until 90% accuracy across two sessions. Equivalence was demonstrated with the many-to-one training structure slightly before one-to-many and linear suggesting a slight difference between training structures.
113. Differential Reinforcement and Negative Punishment of Responding to a Response-Driven Stimulus in Pigeons
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
ROBERT W. ALLAN (Lafayette College), Lisa Hudak (Lafayette College)
Abstract: The present studies examine the efficacy of differential reinforcement of location (DRLoc) schedules in shaping and maintaining accurate stimulus contact when the stimulus is moving. A computer touch screen monitored the x and y locations of responding to a stimulus that moved as a function of responses that were perpendicular to the stimulus location. A negative punishment contingency setback the stimulus when responses failed to make perpendicular contact. Differential reinforcement successfully increased the proportion of on-stimulus responses. The role of the negative punishment contingency in on-stimulus responding will also be presented.



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