Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


34th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2008

Event Details

Previous Page


Symposium #414
Improving Community Safety: Preventing Injuries both on the Street and in the Hospital
Monday, May 26, 2008
1:30 PM–2:50 PM
Area: CSE/OBM; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: E. Scott Geller (Virginia Tech)
Discussant: Chris S. Dula (East Tennessee State University)
Abstract: Community safety remains one of the foremost areas of concern as evidenced by the inclusion of unintentional injuries as a leading health indicator for gauging our nation’s health, according to Healthy People 2010. The current symposium addresses three specific areas within the community; motorist safety, pedestrian safety, and hospital patient safety. The first paper examines the use of two behavioral prompts, the Flash for Life technique and "Click it or Ticket" message, to increase safety-belt use in a diverse community setting with an already highly compliant population. The second paper is focused on increasing pedestrian-motorist communication and awareness for improved crosswalk safety on a university campus with a history of pedestrians being struck by vehicles. The final paper addresses the safety of prescribing medications to patients in a hospital setting by increasing technology adoption. While these papers address diverse issues, they comprehensively deal with community safety at large. The necessity for behavioral interventions across many levels of a community is highlighted in this symposium.
A Comparative Approach to Increasing Safety-Belt Use: Examining Intervention Effectiveness in a Diverse Community.
MATTHEW G. COX (Virginia Tech), Rosemarie Anne Capps (Virginia Tech), E. Scott Geller (Virginia Tech)
Abstract: Safety-belt use in the United States has steadily increased to 82% this past year (NHSTA, 2006), but the remaining non users constitute a significant area of concern for communities. The current method of choice for increasing safety-belt use throughout the nation is the selective traffic enforcement program known as the “Click it or Ticket” campaign. While this method had proved effective in many states, there are many limitations. An alternative method for increasing belt use includes the “Flash-for-Life” technique. Previous findings have suggested that the Flash-for-Life technique may be more effective at getting resistant unbuckled student-drivers at a large university to buckle up. The current paper compares the efficacy of the two interventions at two community supermarket locations. These locations offer a more diverse sample of participants that allow for a better generalization of results. Additionally, the paper focuses on positive and negative facial expressions and hand gestures to each of the respective signs. Data to be collected.
Look Both Ways Before Crossing: Will an Elementary Message Affect Street Crossing Behavior among University Students?
KATHRYN GENEVA-FRANCIS EIDE (Virginia Tech), Madison R. Earnest, III (Virginia Tech), David Michael Harris (Virginia Tech), Thomas R. Cunningham (Virginia Tech), Steven W. Clarke (Virginia Tech)
Abstract: In 2005, 4,881 pedestrians were killed in traffic crashes, and 64,000 pedestrians were injured in traffic crashes. This means that every 108 minutes, a pedestrian was killed in a traffic accident, and a pedestrian was injured every eight minutes (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2007). The present study aimed to promote safer behaviors at the crosswalk for both the driver and the pedestrian. Researchers observed certain non-intersection crosswalks across a college campus, checking off pedestrian behaviors including: stopping before entering the crosswalk, looking both ways, waving to the driver, using a cell phone, and using ear phones. Driver behaviors observed included stopping, passing through the crosswalk at the same time the pedestrian was in it, signaling to the pedestrian, use of headlights, and the type of vehicle. After the completion of collecting baseline data, a package intervention was implemented to increase drivers stopping at crosswalks, and pedestrians stopping and looking before entering crosswalks. This intervention consisted of posting fliers, posters, table cards in dining halls, and person-to-person communication. In addition, social networks such as Facebook and email listservs were utilized to increase campus ‘buzz’ about the intervention. Results will be discussed with implications for future pedestrian safety initiatives.
Accelerating Healthcare Technology Adoption: Implications for an OBM Approach to Patient Safety.
REMMIE LEROY ARNOLD (Virginia Tech), Thomas R. Cunningham (Virginia Tech), David Michael Harris (Virginia Tech), E. Scott Geller (Virginia Tech)
Abstract: It is estimated that 7,000 people die annually due to preventable medication errors in hospitals (Institute of Medicine, 1999), and a majority of medication errors have been linked to the medication ordering process, especially at the prescribing phase where physicians traditionally write medication orders by hand. Handwritten medication orders are often illegible, incomplete, or do not meet standards for compliance, and they may hinder the efficiency of care delivery by delaying medication delivery and administration. Previous research indicates that adoption of CPOE will reduce medication errors in a hospital setting and therefore improve patient safety. Current research evaluated the effectiveness of feedback during a natural intervention. Feedback was presented to self-selected groups of doctors during prearranged department meetings. The dependant variables compared were percent of CPOE use between doctors who received feedback and those who did not receive the intervention. Comparisons within and between departments will be included in discussion of results along with limitations. Future directions for research will be also be discussed in relation to current ongoing OBM applications at another location.



Back to Top
Modifed by Eddie Soh