Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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Seventh International Conference; Merida, Mexico; 2013

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Poster Session #52
AUT Posters
Monday, October 7, 2013
7:00 PM–9:00 PM
Gran Salon Yucatan (Fiesta Americana)
116. Behavior Analysis Training System
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
RICHARD W. MALOTT (Western Michigan University), Ali Markowitz (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The Behavior Analysis Training System is a 2-year masters program in autism and organizational behavior management. It is an ABA accredited program that prepares students to become Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBA).
 
117. The Effects of Functional Assessment-Based Intervention on Problem Behaviors of a Student with Autism and Visual Impairments
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JUNG YEON CHO (Daegu Cyber University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the functional assessment-based intervention on the problem behaviors such as self-injury, screaming, seizing of children with autism and visual impairments. In terms of the assessment of problem behaviors, the data was collected through indirect assessment and direct observation on children, and the analysis showed that the attraction of interest caused the problem behaviors. The intervention based on functional assessment as hypothetically verified interest criteria was performed as ABA research design. As a result of the research was effective in the reduction of problem behaviors of children with multiple disabilities. In addition, the generalization and maintenance of intervention effects appeared also in the interventional scene of children and change of moderators.
 
118. A Replication of Wilson's Generic Habit-training Program to Toilet Train Students with Autism in School and Home Settings
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
KATHLEEN MCCABE-ODRI (Partners in Learning, Inc.), Jennifer Cornely (Partners in Learning, Inc.), Lauren DeGrazia (Partners in Learning, Inc.), Nicole M Rzemyk (Partners in Learning, Inc,), nicole Pease (Partners in Learning)
Abstract: It is well understood that toileting is a critical skill necessary for independent living and quality of life. Also, many children with autism experience delays in acquiring and achieving mastery of this important self-care ability. Most toilet training protocols are based on the seminal publication by Azrin & Foxx (1971), “Rapid Toilet Training” (RTT); however, as more children with autism are educated in typical classes, following RTT protocols can result in reduced access to other instructional areas due to the frequency of opportunities children are brought into the bathroom. In addition, the RTT protocol requires an intensity level of treatment adherence that most teachers and teaching assistants are unable to provide. This study replicates an alternate toileting protocol designed by Wilson (1993), using an elimination schedule referred to as "Generic Habit-training". Subjects in this study were tracked during baseline phase in order to calculate high frequency wet/soiled target intervals. During treatment phases, those subjects were only given the opportunity to void into the toilet during target intervals. Once subjects were voiding successfully within 3-5 minutes per opportunity for 80% (i.e., 4/5 days during that interval) criteria, a new target high frequency void (i.e., HFV) interval is added. After approximately three target HFV intervals achieve 80% success criteria, and voids outside of the toilet are reduces to 5% or less, the self-initiation of toileting needs phase is introduced. Results will show that subjects achieved mastery for toilet training, as well as demonstrate the ease of protocols reduced toileting errors (i.e., access to opportunities for non-voids into the toilet) and improved adherence of training protocols. The study will add to the current literature re toilet training via replication of Wilson, 1993, thus offering parents and educators of students with autism in need of acquiring this critical independent living skill an alternate effective approach.
 
119. UNT Behavior Analysis Online
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
SUSAN R. MILLER (University of North Texas), Sigrid S Glenn (University of North Texas)
Abstract: The Department of Behavior Analysis at the University of North Texas offers a distance program in behavior analysis. This internet program is a sequence of six self-paced courses, designed by full-time faculty, to meet the needs of individuals who cannot obtain coursework in behavior analysis locally. The courses are multimedia, high interactive, and cover the academic content required by the Behavior Analysis Certification Board (BACB). Students may also earn a 18-SCH academic Certificate in Applied Behavior Analysis for completing the 6-course sequence.
 
120. Acquisition and Generalization of Mands Learned via PECS (Picture Exchange Communication System) for Autistic Children
Area: AUT; Domain: Experimental Analysis
THAIS PORLAN DE OLIVEIRA (UFMG), Juliana Campos de Jesus (UFMG), Junio Vieira de Rezende (UFMG), Xilander Rocha Resende (UFMG), Rafael da Costa Silva (UFMG)
Abstract:

Establishing communicative repertoires in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is an important issue mainly for two reasons: in first place, because deficits in communication skills is an indicative of the difficulties in the adulthood; in second place, it permits an improvement in social interaction with parents, relatives and teachers. The present experiment aimed to teach repertoires of mands in an experimental setting and evaluate generalization skills in two different environments, namely, at school and at home. Repertoires of mands were established using the first three phases of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). Four children with ASD and ages raging from seven to 12 years old were recruited as participants. The procedure consisted in a systematic teaching of the first three phases of PECS and subsequent evaluation for generalization skills at school and at home. Data in the environments used in the generalization tests were obtained using teacher and mother speechs. The results showed that three children were capable to acquire repertoires of mands when the variability of visual stimuli and the reinforcers effectiveness were controlled. Repertoires of mands learned in the experimental setting were generalized to school and home. Our findings suggest that a greater variable control in teaching procedure is needed to establish mands and generalized skills in the repertoire of children with ASD.

 
121. Effective Applications of ABA with a Non-Verbal Child with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
DONNA KEARNS (University of Central Oklahoma)
Abstract: Given that students with autism often need assistance that prepares them to interact effectively in a school setting, it was important to identify educational barriers and to address each one through the use of ABA techniques. Students with autism who are non-verbal experience some specific barriers to learning that need to be addressed early in their educational careers. This presentation will focus on interventions that were utilized through specific applied behavior analysis techniques to improve the educational and social performance of a six year old non-verbal boy in an educational setting over the course of one-half of a school year. Participants in this session will receive information regarding specific steps in the sequence of the identification and implementation process of this project. Examples of graphs to display the effectiveness of the interventions will be shared as well as recognition of confounding variables that reduced success in some areas. Opportunities for questions will be encouraged.
 
122. Empowering Parents as Instructors - Using Video Modeling to Teach Parents to Use Visual Supports With Their Children with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
DAISY WANG (UBC), Dianna Hiu Yan Yip (Behaviour Consultant), Noreen Dunn Chiu (N/A), Katrina Isabella McGee (Beanstalk Behaviour Consulting), Parbinder Bains (University of British Columbia/Surrey School Distr)
Abstract:

In the current research, we explored the efficacy of using video modelling to teach parents of children with autism to use effective instructional methods when teaching functional daily routines. We also examined the cultural responsiveness of video modelling. Parents from three distinct cultures residing in Canada and Hong Kong were recruited to teach their children with autism to complete the hand-washing routine independently using visual supports. We used a multiple baseline across participants design, and conducted a general case analysis to create three short video models. A researcher met with each participant at the outset of the study to view the videos together, to clarify the procedures, and to address any questions. Participants were then asked to view the videos daily and implement the strategies with their children over a two-week period. Researchers visited the participants home twice a week for data collection, during which time no further consultation was provided. We sought to demonstrate a functional relation between video modeling and the participants acquisition of the instructional technique. In addition, data on generalization, social validity, and family quality of life were collected. Implications of this research, in terms of establishing an effective and culturally responsive parent training tool, are discussed.

 
123. Influence of Cultural Background from Families with Children Having ASD in Trajectory Services and in Effective Application of EIBI
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MELINA RIVARD (Université du Québec à Montréal), Marie Millau (Université du Québec à Montréal)
Abstract:

Given the universal coverage of Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in rehabilitation centers in Quebec (Canada) and the growing number of immigrant families receiving these services (around 20%), it is crucial to document the factors leading to an optimal application of EIBI for these families, children and stakeholders. Those families experience more challenges in their access to services as well as during the implementation of services. It is important to develop ways to better support and encourage their involvement to maximize their child's response to intervention. This research consists of three consecutive studies, which will be completed in two rehabilitation centers that have experienced large waves of immigration. The first study aims to portray families from ethnic minorities with respect to their immigration context, their trajectory services and their perceptions on various aspects related to ASD services. The second study aims to document the perceptions of managers, professionals and educators on different aspects related to EIBI and work in multiethnic family background. A third study has the objective to build and evaluate a support program that is responsive to the needs of families from ethnic minorities in the process of receiving EIBI services. This poster present the context and the design of the three studies and presents the preliminary results of the first one. The first study begin in summer 2013.

 
124. A Collaborative Parent Education Program Teaching Parents to use Naturalistic Teaching Strategies
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
TANYA RUTHERFORD (California State University, Northridge), Amanda Finch (California State University, Northridge), Debra Berry Malmberg (California State University, Northridge)
Abstract: The benefits of teaching parents to use intervention strategies through parent education programs are numerous (Koegel, Bimbela, & Schreibman, 1996). Recent research has shown that a shift from the traditional parent training model to a parent-clinician partnership model shows positive effects for both parents and children (e.g., Brookman-Frazee, 2004). Additionally, there are many benefits of using naturalistic teaching strategies, including ease of implementation across different settings, increased fidelity, generalization and maintenance of child skills, and parent-selected target behaviors. Therefore, teaching parents to use naturalistic teaching strategies is highly beneficial to families of children with autism. In this study, a multiple probe design across parent/child dyads was used to analyze the efficacy of the collaborative parent education program in teaching parents naturalistic behavioral strategies with a focus on communication skills. Parents participated in a weekly parent education class that consisted of group instruction, discussion, instructional videos, role-play, feedback, and guidance for implementing the techniques at home. In this presentation, we review the design of the parent education program and offer recommendations for incorporating a parent-clinician partnership model in parent education efforts.
 
125. CANCELED: A Comparison of the Acquisition and Generalized use of Speech-Generating Devices, Manual Sign and Picture Exchange among Children with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
LAURIE MCLAY (University of Canterbury), Dean Sutherland (University of Canterbury), Larah Van der meer (Victoria University Wellington), Jeffrey S. Sigafoos (Victoria University of Wellington)
Abstract:

Many children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have impairments associated with the use of verbal communication. As a result, Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) methods are frequently utilised. Research investigating the acquisition and use of AAC is emerging however, few studies have identified whether these newly acquired skills are then generalized, and whether this is associated with rate of acquisition and/or student preference. The purpose of this study was to compare the acquisition of three different AAC methods, to examine children’s preference for the use of these methods, and to assess generalised use of each of these methods across settings, and people. Using a multiple baseline alternating treatments design across participants, four children with ASD were taught to mand for preferred items using a Speech-Generating Device (SGD), Picture Exchange (PE), and Manual Sign (MS). Preference assessments were conducted in order to determine whether the participants had a preference for either of the three methods of communication. Generalisation to a novel setting and people, was then assessed for each device. This paper will present the findings of this study. This study extends upon previous research in this field by identifying whether there is a relationship between acquisition, preference, and the likelihood of generalisation.

 
126. Optimizing the Learning Environment In Natural Settings By Manipulating Pre-Sessions Motivating Operations
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CHATURI EDRISINHA (St. Cloud State University), Ofelia Tipu (Saint Cloud State University), Mark O'Reilly (University of Texas at Austin), Russell Lang (Texas State University-San Marcos), Mary B Noll (Saint Cloud State University)
Abstract: Many factors can contribute to the development and maintenance of challenging behaviors such as aggression and self-injurious behavior. However, a primary factor that relates to challenging behaviors in children with developmental disabilities is language deficits. This study evaluated the effects of language acquisition on challenging behavior on children with disabilities. This study looked at decreasing challenging behavior and increase language acquisition by manipulating the relevant motivating operations. Children in this study were assessed to identify the environmental conditions under which challenging behaviors were observed by conducting a functional analysis. A three phase process was developed to verify the relevant motivating operations. Thereafter, an individualized intervention was developed and implemented to address the challenging behavior exhibited by each child and replace it with the relevant communication. Treatment was evaluated using a multi-element design. Results indicated that pre-session manipulation of MOs decreased challenging behaviors, improved language acquisition and created an effective learning environment.
 
127. A Meta-Analysis of Activity Schedules for Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
DERYA GENC (Anadolu University), Serife Yucesoy Ozkan (Anadolu University)
Abstract: This meta-analysis examined the effectiveness of activity schedules for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Twelve single subject design studies were included in the meta-analysis. Intervention effects were measured by computing the percentage of nonoverlapping data points (PND) and percentage of data points exceeding the median of baseline phase (PEM). Results showed that activity schedules are effective intervention strategies for promoting acquisition of various skills. Results also suggest that activity schedules are used effectively for addressing problem behaviors. The results indicated that skills acquired via activity schedules were maintained over time and generalized to different conditions. Implications and future research needs will be discussed based on the evaluation of the findings.
 
128. A Comparison of Simultaneous Prompting Procedure with High and Low Treatment Integrity
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ONUR KURT (Anadolu University), Derya Genc (Anadolu University), Elif Tekin-Iftar (Anadolu University)
Abstract: Simultaneous prompting is known as an effective response prompting procedure on teaching discrete as well as chained skills to individuals with various ages and disabilities. Moreover, research has shown that it is used with high treatment integrity. However, there are several barriers which may prevent to deliver instruction with high treatment integrity. The purpose of the present study is to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of simultaneous prompting delivered with high treatment integrity and simultaneous prompting with low treatment integrity in teaching chained play skills to preschool children with developmental disabilities. In addition, the effects of simultaneous prompting with high and low treatment integrity on the observational learning of the participating students were examined. Low treatment integrity is defined as not delivering controlling prompt 30% of all teaching trials. An adapted alternating treatments design was used to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of two levels of treatment integrity with simultaneous prompting on the acquisition of the chained play skills. Two male and one female student with autism participated in the study. Results showed that all three children learned their target behaviors on the criterion level with both conditions. Mixed findings were obtained for efficiency of instruction. Implications and future research needs will be discussed based on the evaluation of the findings.
 
129. Helping a Child with Autism to Interact with Peers at School: Effects of Setting Joint Playtime and Social Skills Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
KAZUKI NIWAYAMA (Kwansei Gakuin University), Junko Tanaka-Matsumi (Kwansei Gakuin University)
Abstract: This study examined the effects of initially setting joint playtime and subsequently conducting social skills training (SST) on social interaction between a child with autism and peers. The study was conducted during the school recess at a Japanese elementary school using an ABCBA design with follow-up. Participants were a child with autism in a special needs education class and three peers in a general education class. We used 20-s interval recording procedure to record participants social interaction and group play. After the baseline (A), playtime was set up for the participants to play together in a room with toys (B). We then introduced a SST component at the beginning of each playtime for all participants (C). After setting the playtime, social interaction and group play between the child with autism and peers increased. Conducting the SST increased social interaction further more. To evaluate generalization effect of the intervention, we observed on-task behavior and social interaction of the child with autism when she participated in the general education class. The on-task behavior increased after the intervention. We continue to observe if the child and peers can maintain the frequency of social interaction in the regular classroom after withdrawing the formal intervention.
 
130. CANCELED: Comparison of Graduated Guidance with Video Modeling and Only Video Modeling for Teaching Pretend Play Skills to Children with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
NURGUL AKMANOGLU (Anadolu University), Mehmet Yanardag (Anadolu University), Sema Batu (Anadolu University)
Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of the graduated guidance with video modeling and only video modeling for teaching pretend plays to children with autism. An adapted alternating treatments design was used in this study. Each participant was taught a couple/a pair of pretend plays preferred by the teachers and parents in this study. One of the skills was taught via graduated guidance with video modeling, another skill was taught via only video modeling. The effectiveness results of the study showed that three of the four participants learned the target pretend play skills via both of the teaching procedures as to meet the criteria. Although the fourth participant met the criteria in a pretend play delivered by the graduated guidance with video modeling, he showed only limited learning via the delivery of only video modeling. When the two teaching procedures were compared in terms of efficiency, graduated guidance with video modeling was found to be more efficient than only video modeling. Families and post graduate students reported positive opinions about the teaching process used in this study. In accordance with the results of the study, suggestions were made for procedures and future studies.

 
131. CANCELED: The Effects of Individualizing Training for Newly-hired Staff based on their Current Levels of Competence
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CRESSE M. MORRELL (Virginia Institute of Autism), Ethan S. Long (Virginia Institute of Autism)
Abstract:

Training staff in human service agencies to reliably and accurately implement behavioral-based skill building programs and behavior plans is critical for ensuring client success. Most new staff have varying degrees of skills and are required to participate in all of the agencies training and orientation protocol, regardless of individual competence. This approach may ensure a shared base-level of competence, but may not be the most efficient. This study examined the effects of a protocol that matched new staff members training needs to their level of competence upon hire. Fifteen staff members completed the experimental training protocol which consists of a) independently viewing 11 video modules, b) completing guided notes, and c) taking quizzes on basic behavioral practices. Skill proficiency was re- assessed during in-vivo observations and a behavioral skills training package (i.e., instructions, modeling, rehearsal and feedback) was administered if needed until competency was achieved (i.e., 90% or greater over all targeted skills across 2 clients). Staff all successfully met the proficiency criteria and maintained the skills. Results will be discussed in relation to the efficiencies that were obtained from the new staff training protocol in comparison to the agencys previous protocol.

 
132. Using Sensorimotor Play as a Setting Event for the Rapid Acquisition of Core Socio-communicative Behaviors in a Child with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Mallory Smith (Blossom Center for Children), GIA VAZQUEZ ORTEGA (Blossom Center for Children)
Abstract: Children with autism often have difficulty making eye contact, imitating motor movements, and using vocalizations to request. Research has found that increasing motivation by using child choice, interspersal of acquisition and maintenance tasks, reinforcing attempts, and delivering natural reinforcers in Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) treatment programs increase the acquisition time to learn new skills. Nevertheless, some children are qualified as nonresponders to these methods due to lack of interest for objects and progress continues to be slow. In this study, a child with autism participated in 16 hours of ABA treatment with parent participation to increase critical skill areas of joint attention, motor imitation, engagement time, and unprompted vocal requests in the context of sensorimotor play. Results indicate that the use of sensorimotor play activities in combination with motivational procedures assisted in rapidly increasing core skills and decreasing challenging behaviors only with the use of extinction and redirection. The results from this study suggest that 1) sensorimotor play may be an important consideration for nonresponders to quickly acquire new skills, 2) short term intervention using motivational procedures may be an effective option for children during school breaks, and 3) parent participation is critical in ABA treatment programs to ensure generalization.
 
 

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