Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


36th Annual Convention; San Antonio, TX; 2010

Event Details

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Poster Session #475
DDA Poster Session 5
Monday, May 31, 2010
6:00 PM–7:30 PM
Exhibit Hall A (CC)
66. Parent Survey of Risk Factors for Problem Behavior in Children With Developmental Disabilities
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
RACHEL ROBERTSON (Vanderbilt University), Joseph H. Wehby (Vanderbilt University), Lynnette Henderson (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: Despite the high prevalence and poor prognoses associated with problem behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities (DD), the knowledge base regarding risk factors in the emergence and development of problem behavior is small. The purpose of this study was to survey parents of children with DD to identify how many of their children had problem behavior, at what age problem behavior first emerged, and what child, parent, and home factors correlated with the development of problem behavior. Specific questions related to current forms of problem behavior, severity of those forms, the order in which different forms emerged over time, and how parents tended to respond to problem behavior. Increased knowledge in these areas could help direct future efforts in research, intervention, and prevention of problem behavior in people with DD in a number of ways. For example, identifying an age range at which problem behavior is most likely to emerge may direct prevention practices toward a specific period of child development, while identifying parent responses correlated with more severe or frequent problem behavior could suggest parent practices to target for intervention. Significant survey findings will be presented along with implications for research and practice.
67. Discounting of Delayed Outcomes of Treatments for Problem Behavior by Parents of Children With Developmental Disabilities
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ALLISON O'HARA (Marcus Autism Center), Nathan A. Call (Marcus Autism Center), Addie Jane Findley (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Research has found that certain populations are more sensitive to delays (e.g., gamblers) than others. These populations have all shown a greater propensity to select a sooner smaller reward at the expense of a larger later reward than members of control groups. One population that may be especially susceptible to discounting of delayed outcomes, is caregivers of children with developmental disabilities who engage in significant problem behaviors. Treatments for severe problem behavior sometimes require consistent implementation for an extended period of time before the child’s behavior decreases to socially significant levels. Alternatively, the problem behavior can frequently be immediately, though temporarily, decreased via satiation by providing the consequence that maintains the child’s problem behavior. The present study investigated the extent to which 13 caregivers discounted delays regarding reductions in their child’s problem behavior as a result of behavioral interventions. Using procedures consistent with those of other studies on delay discounting, caregivers were provided with a series of choices regarding interventions and hypothetical outcomes that would reduce their child’s problem behavior following differing delays. For each participant, indifference points were calculated to determine their sensitivity to delayed outcomes. Clinical implications regarding treatment designs were considered.
68. Evaluating the Influences of Training Procedures on Staff and Client Behavior
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
KAIL GRAHAM (MHMRA of Harris County), Maria Quintero (MHMRA of Harris County), Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston-Clearlake), Deborah L. Grossett (The Center - Houston)
Abstract: Training is primarily meant to increase staff performance. The ultimate goal of staff improvements should be the improvements in students’ behavior. In this study, we compared a traditional lecture and role playing to self-recording of videotaped sessions on the staff’s performance following training. The changes in student behavior were recorded along with staff performance in order to determine if training met its ultimate goal. Four teacher’s aides were taught to withhold putative reinforcers for problem behavior exhibited by fourteen students. Results showed that standard training methods using lecture and role play did improve staff performance somewhat; however, the alternative training method utilizing videos for self analysis were more effective. A staff member viewing and analyzing his or her own behavior was the key component for improvement in responses to inappropriate behavior. Consequently, there was also a reduction in student problem behavior.
69. Training Staff to Implement Incidental Teaching Using a Multi-Component Package
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CRYSTAL MARIE WISSINGER (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Jennifer Dawn Magnuson (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Incidental Teaching is a common approach used in preschool settings to increase functional skills. Researchers conducted a study for the purpose of training Incidental Teaching strategies to 4 staff members working in a hospital-based playroom. Training components were systematically introduced in a multiple baseline across participants design. The training components included written and verbal instruction and self-monitoring for three participants with the addition of in-vivo feedback for the fourth. Experimenters took direct measures on participants’ rates of correct teaching opportunities as well as the percentage of integrity across each training component. The results indicate that the training components were successful in increasing incidental teaching skills in all 4 participants however, only 3 of the participants achieved an 80% mastery criteria or greater. On average, the participants demonstrated a 45.7% increase in treatment integrity and a 36.3% increase in the rate of correct teaching opportunities per minute. Social validity surveys distributed upon completion of the study indicate that incidental teaching is socially acceptable, and the training methods used were effective. The data suggest that while the implementation of the training package can increase the use of incidental teaching strategies, some individuals may require additional training.
70. Environmental Enrichment in Adult Day Treatment
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
SARAH M. DUNKEL-JACKSON (Southern Illinois University), James W. Jackson (Southern Illinois University), Kyosuke Kazaoka (Trinity Services, Inc.), Erica D. Pozzie (Trinity Services, Inc.), Amie Clarke (Trinity Services, Inc.), Stephanie Perkins (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: Engagement is a useful primary dependent variable for assessing activity and inactivity of individuals served in adult day treatment settings. However, implementation details about specific independent variables used to increase engagement are highly desired by administrators and direct care staff. Across adult day treatment settings for individuals diagnosed with intellectual disabilities, experimenters conducted a component analysis of an environmental enrichment package consisting of a Room Arrangement, Activity Schedule, Creative Activities Training, and Staff Interaction Training. Data indicate that higher rates of client engagement resulted from improved structure, additional staff training, and consistent feedback regarding treatment fidelity. Implications for systems-change and curriculum design for adult day treatment settings will be discussed.
71. An Evaluation of the Utility of an Abbreviated Behavior Plan Supplement
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
BIANCA PIZZO (Bancroft), Eric Eberman (Bancroft), Denise Marzullo Kerth (Bancroft), Frances A. Perrin (Bancroft), Rachel E. Sari (Bancroft), Lauren F. Troy (Bancroft), Christina M. Vorndran (Bancroft)
Abstract: Behavior plans often serve multiple functions (Carr, 2009). Not only do they document the appropriate treatment for an individual, but often they are required to meet state and federal guidelines as well. As a result, behavior plans end up as lengthy documents potentially making it difficult for individuals assigned to implement them to find necessary information quickly. This may result in poor integrity of plan implementation. A possible solution would be to provide the plan implementers with an abbreviated supplement that includes only the information required to implement the plan in an easy to reference format. The purpose of the current study was to identify whether direct care staff members could (a) recall more information from a behavior plan if an abbreviated supplement was provided and (b) locate information more quickly from an abbreviated supplement than the full behavior plan. Participants were direct care staff members working in a behavioral stabilization unit where all children and adolescents served had a behavior plan designed primarily to reduce severe problem behavior. Staff members were randomly assigned to either the Recall group or the Locate group. Both groups were provided two behavior plans; one of which had an abbreviated supplement attached. Both groups were quizzed on various details of the behavior plans either after (Recall) or during (Locate) their review of the plan. Results and a discussion of the findings specific to their applied implications will be presented.
72. Budget Cuts in California: Is the Reduction of Hours Effective for Children With Developmental Delays?
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
HAILY CHOUN (Center for Behavioral Sciences, Inc.), Junelyn Lazo (Center for Behavioral Sciences, Inc.), Joyce C. Tu (Center for Behavioral Sciences, Inc.), Johanna F. Lorca (Center for Behavioral Sciences, Inc.), Cynthia L. Boyle (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Due to recent budget cuts in California, many families with services provided by funding sources such as the regional centers are threatened with a reduction in service hours. Much of the $14.9 billion cut in February 2009 and $16.1 billion cut in September 2009 were made in social programs that included early intervention services and 1:1 direct services provided to children with autism and other developmental disabilities. Thus, the purpose of our study was to determine the effectiveness of behavioral services when children received only four hours per week compared to children who received at least ten hours per week of intensive services. The participants were four children who were eligible for early start services in the state of California. Their skills were measured in the areas of receptive and expressive language, visual discrimination, imitation and self-help. In addition, the children's scores on the Hawaii Early Learning Profile (HELP) were also compared in order to determine the effectiveness of the programs. The results demonstrated that children with at least ten hours per week of 1:1 services acquired a higher number of skills across areas measured when compared to children with only four hours per week. For example, children with ten hours per week acquired at least 20 or more skills in the area of expressive language versus children with four hours per week who mastered only three. In addition, the percentage of delays as measured by the HELP showed a greater decrease in those children with more intensive service hours. Thus, four hours per week of intensive services was not as effective on skill acquisition and decreasing developmental delays when compared to at least ten hours per week.
73. Literature Review of the Latest 30 Years of Vocational Research With People With Developmental Disabilities
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
DAPHNA EL-ROY (Eden II Programs)
Abstract: Effective vocational training can potentially contribute to the independence, productivity and successful community integration of people with developmental disabilities. Thirty years of research, published from 1978 to 2008, focusing on training vocational skills to people with developmental disabilities will be reviewed. Articles included will be those using single-case experimental designs. The peer-reviewed journals used in this analysis will be the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Behavior Modification, Research in Developmental Disabilities and the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disabilities. Trends over time in the areas of focus of research and other variables will be discussed. Data presented will include the primary interest of the studies analyzed (preference assessments, evaluation of prompts, group instruction, peer instruction, self-monitoring, etc.), diagnoses of participants (autism, mental retardation, dually diagnosed, etc.), setting (simulated off site, in vivo at job site or both), tasks included (janitorial, packaging, etc.), research design, generalization (across tasks, etc.) and maintenance.
74. A Review of the Literature in Developmental Disabilities and Behavior Analysis Over the Past Nine Years
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
LAUREN A. MAHONEY (Eden II School for Autistic Children), Niall James Toner (Eden II Programs), Frank R. Cicero (Eden II Programs)
Abstract: With the downsizing and closing of many large institutions, the number of individuals being served in schools, day programs, community based group homes, and family residences has increased dramatically since the early 1980’s. These smaller naturalistic settings provide more benefits than larger institutional settings. Past research was often conducted directly within the institutions by professionals in analogue conditions. Research projects in the fields of behavior analysis and developmental disabilities today are often conducted in university and hospital clinics by professionals in analogue conditions. There seems to have been a shift in therapeutic settings and treatment providers but no shift in research settings and research providers. The current literature review investigated the various types of settings and providers across four peer reviewed journals from 2000 through 2009. Reviewed journals included JABA, Behavior Modification, Research in Developmental Disabilities and JADD. Data will be analyzed and presented by treatment providers, and intervention settings. Along with the visual display of data, implications of the research trends and future research directions for the fields of behavior analysis and developmental disabilities will be discussed.
75. Reducing Perseverative Speech Through Reinforcer Satiation in Two Individuals With Developmental Disabilities
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MICHELE TRAUB (Devereux New Jersey), Suzanne T. Cole (Devereux New Jersey), Cynthia B. Simonds (Devereux New Jersey), David M. Wilson (Devereux New Jersey)
Abstract: Perseverative speech is a common behavior among individuals with developmental disabilities. While research has addressed interventions for echolalic speech, few studies have explored perseveration on specific topics within otherwise typical conversation. Research on stereotypy, however, has demonstrated that allowing individuals to engage in repetitive behavior can be successful in reducing the overall frequency of that behavior. A significant number of studies have also shown the effectiveness of noncontingent delivery of the reinforcer that maintains a behavior in reducing the occurrence of that behavior. We investigated the use of a high-magnitude noncontingent reinforcement procedure to reduce perseverative speech in two individuals with developmental disabilities using a multiple-baseline across subjects with reversal design. Specifically, 30-minute periods of attention were provided noncontingently during client-directed conversation. We also taught replacement self-talk strategies, during which the participants were taught to independently answer their own questions. The results are discussed in relation to the intervention's effectiveness and the relative ease of implementation.
76. Assessment and Treatment of Escape-Maintained Object Mouthing
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
SETH B. CLARK (Kennedy Krieger Institute), SungWoo Kahng (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Nicole Lynn Hausman (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Joseph Wakeman-Linn (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: The inappropriate mouthing of objects is a common problem among individuals with developmental disabilities (Roane, Kelly, & Fisher, 2003). It represents a serious health risk given that it can lead to damage of the mouth and esophagus (Danford & Huber, 1983; Roane et al. 2003) or to a more hazardous problem behavior, pica (McCord, Grosser, Iwata, & Powers, 2005). Although the etiology of object mouthing is unknown, it has generally been demonstrated that behaviors such as these are maintained by automatic reinforcement (Carr, Dozier, Patel, Adams, & Martin, 2002; Mueller & Kafka, 2006; Roane et al., 2003; Tarbox, Tarbox, Ghezzi, Wallace, & Yoo, 2007). In the present study, results from the functional analysis suggested that object mouthing was sensitive to escape from demands. To date, the treatment of escape-maintained object mouthing has not been addressed in the experimental literature. In the current study, a function-based, multi-component treatment was developed that resulted in significant decreases in object mouthing. Results of this study illustrate the importance of using function-based approach to treatment, as opposed to basing treatment upon the response topography alone.



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