Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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Seventh International Conference; Merida, Mexico; 2013

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Poster Session #42
EDC Posters
Monday, October 7, 2013
7:00 PM–9:00 PM
Gran Salon Yucatan (Fiesta Americana)
1. The Effect of a Momentum Enhancement on the Performance of Students with Behavior Disorders
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MICHAL HIRSCHMANN (Kibbutzim College), Orit Hetzroni (Haifa University), Eitan Eldar (Kibbutzim College)
Abstract: We studied the differences in aberrant behavior between conditions with and without momentum enhancement procedure (MEP) among students with behavior disorders. We assumed that Behavioral Momentum (Nevin, Mandell & Atak 1983; Nevin, 1996; Wehby & Hollahan, 2000; Vyse, 2004) may have an effect on students’ behavior while coping with tasks with high diffictuly level. The study examined 94 participants (aged 7-15), with typical intellectual abilities, who have been identified as having attention deficit disorders (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD). Physical Education activities (Eldar, 2008), were selected as the context of intervention. The MEP condition included four tasks – three low difficulty level tasks followed by a high difficulty level task. The condition without MEP included the same five activities consisting only of the high difficulty level task. Dependent variables included students’ verbal behaviors defined as showing satisfaction / dissatisfaction. MANOVA and ANOVA with repeated measures indicated differences between conditions with and without MEP in the responsiveness of the students in performing high difficulty level tasks. Clear difference demonstrating increased satisfaction and decreased dissatisfaction was observed in the condition with MEP. The results of the study showed that MEP can serve as an instrument for improving students’ coping with difficult tasks.
 
2. Stress and Undergraduates' Social Skills
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JUNNIA MARIA MOREIRA (Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia), Lena Vitória de Oliveira (Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia), Isis Valença (Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia), Keyciane Figueredo Merces de Oliveira (Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia)
Abstract:

The academic demands coupled with low levels of social skills may indicate the onset of psychological conditions such as stress. The social skills limited repertoire can enhance the environmental stressful variables effect. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between stress levels and social skills of Brazilian undergraduate students. For this purpose it was applied the Brazilian version of the Stress Symptom Inventory by Lipp, a questionnaire on specific academic context stressors and Social Skills Inventory. Participated in this study 25 students of the Universidade Federal do Recencavo da Bahia psychology course. The results indicated that over 80% of the participants presented stress. Furthermore, over 80% of participants had high scores on social skills. The questionnaire data showed that the items mentioned as most stressful were related to classes' hour amount and schedules besides evaluation activities schedules, aspects not directly related to students' social skills. Additionally, items related to interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers when appointed as stressful were mild or moderate intensity. These data suggest that high levels of stress may be related to high levels of social skills when the most stressful factors relate to changes that do not depend on the undergraduate students' social skills individually.

 
3. Raising the Confidence Coefficient: Derived Relational Responding, Statistics Anxiety, and Core Statistics Skills
Area: EDC; Domain: Experimental Analysis
ASHLYNE MULLEN (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Emmie Hebert (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Michael Bordieri (University of Mississippi), Emily Kennison Sandoz (University of Louisiana at Lafayette)
Abstract: Statistics courses are often a major challenge for students in behavioral science degree programs. Many students must take the class multiple times before they can make the passing grade, and the coursework often leads to increased stress and anxiety. Moreover, this increased anxiety is often correlated with poor performance in these courses. The current study offers a method of helping students to better understand statistics based on derived relational responding that may also indirectly target statistics anxiety. Participants engaged in a computer task that trained relational responding to statistics stimuli after completing self-report measures of psychological flexibility and statistics anxiety. The results of this study are intended to illuminate the learning processes involved in learning statistics and what roles statistics anxiety and psychological flexibility play in those processes.
 
4. Teaching Addition and Subtraction Skills to Elementary School Children
Area: EDC; Domain: Experimental Analysis
Priscila Gualberto (Federal University of São Carlos), JOÃO CARMO DOS SANTOS (Universidade Federal de São Carlos)
Abstract:

Mathematics learning difficulties may appear in the first years of schooling. In behavior analysis, the number of studies on the teaching of mathematics is still small, but there are contributions that indicate relevant variables to the formation of the number concept and arithmetic skills. The present study aimed to draw up a program of assessment and teaching addition and subtraction skills. The participants were nine children in the second to fifth year of elementary school. Initially, a battery of tasks assessed the pre-arithmetic skills and the results showed that tasks involving estimative and ordering of sets produced less correct responses. The program for assessment and teaching of addition and subtraction skills was divided into three units. In unit 1, we used values from zero to ten; unit 2 involved values from ten to twenty; and unit 3, values from twenty to fifty. All tasks were conducted in computerized MTS and CRMTS formats. The program made it possible to map the participants' arithmetic skills, as well as complementing gaps in the repertoire. Teaching intermediate responses to solving arithmetic algorithms proved necessary to improve the participants' skills.

 
5. Some Effects of Equivalence Class Formation Over the Solution of Addition and Subtraction Problems
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MARCELO HENRIQUE OLIVEIRA HENKLAIN (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), João S. Carmo (Universidade Federal de São Carlos)
Abstract:

Some properties of the additive problem may cause difficulties to solve it, like: problems' presentation form, semantic structure and position of the unknown. Two experiments were conducted to investigate if the formation of sets of equivalence classes between different problems' presentation forms could reduce difficulties of students, from the 2nd to the 5th year of elementary school, with low percentages of correct responses in pretest. Eight students participated in Experiment 1. After the equivalence class formation between different forms of presentation of addition problems (numeral-problem, word-problem, collection-problem and balance-problem), there was an increase in the percentage of accuracy for all types of problems in Post-test 1. It was also assessed, in different sessions, the effects of teaching addition and subtraction algorithms for solving additive problems, followed by Post-tests 2 and 3 and generalization test. Four participants showed an increase in the percentage of correct responses at Post-test 2 and six at Post-test 3. Participants achieved 100% correct responses at generalization test. In Experiment 2, three forms of presentation (numeral-problem, word-problem and balance-problem) were used. It was produced the formation of two sets of equivalence classes (addition and subtraction). Two sessions were designed to teach participants about balance-problems operation. Eight students participated. After the formation of classes, participants increased the percentage of correct answers in Post-test 1. It was then assessed whether a practice in solving balance-problems could further improve this performance, which was confirmed. In Generalization Test 1, participants reached percentages above 75%. Then, we performed a single session for teaching addition and subtraction algorithms, which was followed by Post-test 3; there was an increase in correct responses. The generalization test was reapplied; all participants achieved 100% accuracy. The teaching procedures adopted could reduce learning difficulties in problem solving.

 
6. Desarrolla de Habilidades Cientificas en Estudiantes Universitarios: Un Analisis Experiemental de la Secuencia de Tareas
Area: EDC; Domain: Experimental Analysis
WINTER EDGAR REYNA CRUZ (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM)), Alejandro Ceron Marti­nez (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM)), Veronica Luna Hernandez (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM)), Leslie Valeria Briseno Zamora (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM)), Christian Cruz (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM))
Abstract: El Modelo Interconductual del Comportamiento Creativo (MICC) propuesto por Carpio (2005), comprende una descripción del desarrollo psicológico en el que se sostiene que un individuo, en un primer momento, configura diversas habilidades de manera secuenciada, en situaciones contingencialmente cerradas y posteriormente se establece el desarrollo de competencias, mediante la exposición a situaciones contingencialmente abiertas. El MICC representa una herramienta de análisis del desarrollo de habilidades y competencias en el ámbito de la enseñanza-aprendizaje de la práctica científica en Psicología (Silva, Morales y Pacheco, 2010). Sin embargo, en dicho ámbito, se ha seguido como criterio metodológico la exposición de los aprendices de ciencia a situaciones contingencialmente abiertas, dejando de lado el desarrollo secuenciado de habilidades. Por ello, el objetivo de la presente investigación fue evaluar el efecto de diferentes secuencias de tareas sobre el desempeño en la elaboración de objetivos experimentales en estudiantes universitarios. Participaron 20 alumnos de segundo semestre de la FESI, asignados aleatoriamente uno de 4 grupos: G1: Identificación, Elaboración, Formulación; G2: Formulación, Elaboración Identificación; G3: Elaboración, Identificación, Formulación y G4: Formulación, Identificación, Elaboración. Los resultados evidencian los efectos de secuenciar el desarrollo de habilidades y las diferencias entre los tipos de secuencia.
 
7. Structured but Adaptable Methods for Documenting and Improving Interventionists’ Implementation Integrity
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
JOHN C. BEGENY (North Carolina State University), Jessica Loehman (North Carolina State University), Rebecca Levy (North Carolina State University), Kristina Rodriguez (North Carolina State University), Ashley Collins (North Carolina State University), Katelin Bigelow (North Carolina State University), Ho Yan Tsuen (Guilford County School District)
Abstract: Observing for, documenting, and improving implementation integrity are critical components of effective intervention services in schools. Without them, students may not receive effective intervention and systems-level models of intervention service-delivery (e.g., response-to-intervention) may never be properly evaluated or used. Using a multiple-baseline design, this presentation describes an experimental study that examined the effects of using a structured observation and feedback system to document and improve interventionists’ use of an academic intervention for struggling English readers. The data from this study showed that the structured observation and feedback procedures reliably improved interventionists’ implementation integrity and improved integrity to the desired levels. Other key findings from this study will be presented, along with information about (a) how the feedback procedures used in this study are derived from principles of applied behavior analysis, and (b) how the feedback procedures can be easily adapted and used to assist ABA researchers and practitioners with monitoring the implementation integrity of several types of intervention programs. Study limitations and future research directions will also be presented. Finally, attendees of this presentation can learn how to access the observation and feedback materials associated with this study so they can use, adapt, and/or translate (as needed for other languages) the materials for their particular intervention needs.
 
8. Digital Skills Program for Increasing Teachers Academic Skills
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MARCO WILFREDO SALAS-MARTINEZ (University of Veracruz, Mexico), Omar Torres Fernández (University of Veracruz, México ), Esperanza Ferrant-Jimenez (University of Veracruz, Mexíco), Andree Fleming-Holland (University of Veracruz), Martín Luís Ortíz Bueno (University of Veracruz, México )
Abstract:

Many universities fail to integrate didactic teaching of new technologies of information and communication, in the curriculum proposals based on the development of generic and professional skills, it requires that teachers and students have the skills that allow them to meet the demands of society. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of a program of digital skills of two English professors about their academic, communication, digital and English teaching skills. These skills were evaluated by 26 students using a scale. A experimental design with two groups randomized subjects with pre-and post-assessments (Ary, et al 2006), was implemented. Teachers and students were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: experimental and control. The results and statistical analysis show that the professor and the students of the experimental group had higher scores on academic skills than the control participants.

 
9. CANCELED: Competitive Games and Aberrant Behavior – Trigger Analysis and Intervention
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
EITAN ELDAR (Kibbutzim College), Michal Hirschmann (Kibbutzim College)
Abstract:

We studied the effect of antecedent manipulation on aberrant behavior within a competitive game, aiming to create an opportunity to practice, rather than avoid, challenging situations. Four versions of the "Are You Square" game (Eldar, Morris, Da Costa, & Wolf, 2006, Eldar, 2008) were played for 16 weeks by 16 male high-school students. The dependent variable, aberrant behavior, was defined as: Rule violations; Passivity; Physical violence; and Verbal violence. A Multielement Design presented the aberrant behaviors emitted under the various conditions. Overall, misbehaviors were differentially affected by the different versions of the game. The highest levels of aberrant behaviors, mainly in the form of rule violations, occurred when the Intensity of the game was increased. Data from this study will be presented, followed by data revealed from similar studies, demonstrating a relation between the manipulation of game conditions and the change in participants’ behavior. An educational procedure for diagnosing and treating aberrant behavior, based on these findings, will be suggested.

 
10. The Effect of Temporal Distribution of Practice Opportunities on the Efficient Acquisition of Novel Terms
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MARGARET DANNEVIK (Here We Go! Lasting Behavior Change LLC)
Abstract: The use of flashcards to acquire novel see-say terms is not a new technology and its effectiveness has been well-documented. Students often need to learn a large number of terms very quickly though so it is important to determine the most efficient way to study. The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether the distribution of practice opportunities affected the acquisition of novel see-say terms. Specifically, the study wanted to see whether the rate of acquisition of fluency differed under two different conditions: multiple, short study sessions each day or one daily study session. Results indicate that distribution of study sessions may affect the rate of acquisition of new terms. Significant differences between conditions were seen in all 5 subjects. Students and teachers should take this factor into account in applied settings, especially when quick acquisition is important or when a learning picture has reached a plateau. Further research could extend the methods of this study and seek to determine the ideal distribution of study sessions and study session lengths.
 
11. Teaching Basic Skills of Statistics in High School Students
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ESPERANZA FERRANT-JIMENEZ (University of Veracruz), Diana Elizabeth Pedraza Valderrábano (University of Veracruz), Marco Wilfredo Salas-Martinez (University of Veracruz, Mexico), Martín Luís Ortíz Bueno (University of Veracruz, México )
Abstract: In high school the subject matter Probability and Statistics I, that is taught in fifth semester, aims to train highly qualified young and able to make intelligent decisions about applications of the statistics and links the high school to higher education. The lack of clear and didactic materials, fostering the skills of basic concepts and application of Statistics, affects school learning of this the subject matter. Therefore, it was implemented and evaluated an education program Basic Statistics, using printed material supported by software (EXCEL) that allowed the development of skills in statistics, also enhanced student learning and provided information on their application in different disciplines. The participants were 66 students of fifth semester of high school "Ricardo Flores Magon" in Xalapa, Veracruz. A quasi-experimental pre-test and post-test with nonrandomized control group was implemented (Ary, Jacobs and Razavieh, 1989). After the intervention phase study, was performed the statistical analysis. The students of the experimental group obtained higher grades than the students of the control group. The results show that the program increased the development of statistical skills by students as well as their school learning.
 
12. Development of Academic and Linguistic Skills for Reading and Writing
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ELVIA PERALTA GUERRA (Universidad Veracruzana), Ariadna Andrade Aguilar (Universidad Veracruzana), Geronimo Reyes Hernández (Universidad Veracruzana)
Abstract: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of a program for the development of academic and linguistic skills in the acquisition of reading and writing in preschool children. It was used a pretest-posttest design with experimental and control groups. It was used two tests: 1) Pre current Skills Reading Assessing (PSRA); 2) Battery of Learning Skills (BAPAE). Participated 31 third grade preschool children, of both sexes between five and six years old from a public school. The children were included on the experiment because they have been obtained a percentage less than 65% in the pretest. It was design and applied a training program for the acquisition of academic and linguistic skills on reading and writing. This program was applied only to the experimental group. The average percentage of the posttest was higher in the experimental group (69%) than in control (55%). The results stated that the training program had a positive effect on academic and linguistic skills for reading and writing competence.
 
13. Effects of a Program of Health Promotion in Preschool Competencies
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MARÁA MARCELA CASTAÑEDA MOTA (Universidad Veracruzana), Dora Granados Ramos (Universidad Veracruzana)
Abstract:

In Mexico, establishing of competences in relation to health is formally initiated by Secretariat of Public Education in Preschool Education Program (PEP) 2004-2011. The study designs a Program of Health Promotion in Preschool level (PHPP), to establish and assess competencies related to health in PEP (2011). The independent variable was Program of Health Promotion in Preschool level, approach based on competencies of Tobon (2006); the dependent variable was level of achievement in the execution of competences in preschool children in second grade, obtained in the Matrix of Competencies founded in PEP (2011). The hypothesis was, if level of achievement in the execution of competencies in health promotion for children in second grade preschool, exposed to PHPP would be higher, in comparison to achievement in children who not receive PHPP. The PHPP used an experimental design of Pre and Post-test with two randomized groups: control and experimental group with 8 children of second grade from preschool, both groups chosen at random from a kindergarten in Xalapa city, Ver. Results showed in graphical analysis the difference between groups. Two-Sample t-Test for Correlated Samples reported p<0.001, proving the hypothesis of the study.

 
14. Home Schooling Approach to a Child with Atypical Development: Effects of Reading and Numeracy Programs Through Quivalence Relations
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
LUIZA HUBNER OLIVEIRA (Private Practice), Daniela Landim (University of São Paulo, Brazil), Martha Hübner (University of São Paulo, Brazil)
Abstract:

Reading and numeracy teaching programs in natural environments rarely apply the concept of equivalence paradigm and matching to sample procedures to teach basic skills in these two areas. The present study presents an individualized behavioral teaching program with a 7 years old boy with atypical development at his own home, four days a week. The objective of the program was teaching gradually basic skills in reading and numeracy that were not present in the repertoire of the child. Baseline data showed systematic errors and random performance in reading, as well as in counting and identifying numbers. The procedure included trial type learning with matching to sample, through computer presentation. Eleven words were taught in three months, in the following relations: 1) match the oral name of words (spoken by the teacher), with its written names (AC relation); 2) match oral name of words with its picture (AB relation); 3) match pictures of written words with the correspondent written words (BC relation); 4) match written words with its correspondent pictures (CB relation); 5) say the name of written words loud (CD relation); 6) construct anagram of the name of written words (CE relation); 7) match oral name of pictures with pictures (relation BD). A token system for reinforcement of correct responses (FR5) was applied. Results of the first month on reading show an average of 85% of correct independent responses in four relations (AB, BD, AC, CD) and difficulties in BC, CB and CE relations (around 20% of correct responses); in the second month, the good scores were maintained and the low ones changed to 60% of correct responses; in the third month all the scores reached an average of 90% of correct responses. For numeracy program an even quicker progress was obtained. It is concluded for the efficiency of both programs and a process of learning set emerged in child’s reading behavior.

 
 

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