|Social and Communicative Interventions for Individuals With Autism or Developmental Disabilities
|Monday, May 31, 2010
|1:30 PM–2:50 PM
|Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
|Chair: Mandy J. Rispoli (Texas A & M University)
|CE Instructor: John Pokrzywinski, M.A.
|Abstract: In this symposium we present recent research regarding social and communicative interventions for persons with autism spectrum disorders and developmental disabilities. The first paper provides a review of the literature involving the use of speech generating devices to teach communication skills to individuals with developmental disabilities. Results highlight areas of future research and implications for practitioners. The second paper investigates the use of video modeling to teach appropriate social interaction behaviors to college students with high functioning autism or Asperger’s syndrome. Implications for future research and clinical practice are provided. The third paper evaluates self-monitoring for decreasing inappropriate social behaviors for two boys with autism. Results demonstrate reduction in each target behavior. Finally, the fourth paper provides a meta-analysis of single case research on the use of augmentative and alternative communication with individuals who have autism spectrum disorders. Data are analyzed using an effect size analysis, the Improvement Rate Difference.
|Speech Generating Devices in Communication Interventions for Individuals With Developmental Disabilities: A Review of the Literature
|SIGLIA PIMENTEL HÏ¿½HER (Texas A & M University), Mandy J. Rispoli (Texas A & M University), Jessica Hetlinger Franco (San Antonio Autism Community Network), Russell Lang (University of California, Santa Barbara)
|Abstract: The use of Speech Generating Devices is a popular means for teaching communication skills to persons with developmental disabilities. We reviewed studies published between 1989 and 2009 involving the use of Speech Generating Devices (SGD) in communication interventions for individuals with developmental disabilities. The purpose of this review was to examine how and with whom SGD training for communication has occurred in intervention studies. Systematic searches of electronic databases, journals,
and reference lists identified 46 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated for participant characteristics, SGD characteristics, targeted communication skills, intervention procedures, outcomes, and certainty of evidence. Targeted communication skills included requesting, labeling, receptive language skills, and spontaneous communication. Positive outcomes were reported for the majority of the reviewed studies. Overall, this literature base supports the use of SGDs with simple programming for individuals with limited functional communication skills. Recommendations for future research and clinical practice will be provided.
|The Use of Video Modeling to Teach Social Behaviors to College Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders
|ROSE A. MASON (Texas A&M University), Mandy J. Rispoli (Texas A & M University), Jennifer B. Ganz (Texas A&M University)
|Abstract: The social impairments characteristic of individuals identified with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) result in challenges in successfully maneuvering both familiar environments and new environments with novel experiences and expectations. Despite the growing numbers of individuals with ASD who participate in post-secondary education (Smith, 2007), the research base for interventions to assist with successful integration into college life is scant. Video modeling, which has been demonstrated to be an effective intervention for improving social skills in children and adolescents with ASD, lacks empirical support for use with post-secondary individuals with ASD. The purpose of this study to investigate the effect of video modeling on social interaction skills for post-secondary students with ASD and to compare modifications of video modeling interventions on the acquisition and/or generalization of appropriate social behaviors, utilizing a multiple baseline design across participants. This paper will present the results of this study, for which the data is currently being collected. Further, the presenters will discuss findings and implications for future research.
|Improving Social Behavior of Individuals with Autism Through the Use of Self-Monitoring
|AMY KATHLEEN HEATH (Texas A & M University), Jennifer B. Ganz (Texas A&M University), John Davis (Texas A & M University)
|Abstract: Self-monitoring is an antecedent strategy which allows individuals to monitor their own behavior or learning. Individuals are taught to collect data on their own behavior by comparing their engagement in a target behavior with pre-established criteria. This study examined the use of a self-monitoring procedure on the social behaviors of two boys with autism spectrum disorders. Specific target behaviors included decreasing duration of talking about preferred topics in a conversation and decreasing the duration of playing with his tongue for the two participants, respectively. Participants were taught to assess if they were engaged in the target behavior on a FI 30 sec schedule with the assistance of a MotivAider ®. A multiple-baseline design was used to demonstrate experimental control. Data were collected on frequency of statements, questions or preferred topic discussions that occurred within a 5 minute conversation for the first participant and the frequency of tongue play for the second participant. Results showed improvement in the target behavior for both participants. These results suggest that self-monitoring may be an effective means of improving social behaviors for students with autism spectrum disorder. Suggestions for future research and implications for practice will be discussed.
|A Meta-Analytic Application of IRD to Evaluate Augmentative and Alternative Communication Systems with Individuals with Autism
|JENNIFER B. GANZ (Texas A&M University), Theresa Earles-Vollrath (University of Central Missouri), Amy Kathleen Heath (Texas A & M University), Richard I. Parker (Texas A & M University), Mandy J. Rispoli (Texas A & M University), Jaime Duran (Texas A & M University)
|Abstract: Many individuals with autism cannot speak or cannot speak intelligibly. A variety of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) approaches to address these deficits have been investigated. However, most of the research on these approaches has been single-case research, with small numbers of participants. The purpose of this investigation was to meta-analyze the single case research on the use of AAC; including the Picture Exchange Communication System, other picture-based AAC interventions, and speech-generating devices; with individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Twenty-four single-case studies were analyzed. The participants included in these studies were individuals of all ages who had an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis, sometimes along with additional diagnoses (e.g., developmental disability, sensory impairment). The data is currently being analyzed using an effect size analysis, the Improvement Rate Difference. Results will be reported by six overarching variables: intervention, dependent variable, setting, age range, iconicity of AAC symbols, and diagnostic category. Implications will be discussed.