Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


36th Annual Convention; San Antonio, TX; 2010

Event Details

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Poster Session #94
AUT Poster Session 1
Saturday, May 29, 2010
6:00 PM–7:30 PM
Exhibit Hall A (CC)
10. Using Extinction To Reduce SIB With A Four-Year-Old Girl With Ectopic Eczema
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
SMITA AWASTHI (Assocation for Behavior Analysis of India), Gazala Zafar Ali
Abstract: The study was implemented on a 4 year old girl with a diagnoses of mild Autism Spectrum Disorder & severe Ectopic Eczema. The behaviors observed were of severe scratching over the body and face, leading to bleeding wounds, asking repeatedly for lotion to be applied and persistent vocalization. An FBA revealed that part of the behavior was maintained by history of attention due to her eczema condition as well as escape from new settings including environmental changes and rituals. The intervention included using extinction when she started scratching her face & body and asking for lotion. The procedures were used across settings & people. The results showed that scratching behavior reduced drastically, affirming the behavior being maintained not by the ectopic eczema but by the attention from family members.
11. Decreasing SIB and Screaming in 7-Year-Old With ASD in Outdoor Conditions Using Systematic Desensitization & Time Out
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Razia Ali (Association for Behavior Analysis of India), SMITA AWASTHI (Association for Behavior Analysis of India)
Abstract: A 7 year old girl, with a diagnosis of ASD had severe screaming behavior on each car drive. High pitch screams, head banging & kicking happened before each turn on the road, accompanied by increase in breathing rate, leaning forward to see where they were going Detailed observation of behavior revealed screaming under changing conditions. Condition 1, was not to stop the car in new spots in known locations. Condition 2: not to drive in unknown areas. Condition 3: not to get down from car in non preferred areas. Condition 4: to stop & get down in favorable places. Over a period of one year, a systematic desensitization procedure of driving through various areas, & time out reduced the behavior drastically while new coping strategies were taught. The outcome of the study was a complete reduction of behaviors & improved socialization.
12. Teaching Parents to Utilize Systematic Desensitization to Increase a Child With Autism’s Ability to Access Community Restrooms
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
KAREN NOHELTY (Autism Spectrum Therapies), Gan Luong (Autism Spectrum Therapies), Robert Haupt (Autism Spectrum Therapies)
Abstract: Difficulty around the toileting routine is common for many children with developmental disabilities. This is further complicated when a child is able to master the routine, but is unable to generalize this skill to public restrooms in the community. Generalizing these skills is even more difficult with the advance of technology. Many children, typical and those with development disabilities, are intimidated by the large stalls, the sudden flush of the automatic flushers, and hand dryers. With the many sensory needs that a child with autism possesses it becomes an even more difficult task to overcome these changes and achieve generalization of the toileting routine. Additionally, it is important to teach parents the necessary skills to support this generalization. In this controlled case study we examined the effects of teaching parents to use systematic desensitization in order to increase an eight year old child with autism’s ability to follow a task analysis for a bathroom routine in a public restroom.
13. Systematic Desensitization as an Intervention for Problem Behaviour Associated With Hair Cutting in a Boy Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
EDEL KING (Stepping Stones ABA School for Children with Autism), Kristen A. Maglieri (Trinity College Dublin), Rita Honan (Trinity College Dublin), Ciara Tolan (Stepping Stones ABA School for Children with Autism)
Abstract: Children with autism often display challenging behaviour and noncompliance during haircutting. The current study evaluated contact desensitization as an intervention with a 7-year old male diagnosed with autism who displayed maladaptive behaviours during haircuts. During baseline, the participant was exposed to electric hair clippers while they were turned on and off and maladaptive behaviours were exhibited during both conditions. A desensitization program was then implemented which consisted of gradually and systematically exposing the participant to the aversive stimuli (hair clippers) in accordance with a pre-established exposure hierarchy. Specifically, reinforcement was delivered contingent on compliance with the steps of the exposure hierarchy. Results showed that the desensitization intervention was successful in reducing problem behaviour to near zero levels during each step in the hierarchy and the participant reached the terminal goal of allowing his hair to be cut using the electric clippers. Results suggest that desensitization can be an effective intervention for reducing maladaptive behaviours associated with hair cutting using electric clippers.
14. Training Direct Care Staff to Make Data-Based Decisions: A Replication
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ADRIENNE MUBAREK (CaliforniaPsychCare), Rebecca M. O'Gorman (CaliforniaPsychCare), Erin Guzinski (CaliforniaPsychCare), Alison L. Costa (CaliforniaPsychCare), Eric L. Carlson (CaliforniaPsychCare), Ali Sadeghi (CaliforniaPsychCare)
Abstract: The study extended previous research conducted by Stewart, Carr, Brandt & McHenry (2007) in which the authors assessed training methods for making data-based decisions. Participants included direct care staff at an agency that provided behavioral interventions for children. All participants have not had previous training specific to making data-based decisions. A multiple-baseline across participants was used to assess the effects of training on making accurate intervention decisions after viewing different types of graphs. Data are being collected. Results and discussion will focus on the outcomes of staff training targeted at making data-based decisions and implications for agencies that provide this type of training.
15. Assessing a Staff Training, Feedback, and Goal-Setting Package on Increasing Opportunities to Respond in Young Students With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
TODD HARRIS (Devereux Foundation), Cathleen M. Albertson (Devereux CARES), Lori Anne Pisaneschi (Devereux CARES)
Abstract: This study will examine the effectiveness of a workshop training, feedback, and goal setting package on creating opportunities for students to respond in a classroom setting. The participants are staff (special education teachers and paraprofessionals) who work in an approved private school for children with autism (in two different classrooms). Each participant will complete a workshop that includes planning for opportunities within specific classroom activities and receive feedback on their performance in vivo. Based upon objective data, each classroom will set weekly goals related to their students’ opportunities to respond and will also receive weekly graphed performance feedback from the experimenters. A multiple baseline design across classrooms will be the experimental design utilized. Anticipated results will show an increase in created opportunities to respond from each staff and an increase in mands and other responses from students. Inter-observer agreement data will be collected on approximately 40% of sessions.
16. Using Technology With Discrete Trial Data Entry
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
TRACY MCKINNEY (University of Central Florida)
Abstract: Discrete Trial Training is an evidenced based teaching method for individuals with special needs, specifically, individuals with autism. Discrete Trial Training is just one of the many teaching strategies typically used in a true Applied Behavior Analysis classroom. Teachers and therapists have a tremendous workload in the classroom. Often times, teachers and therapists spend too much time physically transferring data from paper onto the computer, where it can then be analyzed for future instruction. After entering and analyzing data there is not much time left for planning for upcoming discrete trials, creating lesson plans, communication with parents, communication with other professionals, or anything else. Using technology to enter data using a hand held PDA can cut out a step and increase efficiency in data analysis. Which will in turn, give teachers and therapists valuable time to complete other essential tasks that will enhance the total education package for the students.
17. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Comprehensive Staff Training Package for Behavioral Interventions for Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
SARA M. WEINKAUF (University of North Texas), Nicole Zeug (Easter Seals North Texas), Claire Anderson (University of North Texas), Jesus Rosales-Ruiz (University of North Texas), Shahla S. Ala'i-Rosales (University of North Texas)
Abstract: The effectiveness of behavioral interventions for the treatment of young children with autism has been well documented in professional literature. The success of these procedures, however, depends on the fidelity of implementation. Proper training is required to ensure proper implementation of these procedures. The purpose of this study was to develop a staff training package that involved graduated exposure to necessary skills for a therapist in a behavioral intervention setting and a subsequent investigation of the effectiveness and efficiency of the training. Results indicated that correct demonstration of skills increased following training, as well as a decrease in incorrect implementation of skills. A discussion of the results as well as implications for future research is also provided.
18. A Comparison of Treatments to Determine the Validity of the PDC as as Functional Assessment Tool
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CAROLINE C. STEVENS (The Shape of Behavior), Domonique Y. Randall (The Shape of Behavior)
Abstract: Functional assessments have predominantly been used in behavior analytic research to treat the abhorrent behaviors of populations with developmental disabilities. There are similar assessments being used within the area of organizational behavior management, such as the Performance Diagnostic Checklist (PDC). However, there is not much research to support the validity of using the PDC as a functional assessment tool to determine the function and treatment of problem behavior (i.e., employee performance and compliance with basic task analyses) within a corporation. The present study examines the validity of the PDC as a functional assessment tool by conducting a multiple baseline across participants to determine if using a functional based treatment versus a contraindicated treatment increases the employee compliance behavior (following a predetermined agenda for a parent training) of employees at an ABA clinic for children with autism.
19. Parental Accuracy in Identifying Basic Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis in Families of Individuals With an Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
EVELYN M. FLAHERTY (Eden II Programs), Frank R. Cicero (Eden II Programs), Geoffrey D. DeBery (Eden II Programs), Lauren A. Mahoney (Eden II School for Autistic Children)
Abstract: Professionals in the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA) often work side-by- side with parents of individuals with an autism spectrum disorder. The collaboration between parents and professionals is dependent on parents having a functional understanding of the basic principles of ABA. However, parents show considerable variability in their background and exposure to the principles of ABA. The current study was designed to assess parental accuracy in identifying basic principles of ABA. A survey was administered to mothers and fathers of individuals with an autism spectrum disorder that had received at least one ABA service (residential habilitation, educational placement, crisis services, etc.) from a New York City-based agency. The survey included vignettes that described specific basic principles of ABA (positive reinforcement, extinction, etc.). Parents were asked to identify the ABA principle used in each vignette. Results were analyzed to identify strengths and weaknesses and areas of possible intervention to aid professionals working with parents of individuals with an autism spectrum disorder.
20. An Investigation of Quality Indicators for Evidence-Based Treatment: Sensory Integration Treatments in Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
LAUREN SZENINA (Northern Arizona University), Caitlan Allen (Northern Arizona University), Lindsy Dagel (Northern Arizona University), Janice Kodumal (Northern Arizona University), Cheryl Robinson (Northern Arizona University), Jessica Emily Schwartz (Northern Arizona University), Andrew Gardner (Northern Arizona University), Trina D. Spencer (Utah State University)
Abstract: Inspired by the assumption that individuals with autism experience disordered sensory systems affecting a variety of functional capacities, sensory integration therapies (SITs) seek to alleviate problem behavior by focusing on sensory stimulation (Ayers, 1977). Sensory integration techniques are widely used in the treatment of autism (Fazioglu & Baran, 2008); however, the body of knowledge addressing their efficacy is insufficient to warrant the status of evidence-based. Specifically, there are few empirical studies assessing the effectiveness of sensory integration therapies and few studies are of high quality. This evidence-based practice review evaluated the quality of studies in which an SIT was employed in the treatment of aberrant behavior for individuals with autism. Published articles coded and divided into five treatment categories: general SI, auditory, visual, oral motor and deep pressure. Reviewers coded for the presence of “quality indicators” using single subject (Horner et al., 2005) and group design guidelines (Gersten et al., 2005). IOA was completed for all studies. Results will be discussed in terms of the strength of evidence supporting the use of SITs as evidence based treatments for aberrant behavior in individuals with autism and the utility of evidence-based practice guidelines.
21. A Comparison of Sensory Stimuli Within an Operant Framework
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JENNIFER E. COPELAND (Melmark), Kristen M. Villone (Melmark), Sandra Brown (Melmark)
Abstract: Sensory integration methodologies persist under the assertion that continuous or routine access to specific stimuli in the environment will “ready the brain” for activity and subsequently alter human behavior across a variety of contexts. This theory directly contradicts operant behavioral theory, where actions are measured within observable contingencies, and behavioral patterns are dependent upon fluctuations that occur among corresponding antecedents and consequences. In this study, one adolescent girl diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder and severe mental retardation served as a participant. Different presentations of sensory stimuli were each tested as treatments in isolation. In the first set of treatments, sensory stimuli were presented as differential reinforcement for alternative behavior. Effects of this treatment were compared to antecedent presentations of sensory stimuli and a treatment that manipulated all three terms of the operant contingency. Frequency and partial interval recording were used to measure occurrences of self-injury across treatments. Inter observer agreement data were collected across a minimum of 17% of treatment days and ranged from 0% to 100% of intervals with a mean of 88%. Results indicated the latter treatment to be most effective. Implications of these findings further support applied behavior analysis as the treatment of choice for aberrant behavior.
22. IBI Changes in Child Abilities Have a Positive Impact on Family Activities: Initial Data From the Family Well Being Checklist, a Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale of Family Functioning
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
John Hoch (University of Minnesota), Nancy G. Schussler (Behavioral Dimensions, Inc.), ERIN M. COTE HOLTON (Behavioral Dimensions Inc.)
Abstract: IBI service providers track child progress, but do not monitor the effects of improved child skills on family functioning. The reductions in problem behavior and increases in child functioning due to IBI services can positively impact family functioning across in home and community activities. Many instruments compare family relationships with normative samples (e.g. the Parent Stress Index); the Family Well Being Checklist was generated to create a measure of change in family behavior across contexts. Parents rate (on a 5 point scale) the changes they have experienced in the past year in their ability to perform behaviors important to family functioning. The questionnaire includes 28 items divided into five categories: Community Events, Family activities at home, Social Events, Parent well being activities, and Parent relationships. An initial factor analysis of categories based on N=90 checklists showed a two factor solution with areas clustering as hypothesized. Thirteen families completed the checklist at intake and after one year of service; these showed an increase in participation in community events, (p<.05, t=2.25). Data collection and analysis is ongoing. Results aid in communicating the importance and benefits of IBI services to funding agencies and governmental bodies.
23. "Neurons to Neighborhoods" Classroom Model for Autism Education
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
E. BRADY BEACH (Youth Development Clinic, Inc.), Vidal Annan (Youth Development Clinic, Inc.), Anice George (Youth Development Clinic, Inc.)
Abstract: Recent changes in federal and NJ state policy have, in essence, required school districts to educate their children with special needs, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD), within their home school districts instead of in out-of-district placements. In 2008, the Irvington School District responded to the needs of its students with ASD by partnering with The Youth Development Clinic (YDC) and the Healthcare Foundation of New Jersey to develop and implement a pre-school autism-education classroom in their district. YDC’s Neurons to Neighborhoods model, which integrates core empirical approaches in autism education, helps public schools to educate children with ASD in a community-conscious, quality-based, cost-effective manner. A first year comprehensive evaluation was conducted for the program using the Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills tool (ABLLS), and teacher and parent satisfaction questionnaires. The results show strong gains in student functioning, as well as staff and parent satisfaction with YDC services. Furthermore, Irvington saved as much as $300,000 by keeping the students in district. The data indicates that YDC staff was effective in implementing a successful, cost-effective, in-district autism-education program in Irvington. YDC will be working with Irvington to expand the pre-school component and add a kindergarten-1st grade classroom.
24. Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Applied Behavior Analysis in the State of Rhode Island
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
KARA LYNN PAOLELLA (Pathways Strategic Teaching Center), Jennifer L. Marshall (Trudeau Center), Erin Boylan (Pathways Strategic Teaching Center), Roberta N. Ryan (Trudeau Center), Andrea Chait (Pathways Strategic Teaching Center), Mackenzie J. Milner (Pathways Strategic Teaching Center)
Abstract: There are many myths and misunderstandings surrounding the field of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). Lack of knowledge and negative attitudes toward the field have a significant impact on the many individuals who may benefit from treatment using the evidence-based methods derived from the field of ABA. Several publications have attempted to address some common myths (e.g., Bailey & Burch, 2006 and Sharpe & Koperwas, 2004)), however, these publications are often marketed to professionals or students within the field. The purpose of this study was to pilot a questionnaire to determine knowledge and attitudes of various professionals towards the field of ABA. The goal of the survey was to gather baseline data to determine where intervention was needed and develop a series of professional trainings to enhance knowledge and attitudes. A search of the scientific literature was conducted using three databases (i.e., ERIC, PsychINFO, and Academic Search Complete) and no previous studies were found that attempted to measure knowledge and attitudes toward the field. A questionnaire was developed to gather demographic information in addition to data on knowledge and attitudes towards ABA. Results from the questionnaire are presented and discussed along with implications and recommendations for intervention.
25. The Effect of Using Activity Schedules and Generalization in Home Settings for a Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
HIROYUKI MATSUSHITA (University of Tsukuba), Shigeki Sonoyama (University of Tsukuba)
Abstract: Picture prompt are often used for one of the self-management strategies to facilitate task and activity engagement for children with autism. Pierce and Schreibman (1994) point out that using pictorial self-management are efficient in that the picture book is small, is readily transported to novel settings, and may be easily faded. Recently, activity schedules are used to cue children with autism to perform tasks independently (McClannahan, MacDuff, & Krantz, 2002). McClannahan and Krantz (1999) suggested that it was efficient for the children with autism, who frequently failed to display their skills unless someone gave prompts although they had a lot of skills to perform each activity correctly, to perform activities and tasks independently by using activity schedules. In this study, we examined the effect of using activity schedules to facilitate task engagement independently and shift next activity smoothly for a preschool child with autism. We also evaluated generalization to home settings and positive or/and negative influences on participant’s life. As a result, the participant could respond to small activity schedules and use in home settings.
26. Observational Learning in Children With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
COURTNEY D. PATTERSON (The Pennsylvania State University), Toby L. Stahlschmidt-Kah (Private Practice)
Abstract: Observational learning (OL) involves observing the behaviour of others, then selecting which behaviours should be or should not be imitated depending on your understanding of the contingencies in that natural environment. It requires an understanding of how the consequences others’ experience impacts the future probability of your response. Typically, children are constantly studying others, then adjusting their behaviour accordingly, all without any explicit instruction. In contrast, children with autism are often taught explicitly to “Do this” but rarely make the leap from imitative learner to observational learner. To date, little research has focused on the skills necessary for this transition. This study uses a multiple-baseline design across five children with autism in order to assess the benefits of peer modeling when teaching the hypothesized OL prerequisite skills. Child outcome will be determined by changes in imitation performance throughout sessions. Participants are expected to demonstrate improved imitation and/or OL skills after training. Information gained from this study should help to identify important OL prerequisite skills, and therefore inform effective OL teaching programs. Descriptors: observational learning, peer-modelling, imitation, modelling, autism spectrum disorders, intervention.
27. Teaching Auditory-Visual Discrimination to Children With Autism via Supplemental Receptive Identification Programming
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ALISON D. COX (Brock University), Paul Szikszai (Surrey Place Centre)
Abstract: Many children with developmental disabilities demonstrate difficulty in making and learning simple auditory-visual discriminations. These children may require numerous training trials to learn these skills. Extensive research in this area has attempted to identify intermediary skills that, when taught, may assist in the development of this ability. Intensive behaviour intervention (IBI) programs for children with Autism teach various forms of auditory-visual discriminations. However, despite the provision of numerous trials in a highly structured manner, some learners continue to experience low auditory-visual discrimination acquisition rates. An in-depth literature review resulted in the development of a program, based largely on Ward & Yu (2000), that could served to supplement ongoing receptive identification programming. Three clients of an IBI program, who demonstrated substantial difficulty in attaining receptive identification skills even though they had successfully acquired visual-visual matching skills and could follow some simple instructions, were assigned the current supplemental program. Similarly, these clients were unable to pass level 5 and 6 on the Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities. A non-concurrent multiple baseline design was used to evaluate whether this supplementary programming could increase the rate of acquisition of receptive identification. Preliminary results will be presented and potential implications will be discussed.
28. Location of Comparison Stimuli as the Feature Controlling Participant’s Selection During Visual-Visual Match-to-Sample Tasks
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
KIMBERLY M. WALTER (New England Center for Children), Paula Ribeiro Braga-Kenyon (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Match-to-sample procedures are often implemented to train conditional relations among stimuli and to test for emergent relations among arbitrary stimuli. Research with animals (Kangas & Branch, 2008; Lionello & Urcuioli, 1998; Sidman, 1992) has demonstrated that position of both sample and comparison stimuli can be a stimulus feature that controls responding. In the current study, four typical adults (age range 23-55) participated in visual-visual match-to-sample tasks using PowerPoint© presentations. The relations among A1-3 and B1-3 and A1-3 and C1-3 were initially trained. One group of two participants was trained using static (non-rotating) comparison stimuli. The other group of two participants was trained using non-static (rotating) comparison stimuli. Next, tests with blank comparison stimuli were conducted to verify whether selection was based on position features. Finally, tests under extinction for the emergence of relations with the three sets of arbitrary stimuli (B1-3 and C1-3 and C1-3 and B1-3) were conducted. IOA was 95%. Test for the emergence of arbitrary relations was negative for all four participants. Furthermore, results indicate that the two participants exposed to the static comparison stimuli did not respond to the position as the controlling feature for selection.
29. Assessment and Treatment of Property Destruction Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
EMILY OLINDE BOUDREAUX (Kennedy Krieger Institute), John M. Huete (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Julie Davidson (The Vanderbilt Kennedy Center)
Abstract: Property destruction has previously been demonstrated through functional analyses to be maintained by social contingencies such as escape or access to preferred items/activities (Hanley, Iwata, & McCord, 2003). However, other studies have indicated that a variety of aberrant behaviors that continue in the absence of social contingencies may be maintained by automatic reinforcement (Fisher, Adelinis, Thompson, Worsdell, & Zarcone, 1998). Fisher, Lindauer, Alterson, and Thompson (1998) found that for two individuals with intellectual disability, property destruction and stereotypy formed a response chain (i.e., breaking objects and then tapping them) that was maintained by the sensory consequences of auditory stimulation. The current investigation examined destructive behaviors of an 18-year-old male diagnosed with autism and mild intellectual disability. Experimental functional analyses indicated that he was most likely to engage in property destruction when he was alone or with minimal supervision, suggesting an automatic function for the destructive behaviors. Specifically, property destruction appeared to occur as part of a ritualistic response chain of breaking items and then putting them in the trash. Treatment consisting of exposure to items associated with property destruction, response blocking, differential reinforcement of other behavior, and relaxation training resulted in reduction of property destruction to near zero rates.
30. Inhibitory Stimulus Control of Stereotypy in Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MALENA ARGUMEDES (Université de Montréal), Marc Lanovaz (Centre de R�adaptation de l'Ouest de Montr�al), Serge Larivée (Université de Montréal)
Abstract: Researchers have shown that inhibitory stimulus control of stereotypy may be established by correlating a stimulus with a mild punishment procedure contingent on the behavior (e.g., Doughty Anderson, Doughty, Williams, & Saunders, 2007; Rapp, Patel, Ghezzi, O’Flaherty, & Titterington, 2009). As such, caregivers could be trained to establish inhibitory stimulus control to reduce stereotypy during times when it may be difficult for them to intervene (e.g., while engaging in household tasks). The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether trained parents could establish discriminative control of responding by an antecedent stimulus using response interruption. Two children diagnosed with autism participated in the study. A two-component multiple-schedule was used to determine whether stereotypy could be brought under inhibitory stimulus control. Specifically, latency measures were used to examine whether the presence of the stimulus delayed the onset of stereotypy. Additional data are currently being collected. The study should determine the feasibility of establishing inhibitory stimulus control in the child’s natural environment. The implications of the results and applications for future research will be discussed in terms of the clinical utility of the procedures.
31. Behavioral Indicators in the Topography of Unintentional Injury: Risk-Taking Behavior in Children With ASD
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
RACHEL N. STRAUB (Binghamton University, State Univ. of NY), Raymond G. Romanczyk (Institute for Child Development, Binghamton University)
Abstract: Recent research has indicated that children with ASD are at greater risk for more injuries, and more severe injuries, than typical children (Lee, Harrington, Chang, & Connors, 2008; McDermott, McDermott, Zhou, & Mann, 2008; Straub & Romanczyk, 2009). Unfortunately, specific predictors of unintentional, nonfatal injury have not been isolated in order to provide an understanding of risk factors for this population. This poster will present an analysis of risk-taking behavior in 90 children with ASD, from a sample of 188 children, reported on by 79 caregivers in an ongoing study regarding child safety perspectives conducted at Binghamton University. Discussion will include the relation between caregiver ratings of injury severity and risk-taking behaviors for children with ASD, as measured by the 24-item Injury Behavior Checklist (Speltz, Gonzales, Sulzbacher, & Quan, 1990). Additional data is currently being collected for this presentation. Also, implications of analyzing specific risk-taking behaviors through caregiver report and potential future directions for safety intervention will be reviewed.
32. Manipulating Observational Learning During Extended Non-Compliance
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MICHELE D. BROCK (Crossroads School for Children), Ben Bruneau (Crossroads School for Children), Cheryl J. Davis (Consultant), Mike Quinn (Crossroads School for Children)
Abstract: Observational learning has been used to help students with developmental disabilities acquire new skill sets. The present research looks at whether conditions can be manipulated to help an eight-year-old boy with PDD-NOS acquire skills during instances of extended non-compliance. In the present research, the participant engaged in prolonged instances of non-compliance, acquiring an average of less than 10% of new skills per month. The skill targeted in this observational learning was spelling 10 Edmark sight words. Implementation of observational learning via audiotape of an unfamiliar voice dictating spelling words was utilized. The baseline level of spelling was 0% accuracy, and after three weeks of intervention, the participant demonstrated the ability to spell 30% of the words accurately. Additional data will be collected over time to determine if additional words can be acquired through this observational learning format. Using a multiple baseline design, math facts will be targeted once the participant spells 80% of words accurately.
33. A Replication of the RIRD Strategy to Decrease Vocal Stereotypy in a Student With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
LAN LIU-GITZ (Texas Tech University), Devender Banda (Texas Tech University), Stephanie L. Hart (Texas Tech University), Stephanie Sokolosky (Texas Tech University)
Abstract: Vocal stereotypy in children with autism occurs frequently in educational settings. The exhibit of such behavior can be socially stigmatizing and may impede learning. It is also very disruptive in a teaching environment. We conducted a functional behavior analysis on a ten-year-old student with autism who displayed vocal stereotypic behavior. Results of functional analysis indicated that the behavior was maintained by automatic reinforcement. An ABAB design was employed. The response interruption redirection (RIRD) was selected as the intervention method during the treatment. The RIRD combined both sensory extinction and differential reinforcement strategies into one procedure. The results indicated that RIRD was very effective in reducing the child’s target behavior. The percentage of problem behavior occurrence decreased from an average of 41% during baseline to below 10% during intervention. The application of RIRD in an educational setting and its benefits were discussed.
34. Combining Contingent Reinforcement of Task Engagement and Extinction as a Treatment for Attention-Maintained Self-Injury and Aggression
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
OLIVIA ALEXANDRE (Behaviour Institute), Joel P. Hundert (Behaviour Institute)
Abstract: This poster will present the results of treatment of a 13-year-old boy with autism who exhibited self-injury and aggression at home and at school. An initial functional assessment indicated that the boy’s self-injury and aggression to others was attention maintained. The treatment intervention consisted of: a) graduated exposure to learning tasks; b) reinforcement of the boy’s correct performance on the learning tasks; and, c) extinction (removal of attention) of the boy’s self-injurious behaviours and aggression. The treatment was initially implemented in a treatment centre and then once effective transferred to the boy’s home and school. At school, paraprofessionals were trained how to implement the treatment. Results indicated that in all three environments, the frequency of the boy’s problem behavior decreased significantly while his task-engagement and correct responding increased dramatically. Follow-up measurement showed that this improvement continued over a period of 15 months.
35. Treatment Evaluation of Eye Play in a Child Diagnosed With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
LYNN ANDREJCZYK (New England Center for Children), Caron Inglis (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Manipulation of the eye, sometimes described as eye-poking or eye play, has been described as self injurious behavior (Kennedy & Souza, 1995; Lalli, Livezey & Kates, 1996), and can interfere with skill acquisition, as well as pose health and safety issues. This study evaluated the use of differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) and a response interruption and redirection (RIRD) procedure similar to that used by Ahearn, Clark, MacDonald & Chung (2007) for the treatment of eye play. Eye play was defined as framing of the eye using two or more fingers and any manipulation of the eye-lid including flipping, pinching, and pulling. The participant in this study was an 8 year-old boy diagnosed with autism. Baseline, DRO, and RIRD sessions were conducted in an ABACA design. Anecdotal report and observation suggested that eye play was automatically maintained, therefore no-interaction baseline sessions, in which the experimenter was present but did not interact with the participant, were conducted. DRO intervals were 15 s in length and the reinforcer was a token delivered with brief verbal praise. During RIRD, motor compliances were presented contingent on eye play. Results indicated that both DRO and RIRD produced a significant decrease in the occurrence of eye play in comparison to baseline.
37. The Effects of Social Attention on Stereotypic Counting Behaviors in a Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
AMANDA K. MASON (Rowan University), Crystal A. Harms (Behavior Counts Therapy), Michelle Ennis Soreth (Rowan University)
Abstract: Stereotypic behavior is frequently viewed as a characteristic component of the Autism diagnosis and is all too often assumed to be maintained by automatic reinforcement. The purpose of this study was to determine whether stereotypic counting behavior in a three year old boy diagnosed with Autism was maintained by social attention in the home setting. Stereotypic counting behavior was defined as verbal and/or gestural counting in the absence of appropriate environmental stimuli or academic task demand. A five phase ABABC reversal design was implemented over the course of twelve weeks. During the attention phase, each counting behavior produced a negative verbal statement, (e.g. “Stop it!” “Don’t do that,” etc.) from the therapist. During the ignoring and baseline phases, counting behavior did not produce access to attention from the therapist. To measure treatment efficacy, the frequency of counting behavior was recorded in five minute intervals during 2-hour ABA treatment sessions that took place in the child’s home three times per week. The data emphasizes the importance of seeking empirical evidence of behavioral function rather than relying on topographical diagnostic categories to design behavioral interventions.
38. A Functional Analysis of Repetitive Motor and Vocal Behavior and Air-Swallowing in an Adolescent With Autism and Russell-Silver Syndrome
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JESSICA PRIETO (Alpine Learning Group), Alison S. O'Connor (Alpine Learning Group), Kathleen Cooper (Alpine Learning Group), Jaime A. DeQuinzio (Alpine Learning Group), Bridget A. Taylor (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract: An adolescent with autism and Russell-Silver Syndrome displayed repetitive motor and vocal behavior and air-swallowing in a variety of contexts. Preliminary data revealed that repetitive motor and vocal behavior (e.g., touching body parts, touching body parts to surfaces, and saying “Hi” repetitively), occurred almost exclusively in the presence of one instructor. Similarly, air-swallowing, defined as, the forceful intake of air into the mouth that is subsequently swallowed, occurred almost exclusively in the presence of a second instructor. These data suggested that the two response categories were under the discriminative control of two different stimuli. To determine if the responses were maintained by similar or by different reinforcers, a functional analysis was conducted on repetitive movements and air-swallowing; separate sessions were run with each of the instructors. Following definitive results of the functional analysis, a behavioral intervention was designed to decrease the occurrence of repetitive motor and vocal responses and air-swallowing.
39. Clinical Application Video Modeling to Teach Social Skills in an Applied Behavior Analysis Setting
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
LAURIE BUKALA (Community Speech Language Services)
Abstract: Description of a video modeling project completed at a private clinic specifically focused upon identifying the effects of incorporating video modeling as a supplemental instructional methodology by speech pathologists who work with students with autism in grades one through five, compared to a control group of students with autism receiving traditional instructional methods only. Discussion will proceed with the evaluation of how effective the video modeling was in presenting real social situations to the students, the students reactions and motivation to continue the training, the ability to verbally acknowledge appropriate social and emotional cues given by others, and finally to generalize to a real environmental school setting in which each child attempted to follow through with the skills learned and made adjustments to new situations that they encountered. Discussion of successful and unsuccessful components this method and its results will be completed. A review of the commentary provided from other school personnel, peers, and parents will be examined as well. A summary of the most current literature on video modeling and the uses it has served, including behavior training, social skills, and language enhancement will be compared with the findings of the above project. A summary of why further research in the area of video modeling is so needed and that continued exploration of this new vehicle of training is so exciting!
40. Social Skills Camps: Are Skills Generalized Back Into School?
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
AMANDA C AZARBEHI (Tyndale University)
Abstract: Social skills groups are an increasingly prevalent method of teaching important social-communication skills to children with autism. While these groups are growing in popularity limited data exists examining the effectiveness of these programs. The current study aims to assess how well skills learned in a social skills camp are generalized into the child participants’ regular school environment. Thus, this pilot study will track the progress made by elementary students with autism enrolled in a spring-break social skills camp. The Social Skills Rating System (Gresham & Elliott) will be used to gather information from parents and teachers prior to the children participating in the social skills camp and again 2 weeks after the camp has ended and the children have returned to school. This baseline information on generalization of skills will enable for studies in the future to be done that examine the effectiveness of various approaches to improving generalization of social skills.
41. Impact of Training Peers and Children With Autism on Social Skills During Center Time Activities in Inclusive Classrooms
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
DEVENDER BANDA (Texas Tech University), Stephanie L. Hart (Texas Tech University), Lan Liu-Gitz (Texas Tech University), Bill Therrien (University of Iowa), Stephanie Sokolosky (Texas Tech University)
Abstract: This study was conducted to increase peer-to-peer social skills using direct instruction and peer training in two elementary students with high-functioning autism in inclusion settings. The participants and several peers were trained to initiate and respond to each other during center time, academic activities. We used multiple-baseline design across participants to determine the effects of the intervention. Results showed increased initiations and responses in all participants. Implications for practitioners and researchers are discussed. The presentation is likely to improve knowledge of social skills instruction among ABAI participants, particularly steps required to identify, teach, and evaluate social skills instruction with children with autism.
42. Teaching Social Referencing Skills to Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
HITOMI KUMA (Keio University, Japan), Yoshiko Hara (Keio University), Nozomi Naoi (Keio University), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Keio University, Japan)
Abstract: Social referencing, a form of nonverbal communication, involves a search for discriminative stimuli produced by others, which generate contingencies in an ambiguous situation for positive reinforcement. In this study, we taught social referencing skill to young children with autism using prompt and deferential reinforcement.Subjects are three children with autism. They were 4 –5 years old. In intervention, we arranged ambiguous situation by using three un-transparent plastic jars. Only one jar had a snack or a toy and others were empty. Subjects were required to select a jar from three observing a smile or frown presented by an adult. They did not know which jar to select for reinforcement. When they selected a jar with a smile, they found a reinforcer. When they selected the jar with a frown, they found that the jar was empty. Target behaviors were spontaneous social referencing and behavior shift as to facial expression (i.e., the jar with a smile?open / the jar with a frown?shift to other jars). As a result, they learned social referencing skills and behavior shift. And all skills were generalized to untrained facial expression and situations.
43. Promoting Social-Communicative Development in Students with Autism Who Use Augmentative and Alternative Communication
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
NADINE K. TROTTIER (University of British Columbia), Pat Mirenda (University of British Columbia), Lorraine Kamp (Special Education Technology)
Abstract: Teaching social interaction between children with ASD who use AAC and their typically developing peers presents many difficulties. Previous research suggests peers can be taught to facilitate social interactions with individuals with ASD; however, it remains to be seen whether peers can be taught to support social interactions with classmates with ASD who use SGDs. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of a peer-mediated intervention designed to teach two students with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) to use speech-generating devices (SGDs) to engage in social interactions with peers in school settings. Six typically developing peers (three from each class) will be taught to support SGD use in three classmates with ASD during a play activity at school. A multiple baseline design will be used to demonstrate a functional relationship between peer-mediated play activities and an increase in total communicative acts in individuals with ASD. Social validity measures will be conducted with participating peers at the end of the study. Results will discuss applications, limitations and future directions.
44. Evaluating Response Marking as an Effective Treatment for Establishing Eye Contact in a Learner With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
KATHRYN E. SUTTER (Alpine Learning Group), JoAnna Liberatore (Alpine Learning Group), Jaime A. DeQuinzio (Alpine Learning Group), Bridget A. Taylor (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract: Response marking includes the delivery of a response-dependent cue and facilitates the acquisition of that response when consequences are delayed. Researchers have hypothesized that response marking works by orientating the learner towards the target response. The present study evaluated the effects of response marking on the acquisition of eye contact for a learner with autism using a multiple-baseline-across-responses design. Prior to the study an assessment was conducted to evaluate the neutrality of the stimulus to be used as the response-dependent cue (i.e., clicker). During baseline no programmed consequences were provided for eye contact. During treatment, the clicker was activated contingent upon eye contact followed by a 5s-delay and the delivery of a primary reinforcer. Treatment was systematically introduced across three response categories: verbal imitation, responding to name, delivering an item to another instructor. Eye contact increased above baseline levels across the three response categories with the systematic introduction of the response marking procedure.
45. Teaching Play Routines: Video Modeling Versus Task Analysis
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
KATIE ARTIANO (BEACON Services), Robert K. Ross (BEACON Services)
Abstract: The acquisition and demonstration of play skills and play routines is a challenge for many children with autism. Many instructional methods have been identified in the literature to teach play skills to children with autism. These include; prompt fading procedures, in-vivo modeling, video modeling and task analyses (Leaf & McEachin, 1999). Unfortunately the literature provides little guidance as to the relative effectiveness of one set of procedures over others. In the present study, a video modeling procedure was utilized to teach a 4 year old child diagnosed with autism to three play routines. The child was also taught three other play routines using a task analysis based procedure. Each play routine involved at least six actions and language paired with these actions. Data are presented in terms of rates of acquisition of the targeted scenarios. The results of this study indicate that the targeted play schemes were acquired at a faster rate using a video modeling procedure.
46. Using Video Modeling to Teach the Picture Exchange Communucation System to Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
TRISHA J TALLEY (San Diego State University), Yasemin Turan (San Diego State University)
Abstract: Autism is marked by deficits in communicative, social, and cognitive abilities. The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) demonstrates effectiveness in improving the communicative abilities of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), including increasing speech production and social communication, as well as reducing problem behaviors. However, PECS’s training typically requires one or two adults’ involvement depending on the phase of the training, which might create difficulties in settings where staff and child ratio is low. In this study, PECS training were conducted using video modeling procedures to address this problem. An AB desig was replicated via 2 children with ASDs to evaluate effectiveness of intervention procedures on participating children’ behavior. Initial observations revealed notable changes for children’s behavior. Additional data will be collected.
47. Comparison of PECS and Sign Language: The Acquisition of Mands for a Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
S. LILLIAN ADOLPHSON (Autism Spectrum Therapies), Loc Le (Autism Spectrum Therapies)
Abstract: This study compared the effectiveness of the Picture Exchange Communication (PECS; Frost & Bondy, 2002) and sign language training to teach mands (requesting items or activities). The participant of this study was a four-year old girl with autism, whose only form of functional communication prior to the study was pointing to make a choice between two items presented to her. A single-subject, alternating treatment design was used to compare the participant’s ability to independently request items using the two modes of communication. Baseline data were collected prior to the inception of the training phase. During the training phase, mode of instruction alternated between teaching the participant to use PECS and sign language to make requests. A final phase included only the mode of communication that the participant used most frequently to independently make requests. Results are discussed.
48. Does the Type of Picture Make A Difference in PECS Acquisition?
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MIRANDA SIM (Behaviour Institute), Joel P. Hundert (Behaviour Institute), Melanie Arnot (Behaviour Institute)
Abstract: The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is used by many children with autism as a form of functional communication. Children with autism exchange picture symbol cards as a means of communicating their requests and comments. The pictures used in PECS may take different forms including colored line drawing, black and white drawings, photographs, etc. It is unclear if differences in the type of pictures used would affect the use of PECS-based mands for children with autism. The results of a study will be presented. Using an alternating treatment design, children with autism who already had a PEC manding repetroire of at least five items were asked to mand for items using one of four types of pictures: a) colored photographs; b) black and white photograps; c) colored line drawings; and d) black and white line drawings. Difference in the frequency and latency of PEC manding were measured and shall be presented in this poster.
49. Studying Prosody in Children With Autism Using a Computer Game
Area: AUT; Domain: Experimental Analysis
BERTRAM O. PLOOG (College of Staten Island, The City University of New York), Alexa Scharf (College of Staten Island, The City University of New York), Dennis Vlasikov (College of Staten Island, The City University of New York), Patricia Gaja (College of Staten Island, The City University of New York), Patricia Brooks (College of Staten Island, The City University of New York)
Abstract: We used a videogame to examine sensitivity to affective prosody and sentence content in 5- to 10-year-olds (n=7 with autism; n=10 with typical development). In the discrimination phase, children heard sentences (reinforced, S+, and unreinforced, S–) differing in content and affect (enthusiastic vs. grouchy). Rewards consisted of video-clips and sometimes edibles. After children responded to the S+ with 75% accuracy, the S+ was paired with test-probes comprising recombinations of S+ and S– content and affect features. Although the autistic group required more sessions to reach criterion (3 vs. 1), both groups played successfully and maintained accuracy during testing (88% for autistic vs. 95% for typical). For trials with Test-Probe 1 (differing from S+ in affect), the autistic group outperformed typical group (78% vs. 64%). The typical group showed higher accuracy in selecting an enthusiastic over a grouchy S+ (80% vs. 48%), whereas the autistic group showed equivalent accuracy across affect conditions. The groups did not differ for trials with Test-Probe 2 (differing from S+ in content; 85% vs. 86%). Thus, while both groups showed strong discrimination performance, the autistic group paid attention less to the type of affect than the typical group.
50. Employing Play Schemas and Semantic Categories to Structure Loose Teaching
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MIGUEL ANGEL RUBIO (ACES Inc.), Katherine Calarco (ACES, Inc.), Patti Harris (ACES Inc.), Marianne L. Bernaldo (ACES, Inc.), Ana Contreras (ACES Inc.)
Abstract: Behavioral approaches specify verbal operants and motivational operations to support or otherwise promote language development. Discrete trial teaching strategies (DTT) typically employ single targets in acquisition and use verbal operants but fail to provide the variability (Lovaas, 1977) of the natural environment thus making generalization difficult. Incidental teaching (IT) utilizes verbal operants as they occur in a daily routine, thus upholding the natural environment, but facing limitations in perpetuating response opportunities (Rogers-Warren and Warren, 1980). The current study seeks to combine the advantages of DTT and IT into a variety of schemes, with scripts and specific targets, to enhance trajectories of verbal behavior in young children with autism spectrum disorder. Four children with diagnoses of ASD participated based on delays in receptive and expressive skills. Teaching techniques were administered in a home-based, 1:1 setting during naturalistic activities (e.g., outside play). Targets were presented naturalistically (IT) but with a script to ensure repetitive presentation of any given target (DTT). Preliminary outcome data suggest that echoics, mands, intraverbals, and tacts all increased and generalization occurred across settings, people, and targets in the absence of specific generalization training.
51. The Individual Effects of Error Correction Strategies on Rate of Skill Acquisition
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
LIANNE M. MOROZ (Surrey Place Centre), Natalie P. Croteau (Surrey Place), Michelle Turan (University of Windsor)
Abstract: Error correction strategies have received little attention in the research with respect to discrete trial training for children with autism. Possibly because of this, clinical practice in error correction is often specific to the clinician, or the treatment agency. No studies have investigated the possibility that individual student’s acquisition rates may vary with respect to particular error correction strategies. In addition, the literature is varied with respect to both the specific procedures (independent variables), as well as the skills being assessed (dependent variables), with little replication. This data-based presentation is a follow-up on the investigation of 2 different error correction strategies across four children with autism and two verbal operants. The data suggest that consideration of individualized approaches to error correction may maximize efficiency of instruction for children with autism. The early data in this poster was presented in a symposium at the Applied Behavior Analysis convention in May, 2009.
52. Evaluating the Effects of Video Modeling on Bowel Movements by Young Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
LAURA J. HALL (San Diego State University)
Abstract: Although behavior analysts have designed and implemented effective toilet training procedures, there are limited studies on the use of behavioral procedures to assist with the successful use of bowel movements in the toilet. Video modeling has been used effectively to teach a variety of skills and was the intervention evaluated in this study. Treatment packages consisting of videos of cartoon characters and live models and reinforcers were implemented and compared for each of three young children with autism spectrum disorders. Event recording was used to determine the effect of the reinforcement plus cartoon video and then the live models for each of the four participants. The cartoon video was a published tape made for young children and the live models were known siblings or peers. Fidelity of intervention measures were obtained for the paraprofessional staff and parents implementing the toileting program. Maintenance of toilet use and number of accidents was recording following the withdrawal of intervention.
53. Teaching Reading of Product Warning Labels to Two Young Adults With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MAUD SELASIE DOGOE (Central Michigan University), Devender Banda (Texas Tech University), Stephanie L. Hart (Texas Tech University)
Abstract: One of the desired life outcomes for persons with autism is independence. Independent living skills include domestic skills. Domestic skills are skills that are used on daily or regular basis and are crucial for independent functioning within the home. However, concerns for safety may limit efforts to promote independent living skills and the participation of adolescents and youths with autism in daily living. Consequently if persons with autism are to attain independence, they have to master a range of skills that ensure being safe at home. One of such skills is how to read labels on common household chemicals. In this study, the multiple probe design was used to teach two young adults with autism the key words of warning labels of common household products and their contextual meanings using the constant time delay instructional strategy. Instructions were conducted in dyads for the learners to read words on flash cards with the definitions and contextual meanings delivered simultaneously as target information. The study sought to examine if: (a) young adults with autism are able to read key words found on product warning labels and acquire the contextual meaning of the key words; (b) the acquired skills will generalize to reading and making of appropriate responses to those key words, when presented with actual products. The findings, generalization data, and the implications for practice are discussed.
54. Teaching Children With Autism to Avoid Potentially Harmful Substances
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JUDY T. BUI (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Charles T. Merbitz (Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Susan K. Malmquist (Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Michael A. Fabrizio (FEAT of Washington)
Abstract: The present study aimed to extend the literature on poison prevention through a systematic replication of the Dancho, K., Thompson, R., and Rhoades, M. (2008) study on teaching preschool children to avoid poison hazards. We evaluated the effectiveness of behavioral skills training and in situ training to teach young children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders to avoid consuming potentially dangerous substances. A multiple baseline across participants and behaviors was used to measure a) manipulation of an object, b) moving towards the unknown substance, c) moving away from the unknown substance, c) alerting an adult, and d) ingestion of the unknown substance. The present study also examined generalization and maintenance of these skills over a one-week follow-up.
55. Using Video Modeling to Teach Functional Living Skills for an Elementary Age Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
YUNYI TSAI (Autism Spectrum Therapies), Brittany Wolfson (Autism Spectrum Therapies), Willy Wong (Autism Spectrum Therapies), Loc Le (Autism Spectrum Therapies), Larry Humphreys (Autism Spectrum Therapies)
Abstract: A long-term goal of behavioral intervention for individuals with autism or other disabilities is to develop the functional and age appropriate skills including daily living skills, vocational skills, community skills, and leisure activities that maximize the independent engagement in their life (Cannella-Malone, O’Reilly, de la Cruz, Edrisinha, Sigafoos,& Landioni, 2006; MacDuff, Krantz,& McClannahan, 1993). Video modeling has been used successfully to establish response chains including daily living skills (Murzynski & Bourret, 2007; Shipley-Benamou, Lutzker,& Taubman,2002). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using video modeling as an intervention to teach three functional living skills for a 7-year-old boy with autism, including eating at the table, putting on pants, and putting on socks. A multiple baseline design across behaviors (M. R. Bornstein, Bellack, and Hersen, 1977) was used to evaluate the effects of the video modeling intervention. A task analysis of each skill was created and used to record the percentage of correct response for each skill in all sessions, including baseline, intervention, post-treatment, and follow-up. The results of this study are discussed.
56. The Effects of TAG Teach Methods on Sign Language Object-Naming Skills in Nonvocal Children with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MEGAN N. MORIEN (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), John W. Eshleman (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Susan K. Malmquist (Educational Diagnostic & Consulting Services)
Abstract: Many children diagnosed with autism possess a limited verbal repertoire, and sign language has been shown to be an effective method for teaching such verbal skills. Given that sign language entails quick hand movements, delivering immediate reinforcing consequences may prove difficult. Teaching by Acoustical Guidance (TAG) can provide truly immediate consequences following a given movement. The present study used a multielement design to compare the rate of acquisition of object-naming using sign language for four children with autism across three experimental conditions: TAG, and generalized conditioned reinforcers that are contingent and non-contingent. Frequency and celeration data on daily per minute standard celeration charts show the differential effects of the three reinforcement tactics. Key Words: TAG teach, sign language, verbal behavior, reinforcement tactics, frequency, celeration, children with autism.
57. Research on Effectiveness of IBI in Natural Settings
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MELINA RIVARD (Universite du Quebec a Montreal)
Abstract: The efficacy of intensive behavior intervention (IBI) for children with autism spectrum disorders although well-documented in experimental contexts, had little research done when applied in natural condition, and within a public system resource. This poster is about the evaluation of the effectiveness of a public service of IBI (20 hours per week) and other related services for the families and the partner establishments (e.g. kindergartens and health services). Its objectives are: 1) to describe the process for the families in order to obtain this service, from receiving a diagnostic to integration in school; 2) to document the services related to IBI offered to the families and to the partners; 3) to evaluate in which measure these interventions are contributing to the effectiveness of the IBI program; and 4) to evaluate the effects of the intervention on 300 children (language, IQ, autistic symptoms, social adaptation, frequencies of adequate behaviors), their families (stress, quality of life) and the partners (satisfaction, degree of collaboration). This project will bring new knowledge about the effectiveness of IBI when applied without any selection criteria, in varieties of contexts (rural and suburb) and in a complex organizational structure. The data collection for first year will finish in April 2010.



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