Association for Behavior Analysis International

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Seventh International Conference; Merida, Mexico; 2013

Event Details

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Poster Session #40
EAB Posters
Monday, October 7, 2013
7:00 PM–9:00 PM
Gran Salon Yucatan (Fiesta Americana)
2. On the Role of Sorting
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
AINA NORBOM (Oslo and Akershus University College), Erik Arntzen (Oslo and Akershus University College), Lanny Fields (Queens College, City University of New York)
Abstract: A few studies have been done with focus on sorting or categorization tests as part of the method within stimulus equivalence research (see for example Fields, Arntzen, Nartey, & Eilifsen, 2012). The sorting test can be accomplished in a few minutes compared to about 30 to 40 minutes in the stimulus equivalence test. The research question in the present study was to explore the role of sorting as an alternative goal on stimulus equivalence compared to the standard tests for stimulus. The participants were adults, 21 to 41 years of age. We employed a linear series (LS) structure to establish three 5-member classes. All participants were exposed to a first phase, which included a sorting test. In the second phase, training was arranged as conditional discriminations in a traditional MTS format. Then, the participants were tested for equivalence class formation. In the third phase, an identical sorting test as in the first phase was presented. Dependent on the outcome of the second and third phase, the participants went through to a new phase with a new stimulus set or a re-test of both sorting and the test for stimulus equivalence with the same stimulus set. The data was analyzed to see if there was any coherence between the sorting test and the establishment of emergent relations.
3. Everything You Know about the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Is Wrong
Area: EAB; Domain: Theory
RICHARD W. MALOTT (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: SCOWL: I saw the best minds of my generation destroyed by lust for the straight semi-log transform, confusing the little dots falling on the straight line, with underlying process (if it’s straight as a gate, it’s straight, gate). Relevant topics: (1) The relation between experimental and applied research in behavior analysis. (2) Why bridging research gets it wrong. (3) Why basic research gets it wrong. (4) Preschool fatalism. (5) Pre-PhD fatalism: Why you will agree with practically none of this poster. (6) The little boy with a new hammer who tries to fix everything by hitting it with his wonderful hammer. (7) Why the worst thing Skinner ever did was invent schedules of reinforcement. (8) Why delay discounting is irrelevant to almost anything of importance. (9) Why grandma's wisdom is wrong. (10) The myth of poor self-control. (11) The truth about poor self-control. (12) Rule-governed vs. contingency-controlled behavior. (13) Why operationalization provides only a false sense of intellectual security. (14) The shiftless paradigm. The high IQ mind of an EABer is a terrible thing to waste; hopefully this poster will save one or two of the less rigid ones.
4. Effects of Changes in the Quantity of Modalities on the Acquisition and Transfer of Conditional Discrimination
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
LUIS ALBERTO QUIROGA BAQUERO (Universidad de Guadalajara- CEIC), Carlos Wilcen Villamil Barriga (Universidad de Guadalajara), Carlos Javier Flores Aguirre (Universidad de Guadalajara), Paola Andrea Arrubla (Fundacion Universitaria Konrad Lorenz)
Abstract: In the analysis field of abstract stimulus control has been widely reported the effect of parametric variations in the spatial, temporal and probabilistic properties of the stimulus and response segment on the establishment of conditional discriminations. However, it has been proposed that the contingencies of abstraction involve responding to variants modal properties of stimuli present in terms of constant modal properties that are relational. In this matter, it is proposed to evaluate the effect that the variation in the number of modalities in the second-order, sample and comparisons stimuli has on the establishment of abstract stimulus control in a second-order matching-to-sample task. In a first experiment, the second-order stimuli indicated trial by trial the identity or difference relationships in two ways: shape and color. In training or transfer phases was varied the number of modalities (2 or 4) of the sample and comparisons stimuli resulting in four experimental groups. In a second experiment was presented the same variation in the modalities of the sample and comparison stimuli, but additionally second-order stimuli indicated the relevant relationships and modalities. The results show differences between the groups in the two experiments in terms of the number modalities trained versus the number modalities used in the transfer tests, assuming differential effects on the establishment of the control abstract stimulus.
5. Operant Contingencies for Collaboration Between Chimps
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
PER HOLTH (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Abstract: Chimps are known to cooperate on certain types of tasks, such as hunting and patroling their borders. However, they do not typically collaborate on other tasks. Through a step-by-step procedure, the present study established the basic skills and contingencies to facilitate collaborative lever pressing in chimps in a Zoo.
6. Assessing Mindfulness Processes in Emotional Regulation: A Translational Study
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
YORS A. GARCIA (Fundacion Universitaria Konrad Lorenz), Liliana Cristiano (Fundacion Universitaria Konrad Lorenz), Sergio Ribero (Fundacion Universitaria Konrad Lorenz)
Abstract: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the basic processes in mindfulness and emotional regulation. Thirty undergraduate students were divided in two different groups (Experimental and control). Initially a pre-test was conducted to evaluate emotional regulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Gratz, & Roemer, 2004) in both groups. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), (Baer et al., 2006) was also administered to evaluate the mindfulness skills previous to the beginning of the study. Once the screening was completed participants were exposed to a respondent-type training and match-to-sample procedure to establish a 3 three-member stimulus classes. The stimuli used for this study were pictures from the IAPS and nonsense words. Psychophysiological measures were simultaneously taken during the respondent-type training (heart rate and EEG). When the stimulus class formation was completed participants in the experimental group were exposed to mindfulness training (observing and describing) during 15 minutes, while participants in the control groups were exposed to a video (pleasant images). Immediately after participants in both groups were exposed to a second group of stimuli using the respondent-type training and match-to-sample procedures. Psychophysiological measures were taken again in this phase. Once both groups completed the training and testing phase in the match-to-sample procedures all participants were administered the DERS to evaluate the emotional regulation scores. Preliminary data show that participants in the experimental group decreased emotional dysregulations as measured with the DERS compared to the control group. Discussion is oriented towards the necessity to conduct more translational studies to evaluate mindfulness processes.
7. The Effects of (Un)predicatable and (Un)controllable Stimuli Upon New Learning
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
JOSELE ABREU-RODRIGUES (Universidade de Brasilia), Lorena Kássia de Lima (Universidade de Brasilia)
Abstract: The present study evaluated, with college students, the role of stimulus (un)predictability in situations of (un)controllability. The procedure included tone presentations and a four-response-sequence task. In the Training Phase, the participants of the Controllable-Predictable (CP) and Controllable-Unpredictable (CU) groups were exposed to controllable events (the tones could be interrupted if the sequence differed from the previous five ones); the participants of the Uncontrollable-Predictable (UP), Uncontrollable-Unpredictable (UU) and Blocking (BK) groups were exposed to uncontrollable events (the tones could not be interrupted). For the participants of the CP, UP and BK groups, the intertrial intervals (ITIs) were fixed (tone initiation was predictable), and for the participants of the CI and II groups, the ITIs were variable (tone initiation was unpredictable). The participants of the Control Group (CT) were not exposed to this phase. In the Testing Phase, all participants were required to emit a unique sequence to interrupt the tone. In this last phase, the participants of the UP Group showed greater U values and lower percentages of reinforced sequences than the participants of the remaining groups, which did not differ among themselves. These results indicate that the uncontrollable events produced learning deficits, but only when these events were also predictable.

Response Acquisition with Delayed Conditioned Reinforcement

Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
Marco Pulido (Universidad Intercontinental), RODRIGO SOSA (Universidad de Guadalajara)

The present study assessed the possibility that rats exposed to response independent food deliveries would increase lever pressing rates correlated with the presentation of noise and stimulus changes that were previously paired with primary reinforcement. Seventy two male na?ve rats were exposed to ten 30 minute sessions where a FT 60-s schedule presented food correlated with a 3-s blackout and the operation of the food delivery magazine for the same amount of time. After the training phase was over, an acquisition phase began; subjects could receive one of four different schedules for twenty consecutive sessions: 1) CRF; 2) RF1, FT 2-s; 3) FR1, FT 5-s or 4) FR1, FT 10-s; nine subjects were exposed to each schedule. Results produced by the conditioned reinforcement conditions were compared with conditions where: 1) Primary reinforcement was delivered during the acquisition phase, 2) Blackout and magazine operation occurred during the training phase but in the absence of food, and 3) Subjects remained in the experimental chamber without any programmed stimulus presentation during the training phase. Both the primary reinforcement and the conditioned reinforcement conditions produced delay gradients; the latter was considerably steeper than the former.

9. Response Variability During Continuous Reinforcement, Intermittent Reinforcement And Extinction: A Reappraisal Of Antonitis
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
NADIA SANTILLÁN (National Autonomous University of Mexico – Operant conditioning laboratory), Rogelio Escobar (National Autonomous University of Mexico)
Abstract: Antonitis (1951) reported that response variability decreases during exposure to continuous reinforcement and increases during extinction. Although this study is considered a classic, in some experiments the opposite results was reported. In two experiments, the conditions responsible for such results were determined using rats as subjects. An experimental chamber with seven horizontally aligned slots was used. In Experiment 1, food was delivered whenever the rats introduced the nose into one of the slots. In subsequent conditions, the schedule was changed to extinction or a variable-interval 60-s schedule. It was found that response variability increased during extinction or intermittent reinforcement but only for those rats in which responding was stereotyped during continuous reinforcement. In Experiment 2, a similar sequence of conditions was used, but a stereotyped sequence of two responses consisting of a nose poke and approaching the food tray was trained initially. It was found that variability increased during extinction and intermittent reinforcement for all rats relative to continuous reinforcement. These results suggest that the contradictory findings were likely the result of the different procedures used to establish responding.
10. Transformation of Emotional Functions across Comparative Relational Networks: A Functional Account of Transitive Inference
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
MICAH AMD (National University of Ireland Maynooth), Dermot Barnes-Holmes (National University of Ireland, Maynooth)
Abstract: Three experiments examining the transformation of emotional 'valence' functions using the Implicit Attitudes Test (IAT) as a dependent, performance- based measure were conducted. In Ex1, two colours were established as contextual cues for the arbitrarily applicable functions "Happier/Sadder" in n=10 participants. The cues were used to establish A>B>C>D where ABCD were emotionally neutral exemplars and ">" refers to the relation "happier than". Two IATs were used to demonstrate transformation of functions for individuals demonstrating mutual and combinatorial entailed relations (Hayes et al., 2001). In Ex2, geometrical shapes were established with non-arbitrary "More/Less" relations for n=10 participants - additionally, evaluative functions ("happy"/"unhappy") were established for the colours yellow and red. The topographies of the two sets of cues (geometrical shapes & colours) were merged and used as cues to establish A>B>C; results from IAT and self-report measures indicate integrating topographical features as insufficient for function convergence. In Ex3, non-arbitrary "More/Less" and arbitrarily applicable "Happy/Sad" functions were established with single pairs of contextual cues in n=12 participants. Two eight-member networks (A1>B1>C1>D1>E1>F1>G1>H1) and (A2<B2<C2<D2<E2<F2<G2<H2) were established with multiple baseline vs. test IAT measurements for intermediate nodes C1/F1 and C2/F2. Results indicate a transformation of emotional functions that contests prevailing structuralist accounts of transitive inference.

Renewal of Acquired and Then Extinguished Avoidance Behavior in Rats: Two Single-subject Experiments

Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
SADAHIKO NAKAJIMA (Dept. Psychol. Sci., Kwansei Gakuin University), Hiroya Nakagawa (Dept. of Psychol. Sci., Kwansei Gakuin University)

Conditioned and then extinguished responses will reappear by changing background contexts. This renewal effect has been demonstrated in a variety of conditioning preparations in rats. However, to our knowledge, there have been no published studies on renewal of avoidance behavior. Because renewal effect has been considered as a source of relapse of maladaptive behavior, demonstration of renewal of rats avoidance behavior has clinical implications for relapse of pathological avoidance in phobic people. The present study consists of 2 single-subject experiments with Wistar rats in shuttle boxes. The standard signaled avoidance procedure was employed, where a warning tone was followed by an electric shock. In the acquisition phase, rats could escape and avoid the shock by moving to the opposite side of the box: the moving response stopped the tone and the shock in case of escape, while it stopped the tone and cancelled the to-be delivered shock in case of avoidance. During the extinction phase 1, the moving response stopped the tone, but the shock was never delivered. During the extinction phase 2, the tone continued for 20 s whatever the animal did, and no shock was delivered. Changing the background contexts renewed the moving responses extinguished by these procedures.

12. Analysis of Experimental and Extra-Experimental Variables in Stimulus Class Formation
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
ALVARO TORRES CHAVEZ (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Angel Tovar y Romo (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico)
Abstract: In a previous work we simulated the learning of two 3-member stimulus classes when a stimulus pair format with two response options is used. The computational simulation showed that the extra-experimental history of the response options has an effect on class formation, which we interpreted as a semantic bias in the response options; when yes/no responses were used the model showed a better performance than when arbitrary response options were used. For the present work we compare class formation when yes/no and purple/brown responses are used. A total of 12 human participants were divided in two groups; the yes/no group and the purple/brown group. They learned the within-class baseline relations A1B1, B1C1, A2B2, and B2C2 associated with yes and purple, respectively; and the cross-class baseline relations A1B2, B1C2, A2B1, and B2C1 associated with no and brown, respectively. Four out of six participants in the yes/no group showed class formation by responding with more than 85% of correct trials to symmetry and transitivity tests; none of the participants in the purple/brown group showed a performance indicative of class formation. We discuss the interaction between experimental and extra-experimental variables in class formation, like reinforcement contingencies and semantic load in the response options.

Number of Skills Assessment in Autistic Students

Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
CAMILA STRAFORIN OLIVEIRA (Universidade Paulista), João Carmo dos Santos (Universidade Federal de São Carlos)

Number of Skills Assessment in Autistic Students. Camila Straforin Oliveira* (Universidade Paulista, campus Araraquara/SP), Joo dos Santos Carmo (Universidade Federal de So Carlos, SP e Instituto Nacional de Cincia e Tecnologia sobre Comportamento, Cognio e Ensino). This study investigated numerical skills in autistic students through a software tasks which provided the format pattern matching to sample and response built. The participants were four students who attended the 2nd to 5th grade of elementary school. The tasks were: identity numeral-numeral; counting numerals and quantities; numeral-quantity relationship; discrimination of numerals and quantities; comparison sets, comparing quantities, with production quantities and sequence numerals; numerical estimate; solving problems with a digit and different positions of the unknown. The tasks that generated greater accumulation of errors were: numeral-quantity relationship, comparison of sets; numerical estimate. The most common errors were: following command from the previous task to the detriment of the change in the task, not produce sequence of 2 on 2 and 3 on 3; counting inadequate, failing to identify the difference between square and rectangle. Tasks that showed lower latency and higher were, respectively, discrimination of numerals and production sequence from highest to lowest. The data suggest that tasks assist in the evaluation of numerical skills and obtaining baseline from which to practice schedule steps of generating gains mathematical of repertoire. Keywords: Numerical Skills, Autistic, elementary school, behavior analysis., behavior analysis.


Experimental Model for the Study of Substitutive Interactions in the Alcohol Use Disorder: A Methodological Proposal

Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
GISELL ANAID REAL (Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes), Ma. de los Angeles Vacio (Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes), Martha Leticia Salazar (Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes)

The addiction researchhas been approached from different perspectives, one of which is the experimental study of the psychological processes related to the development, maintenance and modification of addictive behavior.The impulsivity and its relationship to substance use has been widely studied. Rachlin (2002) defines self-control as the ability to choose the reinforcer of greater magnitude in the long term over the less immediate reward (i.e., choose to stay sober and good health in the future on the immediate positive consequences related to alcohol). It has been identified that the mediation of a significant person through language can promote the abstinence, the moderateuse or the abuse ofsubstances. The present work aims to develop an experimental model for the study of substitutive interactions and their effect on impulsivity from the Psychological Model of Biological Health (Ribes, 1990) and the research proposal made by Pérez-Almonacid et al. (2012) .It is proposed and A-B-A design. The first phase will aim to identify the subjects responding impulsively, for what will be exposed to solve a task. In the experimental phase, subjects will be exposed to different forms of linguistic mediation by the significant other (confederate). In phase 3, subjects will be exposed to theimpulsivity scenario, in order to see if the confederate'slinguistic mediationeffectprevails. The data will be analyzed from the categories proposed by the Psychological Model of BiologicalHealth. The goals of this study is toidentify linguistic mediationsthatsignificantly reduces impulsive behaviorandthat could be used in future intervention programsthat treatsthe abuse of alcohol and other substances.


Effects of Two Procedures of Contingency Suspension Between Aggregate Product and Cultural Event in a Laboratory Microculture

Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
NATALIA SANTOS MARQUES (Universidade de São Paulo), Marcelo Frota Benvenuti (Universidade de São Paulo)

Behavior analysis has produced an increasing amount of data about cultural practices evolution. This tendency has increased due to concept of metacontingency and some experimental demonstration of cultural selection in the laboratory setting. Cultural selection usually demands a contingent relationship between interlocking behavioral contingencies (IBC), an aggregate product (AP) and a cultural event that provides selection (CE). This study aimed to experimentally investigate in a laboratory microculture the effects of two procedures of contingency suspension between AP and CE in a reversal design. The basic task consisted in selecting lines of a matrix by three participants per experimental trial (cycle). One participant was replaced by a new one each 10 cycles. Individual contingent consequences are presented due to the choice of odd lines. CEs were programed subsequently to sequences of lines formed by the individual choices (aggregate products - AP). In contingent conditions, the CE was presented contingent to AP (formed by lines with different colors) until the culture attended to the performance criterion in 80% of the last twenty cycles. The CE distribution of the last twenty cycles of first Contingent Condition was applied in the Noncontingent Condition, for 40 cycles, subsequently but not contingently to AP. Suspension Condition consisted of no presentation of CE during 40 cycles. In first Contingent Condition, predominated individual choices of odd lines and an interlocking pattern of choices. This indicated cultural and operant selection. The rate of coordinated choices found in previous condition decreased during Noncontingent Condition. However, this pattern continued to occur at a rate above chance (Rate of occurrence = 0.37 / Rate by chance = 0.22) and with an increasing tendency (35% of the first 20 cycles and 40% of the last 20). By suspending the presentation of CE, the practice became even less frequent than in Noncontingent Condition (70% of the first 20 and 50% of the last 20 cycles). In returning to Contingent Condition, the stability criterion was quickly reached. The results indicated operant and cultural selection, cultural transmission, maintenance of a cultural practice by a noncontingent cultural event and also selection and maintenance of a cultural practice by accidental relationship with cultural events


The Response Allocation of Day Care Children as a Function of Social Reinforcer Ratios

Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
PIER-OLIVIER CARON (Université du Québec à Montréal), Jacques Forget (Université du Québec à Montréal), Mélina Rivard (Université du Québec à Montréal)

The generalized matching law (GML) is a quantitative model that describes an organism's response allocation as a function of reinforcer ratios (Baum, 1974). The equation has been used to evaluate the social sensitivity of human, for instances individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (Forget & Rivard, 2010). However, few studies have investigated to which extent the GML accounts for behavior of typical preschool children in natural settings. The current study tests the equation on three 4-5-years-old children in a day care. An experimenter observed their behaviors and their associated social reinforcers according to Caron's scale (2012) adapted from Forget's and Otis'(1984) scale. Sessionss lengths were nine minutes. Each child was observed for 240, 180 and 198 minutes over a period of two months. Results show that the GML accounts for 94%, 73% and 90% of the variance. The sensitivity values varied from 0.67 to 0.88 confirming that children allocated their responses as a function of changes in social reinforcer ratios. The study suggests that GML can be an adequate method to assess the function of social attention and is a step forward the comparison of social sensitivity of typical individuals compared to individual with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

17. Experimental Evidence of the Sequential Choice Model in Humans
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
ÓSCAR GARCÍA-LEAL (University of Guadalajara), Enzo Leandro Rodríguez Macías (University of Guadalajara)
Abstract: In 2008 Shapiro, Siller y Kacelnik propose the Sequential Choice Model (SCM) to account for some experimental data contrary to common evidence. Some papers have been published with evidence supporting the SCM. Specifically, in decision making tasks, using European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) as experimental subjects, they observed that response time in no-choice situations was greater than in binary situations. Basically, the model suggests that the same processes that operate in sequential encounters occur in decision making tasks, in which more than one alternative is presented at the same time. Considering the SCM, some empirical predictions are proposed and suggested. At the same time, previous works found similar behavior in non-human and human animals, when procedures used with human are adapted or modified to make them similar to experimental situations used with non-human animals. In this work, we make an adaptation of the procedure proposed in Shapiro, Siller y Kacelnik to study decision making in humans. The data support partially the SCM predictions. Time of response operates as a good predictor of preference, but we cannot exclude the reference to a comparative mechanism to account for data. Time of response was always greater in binary situations than in no-choice trials. Finally, ratio between time of exposure to a video and delay to the beginning in non-choice trials was an adequate currency to account for ulterior preference.

Novelty Seeking and Risk Sensitivity

Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
ÓSCAR GARCÍA-LEAL (University of Guadalajara), Héctor Octavio Camarena (Universidad de Guadalajara)

Risk sensitivity tasks study preference between at least two alternatives, one of them offering variable consequences, and the others always the same consequence. Usually, variability can be in magnitude or in the delay to the consequence. Experimental evidence shows increase preference for variable alternative with more deprivation time, specifically when the delay to the consequence is the manipulated variable. These results show the effect of the state organism over the preference, and this has been in the background of the most of theoretical explanations of the phenomena. But it is possible that other variables can explain or contribute to explain experimental evidence. In this work, we explore the novelty seeking as theoretical variable to explain risk sensitivity. With this goal, some rats were classified a priori in a novelty seeking test in LR and HR rats. After that, both groups were exposed to a risk sensitivity task manipulating deprivation level. The results show different response patterns considering LR and HR rats, but contrary to expected LR rats show more preference for variable alternative. The data contribute to a more complex map of internal and external variables that account for risk sensitivity.


Sensory Preconditioning in a Feature-Positive Discrimination

Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
GABRIEL VELÁZQUEZ GONZÁLEZ (Universidad de Guadalajara), Maricela Flores (Universidad de Guadalajara), Carlos Flores Aguirre (Centro de Estudios e Investigacion en Comportamien)

The purpose of this experiment was to examine transference of feature using a sensory preconditioning procedure. Several authors have noted that features are specific to a particular CS-US association. Moreover, studies have reported effect of feature on a novel CS only if the new CS has been a target in a separate discrimination procedure. But, if a neutral stimulus becomes CS for its association with a first-order CS and this has been target in a discrimination procedure then the feature could control responses to the second-order CS. This experiment used a between-subjects design. In the first stage, rats were exposed to neutral stimuli. One group of rats (Paired) was exposed to a serial compound stimulus (AB), and a second group (Unpaired) received intermixed presentations of A and B, while the Control group did not have any training. In the second stage, all subjects were trained on a feature-positive discrimination in which B was reinforced only when the feature was present (XB+, B-). A transfer test examined whether the feature (X) modulated responding to A. The results indicate that all three groups learned the discrimination. Nevertheless, differences in the performance of subjects were not observed during the transfer test.


Design of an Experimental Task to Assess Control Resource Style

Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ANA DEL R. CERVANTES- HERRERA (Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes), Francisco J Pedroza-Cabrera (Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes)

The resource control theory is a proposal that explains the functionality of some types of social conduct, both aggressive as pro-social. This proposal parts from an analysis of moral conduct from the perspective evolutionary, where is discussed the functionality of this type of conduct moving away with it of the traditional stance which assumes that behaviors morally adequate part of the internalization of social rules while the issuance of aggression proactive arises from the disconnection with such standards. So the resource control theory understands the moral conduct in terms in remuneration which obtains (resource control). From this perspective there are four styles of obtaining resources: aggressive, pro-social, bistrategic (which involves the use staggered of the first two) and not-controller. The present work presents an experimental task who are looking for locate the strategy employed by different participants to obtain material and social resources. This task is carried out in a video game specially developed where the participant must obtain material and social resources. It presents a series of behavioral options between which the participant must choose in order of achieve a goal specified by the game.


Varied Training in a Competence and its Transference to a Different Level of Functional Aptitude

Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
MAURICIO ROMO (University of Guadalajara), Maria Elena Rodriguez Perez (University of Guadalajara)

Competence is a recurrent concept in higher education. However, it should be noted that reflection on the field of education is hardly based on principles from behavioral science. According to the interbehavioral paradigm, the term competence describes a tendency to execute varied and effective acts based on the history of interactions of an individual in specific circumstances. A competence links aptitude and skills since it demands practice according to an efficacy criterion. In this experiment, it was evaluated the effect of contingencial situation variability while learning a competence on the transference to a more complex competence. Two tasks were designed taking into consideration differential procedures in order to promote competences with different complexity (one being more complex than the other). Participants were exposed to training with the less complex contingencial situation with different degrees of variability throughout trails. Then, it was evaluated the effect of this learning on the acquisition of the more complex task. Preliminary results showed that training in the less complex competence facilitates learning of the more complex one. Data not only would provide empirical evidence on behavioral science but also have a potential value in education specially when designing appropriate learning situations on competence educational models.

22. Sensitivity to Delay of Reinforcement in an Animal Model of ADHD
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
MARICRUZ VARGAS (UNAM), Gaytan Mariana (UNAM), Vladimir Orduna (UNAM)
Abstract: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neuro-behavioral disorder whose core symptoms include inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. There is some evidence suggesting that patients with ADHD are more sensitive to the delay of reinforcement, which might be associated with impulsitivity. The purpose of the present experiment is to analyze the degree of sensitivity to delay in an ADHD animal model, the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) and also to evaluate whether the magnitude of reinforcement affects this sensitivity. A non-independent concurrent-chain procedure was used to evaluate the impact that manipulations in magnitude and delay of reinforcement have on preference. The results were analyzed through the generalized matching law, indicating that the control subjects and the SHR subjects do not differ in sensitivity to delay; this suggests that the SHR might not be a good model for this aspect of ADHD.
23. Sensitivity to Magnitude of Reinforcement in an animal model of ADHD
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
GAYTAN MARIANA (UNAM), Maricruz Vargas (UNAM), Vladimir Orduna (UNAM)
Abstract: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD is a neuro-behavioral disorder whose core symptoms include inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. It is possible that the impulsivity observed in patients with ADHD is due to a diminished sensitivity to the magnitude of reinforcement. The purpose of the current experiment was to evaluate the possible difference in the sensitivity to the magnitude of reinforcement between an animal model of ADHD Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) and two control groups Wistar- Kyoto (WKY) and Wistar (WIS). A non-independent concurrent-chain procedure was used to evaluate the possible impact that manipulation of the magnitude of reinforcement might have on preference. The result of this experiment suggests that sensitivity to the magnitude of reinforcement does not differ among the experimental group SHR and both control groups WIS and WKY.
24. Role of Naming in Equivalence Class Formation
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
HANNE AUGLAND (Oslo and Akershus University College), Camilla Harangen (Oslo and Akershus University College), Erik Arntzen (Oslo and Akershus University College )
Abstract: The role of different naming strategies on responding in accordance with stimulus equivalence has been broadly discussed. In the present experiment, we investigated the effect of intraverbal and common naming upon responding in accordance with stimulus equivalence. Normally developed kindergarten children 5–6 years old were trained to form three 3-member classes, using a many-to-one (MTO) training structure. Dependent on failing to establish the AC relations within 500 trials they were randomly assigned to either common or intraverbal naming. After discrete trial training, they were re-exposed to the conditional training before testing direct trained relations, symmetry and transitivity. Results of the present study indicate that common naming does facilitates responding in accordance with stimulus equivalence.
25. Expanding Classes in Equivalence Class Formation
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
CAMILLA HARANGEN (Oslo and Akershus University College), Hanne Augland (Oslo and Akershus University College), Erik Arntzen (Oslo and Akershus University College )
Abstract: Responding in accordance with stimulus equivalence includes responding correctly to relations without being directly trained. Expanding of three classes with three members to include six members would increase the possible amount of emerged relations. In the present experiment, the participants were typically developing children 5–6 years old. The training structure in the present experiment was many to one (MTO) training structure. The participants were first trained and tested with one stimulus set with three 3-member classes, thereafter trained and tested with another set. Then, the participants experienced a re-training of the two sets before training the first node, C, to the second node, F, to combine the sets. By combining the two trained sets of three classes with three members, the amount of directly trained relations were 15 and the amount of possible emerged relations were 72. At the end there was an overall test where the participants were tested to examine whether they responded according to stimulus equivalence and had formed the three classes with six members.
26. Inter-Trial Intervals and Contextual Conditioning in an ABA Renewal Procedure
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
RODRIGO CARRANZA JASSO (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Javier Nieto Gutierrez (National Automonous University of Mexico), Livia Sánchez-Carasco (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico)
Abstract: During the past decades, a most relevant research topic in the associative learning theory has been the analysis of the factors that propitiate learning about the context where the experimental task takes place. Research in this matter has shown that a central factor related to the learning between events and between context and such events is the inter-trial interval (ITI) length. Particularly, ABA renewal allows to explore the effect of contextual conditioning in the subsequent recovery of the trained response therein. Both experiments (1a & 1b) were designed to determine the effect of using different ITI lengths (50s vs. 1440s) during the acquisition phase over the Context-US association’s strength and the effect of this strength in the subsequent response recovery. We also sought to determine whether a context pre-exposure phase previous to the acquisition phase had any effect on contextual conditioning. When the ABA groups had previous exposure to the contexts used throughout the experiment (exp. 1b), the renewal effect was weakened in the group with 50s ITI due to context-CR during the test phase, while there was no difference among groups that had no previous context exposure (exp. 1a).
27. Demand Elasticity using Increasing and Decreasing FR Schedules, with rats
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
Abstract: The economic concept of demand elasticity has been successfully transposed to the behavioral analysis conceptual and experimental arena, and is becoming an important tool to measure the essential value of goods/reinforcers. Demand elasticity is typically measured in laboratory experiments by gradually increasing the reinforcement schedules (i.e. the physical efforts or time delays before reinforcer release) and by measuring the resulting effects in consumption. As the demand law states inverse variations between “price” (effort, time) and consumption, the same (inverse) relation should be observable when reinforcement schedules are gradually decreasing. To test that, the present experiment exposed four female wistar rats to four subsequent measurements of elasticity in a closed system: (1) increasing FR schedules to earn water; (2) decreasing FR schedules, for water; (3) increasing FR schedule to earn a superfluous good: a 10% sucrose solution; and (4) decreasing FR schedule for sucrose. Results: Consistent with the experimental literature, consumption was more variable in the contingency with sucrose than with water in all cases, confirming the less essential function of the sucrose. Also consistent was the observation that when FR schedules increased for both reinforcers, all subjects increased total responses and received similar or lower number of reinforcers per session. But when FR schedules decreased, total responses per session were stable for most subjects. Subjects chose reduce physical effort and earn a stable number of reinforcers, instead of maintain effort and receive more reinforcers per session. Decreasing costs did not have an inversely similar effect than increasing costs, as predicted by the demand law. These results suggest that behavioral predictions based on the demand law may differ when prices are decreasing instead of increasing.

Acquisition of Taste Aversion Learning is Context-Dependent?

Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
Livia Sánchez-Carasco (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), BRENDA ESPINOSA-ESTEBAN (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Alma Perez-Lopez (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico)

There are some evidence showing that changes in the background contextual cues in which a target cue is learned may influence retrieval of information. This experiment was designed to reproduce results reported by Leon, Callejas-Aguilera and Rosas (2012) that shows context specificity of taste aversion learning in rats. Four groups of rats received a single pairing between saccharin and a LiCl injection in context A, and then were tested either in the same context (group S) or in a different but equally familiar context (group D). Two more groups (PS and PD) were pre-exposed to the context before conditioning, and then treated as the two groups described earlier. Results are analyzed in the framework of contextual learning theories.


How Low Acquisition Reinforcement Rates Affect ABA Instrumental Renewal?

Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
YULTZIN GAONA ADAME (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Alejandra Valadez Vergara (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Eduardo Parra García (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Livia Sánchez-Carasco (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico)

This experiment was designed to evaluate the contribution of low acquisition reinforcement rate on instrumental renewal. Two groups of rats were trained to press one of two response levers in a concurrent schedule. During acquisition phase, all groups were trained in context A, while the reinforcement percentage for one of the levers was 50% for Rich group and 30% for the Poor group. In extinction phase one of the responses were extinguished (50%-lever for Rich group and 30%-lever for Poor group) while the other response was reinforced with an VI 240s schedule in context B. Finally, in test phase all groups were exposed to context A whereas the reinforcement conditions of extinction phase remained. Results showed higher response rates in the Rich group than in the Poor one, suggesting that higher response rates during acquisition phase results in lever-pressing renewal.

30. Individual Consistencies in Behavior in an Ambiguous Situation: An Experimental Proposal
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
ELIA NATALIA FUENTES GONZÁLEZ (University of Guadalajara), Carlos Torres (University of Guadalajara), Nora Rangel (University of Guadalajara, Mexico)
Abstract: An experiment was carried out in order to analyze the personal consistencies in behavior as the outcome of the biography of the person through an ambiguity situation. Interactive styles, defined as individual consistencies, should occur across time (direct replication) and across situations (systematic replication). Eight adults were exposed three times to a code-breaking game (Mastermind) involving on one hand the accuracy of feedback (with a direct replication) and on the other hand the probability of occurrence of feedback (like a systematic replication). The results in the three moments showed reliable profiles in all participants when the permanence time in the situation was correlated with the number of attempts to solve the task, and each of them with the feedback condition presented. The results support the reliability of within-subject consistencies as well as individual differences across time and across situations. Results are discussed in terms of interactive styles.
31. Compound Stimulus Effects on Temporal Control Acquisition
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
MARINA MENEZ DIAZ (UNAM), Sarahi Gallardo (UNAM), Florente López (UNAM)
Abstract: Menez, Gallardo & López (2011; 2012) have reported temporal learning transference from differentially signaled fixed time to fixed interval schedules. In their experiments, animals attained a scalloped response pattern during the very first sessions of the testing phase (fixed interval schedule), even though the discriminative stimulus was different from the previously used in the training phase (fixed time schedule). These results suggest that animals learned time as the best predictor of the reinforcer availability. However, animals should learn something about stimuli. In order to evaluate this assumption, in the present study, two groups of rats experienced a signaled training phase (tone alone-light alone, intermixed). Then one group (Compound stimulus group) experienced a compound stimulus (tone+light) during testing phase while the other group (Absence stimulus group) experienced its absence. Parameters of exponential fittings to quarter life indexes were compared looking for differences in trajectory or velocity of acquisition of temporal control. Results showed that Compound stimulus group attained the scalloped response pattern faster than Absence stimulus group, indicating that time and stimuli were both considered in this temporal task.
32. Relating to Values: Transformation of Values Functions to Arbitrary Stimuli
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
STEPHANIE CALDAS (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Gina Quebedeaux (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Emmie Hebert (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Shelley Greene (University of Louisiana at Lafayette), Michael Bordieri (University of Mississippi), Emily Kennison Sandoz (University of Louisiana at Lafayette)
Abstract: Emerging research from a variety of disciplines supports the psychological benefits of being and living in contact with one’s chosen values, often called valued living. Since values are described as positive aspects of verbal behavior (Hayes, Strosahl, & Wilson, 2011), Relational Frame Theory, which is described as a behavior analytic perspective on verbal events (Hayes, 1994), may offer a useful analysis of valued living and of values themselves. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the transformation of values functions and to determine the relevance of relational responding in valued living. Participants (n = 41) completed a demographic questionnaire and the VLQ-II (Valued Living Questionnaire-II) followed by ten minutes of expressive writing about their “most important values.” Participants then engaged in a computer task modeling relational responding to values stimuli. The computer task involved typing ten words representative of deeply held values, rating each on importance from 1 – 10, and matching these values related words with arbitrary symbols. Participants showed a tendency to approach values related stimuli and avoid neutral or fused stimuli. Consistent with hypotheses, these functions were then transferred to arbitrary stimuli through relational pairing. Implications of these results for further research values-based treatment will be discussed.

Reinforcement of a Competitive Response During Extinction Does Not Affect Instrumental Renewal

Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
EDUARDO PARRA GARCÍA (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Alejandra Valadez Vergara (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Yultzin Gaona Adame (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Livia Sánchez-Carasco (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico)

This experiment was designed to analyze the effect of extinction plus reinforcement of discrete alternative response on instrumental renewal. Two groups of rats were trained to press one of two response levers in a concurrent schedule. During acquisition phase groups were trained in context A, while the reinforcement percentage for one of the levers was 90% and 10% for the other. In extinction phase responses to 90%-lever were extinguished, while responses to the other lever were reinforced under a VI 30s (group 30s) or 240s (group 240s) schedule in context B. Finally, in test phase groups were exposed to context A whereas the reinforcement conditions of extinction phase remained. Results showed lever-pressing renewal in both groups, suggesting that reinforcement of a competitive response during extinction does not affect instrumental renewal.


Renewal of Lever Pressing Depends on Acquisition Rate of Response

Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
ALEJANDRA VALADEZ VERGARA (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Yultzin Gaona Adame (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Eduardo Parra García (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Livia Sánchez-Carasco (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico)

There is evidence that shows history effects (e.g. resurgence, spontaneous recovery) are controlled by previous rates of responding. In order to evaluate this kind of effects in the renewal of an extinguished lever-pressing response, two groups of food-deprived rats were trained to press two levers that delivered food on a variable interval (VI) schedule. During the acquisition phase the reinforcement percentage for one of the levers was 90% and 10% for the other in context A. In extinction phase, one of the responses were extinguished (90%-lever for Rich group and 10%-lever for Poor group) while the other response was reinforced with a VI 240s schedule in context B. Finally in test phase, groups were exposed to context A while the reinforcement conditions of extinction phase remained. Results showed ABA renewal in the Rich group, these results suggest that renewal is controlled by previous rates of responding, as well as other history effects.


The Acquisition of Temporal Control: The Role of Prior Reinforcement Contingencies

Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
SARAHI GALLARDO (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Florente López (Universidad Nacional de México), Marina Menez Diaz (UNAM)

It's been reported that the speed of temporal control acquisition depends on the type of training prior to Fixed-Interval introduction. However, evidence of the factors involved in the reported differences is scarce. In two experiments we evaluated the possible role of reinforcement rate and contingency during training as possibly responsible factors of the observed differences in speed of acquisition during testing on FI schedules. Groups of rats received experience with contingent or non-contingent variable interval reinforcement during training. During testing, a fixed-interval was introduced with time signaled by the reinforcer or by a tone. The prior contingent reinforcement greatly interfered with temporal control acquisition during testing with reinforcement as a signal. The most accelerated acquisition occurred with the tone-initiated interval and with prior non-contingent reinforcement, with the two other combinations producing intermediate speed of acquisition. These results are interpreted in the context of a dual-function of reinforcement in temporal control acquisition.


Establishment and Emergence of Equivalence Relations Between Auditory Stimuli (Musical Sounds) and Arbitrary Visual Stimuli

Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
LUIS CARLOS FONSECA LEON (Center for Behavior Studies and Research, University of Guadalajara), Carlos Javier Flores Aguirre (Universidad de Guadalajara)

This study explores the use of a conditional discrimination procedure on the establishment and emergence of equivalence relations through the use of a matching to sample task that have an auditory sample stimulus, seven musical note related with its ascendent and/or descendent semi-tone, and two arbitrary visual stimuli as comparison stimuli. Ten psychology undergraduates participated in the experiment. The participants were initially divided into two groups, G1 Experimental Group, and G2 Control Group. Each participant of these groups was then randomly assigned to one of two groups G1 Exposure to feedback (correct answer/wrong answer) in the training phase and G2 don't have feedback in the training phase. The preliminary results show that in although is more difficult the establishment and emergence of equivalence relations between musical sounds and arbitrary images is possible that the stimulus equivalence could be achieved for the subjects. The findings could suggest that the use of a conditional discrimination procedure of this kind is effective and highlight the theoretical meaning of equivalence classes.

37. ABA, ABC and AAB renewal in humans
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
DIEGO MARTIN SANCHEZ (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Jovany Salazar Ramirez (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Ximena Salinas Hernández (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Livia Sánchez-Carasco (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico)
Abstract: This experiment was designed to directly compare the strengths of ABA, ABC and AAB renewal in humans. We used a video game designed by Nelson & San Juan (2009) where participants played and learned to suppress their baseline response (mouse clicking) when a colored sensor (i.e., CS) predicted an attack (i.e., US). Contexts (A, B, & C) were provided by fictitious galaxies where the game play took place. The acquisition phase involved 12 trials where the CS was paired with the US in Context A for all groups. The groups were exposed to the CS alone during the extinction phase, for the groups AAB and AAA extinction was carried out in context A, whereas groups ABA and ABC were extinguished in context B. Testing was done in context A for the groups ABA and AAA, whereas group AAB was tested in context B; lastly, the ABC group was tested in Context C. Results are interpreted and discussed in the framework of contextual learning theories.

Effects of Acute Caffeine Dosage on Fixed-Ratio Rate of Responding on Goldfish

Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
ANITA LI (Florida Institute of Technology), Joshua K. Pritchard (Florida Institute of Technology), Ryan Lee O'Donnell (Florida Institute of Technology)

Caffeine is a common drug that is consumed by humans and nonhumans; humans consume it after processing, and non-humans ingest as a byproduct of horticulture. As such, its effects are readily available for study without adversely affecting an organism through long-term health sequelae or permanent behavior change. Behavioral pharmacology allows researchers to examine the effects of drugs on behavior. Dews (1955) pioneered the methodology for these types of examinations in behavioral pharmacology by linking the study of drug effects to operant techniques. The typical subjects for these drug studies include rats, pigeons, and humans; as such, there have been little to no research to date on the study of drug effects on goldfish using operant methodology. This poster will provide an overview of caffeine as a drug, techniques used in behavioral pharmacology, and the effects of caffeine on goldfish responding on a fixed-ratio schedule. Currently, caffeine appears to affect goldfish differently than in mammalian species.


The Gold Fish See: An Examination Into Primary Reinforcers for Carassius Auratus

Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
NICOLE HIGGINS (Florida Institute of Technology), Whitney Bowman (Florida Institute of Technology), Brendan J. Boehr (Florida Institute of Technology), Joshua K. Pritchard (Florida Institute of Technology)

This study investigates the properties of bubbles as a unconditioned reinforcer for the common goldfish, Carassius auratus. Previously trained responses, hoop swimming to receive food, are then placed in a contingency in which bubbles are delivered on fixed and variable ratios to determine While visual stimuli have been demonstrated as conditioned reinforcers for many marine animals, this experiment investigates the primary reinforcing qualities of bubbles through a component analysis to determine whether the bubbles do so through visual or tactile modalities Discussion of the results and the implication of using two different reinforcers for a response will be discussed regarding potential bridge studies into areas such as conditioned motivating operations and concurrent operant arrangements.


Effects of Varying the Spatial Position of the Signaling and Water on the Differential Adjustment

Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
FELIPE PATRÓN (Universidad de Guadalajara)

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of varying the signaling and the spatial location (order and place of occurrence) of no contingent stimuli events over differential adjustment. Nine rats were exposed to three experimental conditions that were characterized by the manipulation of the spatial coordinates in which water (contextualizing stimulus) was delivered using a Fixed Time 20s schedule. In Phase 1 water was delivered only in a spatial location. In Phase 2 the water was delivered in three different spatial locations in sequential order, while in Phase 3 was delivered in random order. Three groups were differentiated depending on the signaling conditions (contextualized stimulus): (1) without signaling, (2) variable spatial contiguity between signal and water, (3) spatial contiguity between signal and water. The results suggest that the differential adjustment is affected by: (a) the consistency of the occurrence of stimuli in fixed spatial coordinates through time; (b) the conjoint occurrence of signal and water delivery location; and (c) the spatial contiguity between these stimuli. Several measurement units to identify the differential adjustment related to contextual function were proposed.

41. Behavioural Critical Flicker Fusion Frequency in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
KAZUCHIKA MANABE (Nihon University), Robert Dooling (University of Maryland), Shinichi Takaku (Nihon-University)
Abstract: Zebrafish are becoming popular vertebrate animal models for many biomedical investigations including vision research. Behavioural Critical Flicker Fusion Frequency (CFF) is a basic measure of visual function that has yet to be determined for zebrafish. Here, we have developed two procedures for measuring the behavioural CFF in zebrafish. The first is Go / No Go task and the other one is Go / Go task. In both tasks, a trial was initiated when fish passed through an observing gate. In the flickering trial in the Go / No Go task, the fish was reinforced by an automated food delivery system only when it entered into the flickering compartment. If fish entered into non-flickering compartment during a non-flickering trial, a timeout was implemented. In the Go / Go task, there were both flickering and no-flickering gates. The fish was reinforced when it passed through the flickering gate. In both procedures, flickering frequency was increased based on fish’s performance. Zebrafish successfully learned both tasks. The training and testing times for the Go / Go task were shorter than for the Go / No Go task. On the other hand, the Go / No Go task has an advantage allowing a signal detection analysis.

The Differential Outcomes Effect in Humans Using a Many-To-One Matching-To-Sample Task and Sensory Outcomes

Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
Carlos Flores (Universidad de Guadalajara), REBECA MATEOS MORFÍN (Universidad de Guadalajara)

The study was conducted to extend the generality of differential outcomes effect using different sensory dimension as outcomes (visual and auditory) and a many-to-one matching-to-sample task. The group with differential outcomes showed a higher rate of acquisition and higher levels of accuracy than the group with nondifferential outcomes. The results demonstrated the differential outcomes effect when we provided sensory outcomes for correct choices rather than the usual outcomes than have hedonic values.


Differences in Delay Discounting and Probability Discounting Rates With Two Types of Rewards in Drug Users

Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
DIANA MEJÍA CRUZ (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Javier Nieto Gutierrez (National Automonous University of Mexico), Silvia Morales (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México ), Raul Avila (National University of Mexico)

People with drug addiction show steeper delay discounting and probability discounting of drug and money than people who don't use drugs. Even for drug-users, drugs of abuse delayed in time are discounted more steeply than money delayed in time in a hypothetical choice task. The aim of this study was to examine whether steeply discounting of drugs relative to money might be related to the function of problematic level with drugs. Twenty adults who smoked marihuana and cocaine participated, with an age range of 18-35 years old from a lower middle socioeconomic status, all in pre contemplation stage of change, through a factorial design of two by two (type of substance per use frequency). The results showed that the discount function is more pronounced in cocaine users with severe dependence, followed by the same substance abusers, dependent on marijuana and ultimately for marijuana abusers. There were also differences between temporal curves off to money and drugs, with a steeper discounting for drugs than money. It seems that the substance can be explained and predicted by the model of temporal discounting and this measure could be a metric of impulsivity.


Identification of Intraindividual Consistencies in a Persistence of Achievement Contingency

Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
ANGELICA NUÑO FRAGOSO (University of Guadalajara), Maria Elena Rodriguez Perez (Universidad de Guadalajara), Nora Rangel (University of Guadalajara, Mexico)

This work is framed in the interbehavioral approach held by Ribes and collaborators of interactive styles as an alternative to the study of personality. One of the contingencial situations proposed by these authors to analyze personality is persistence of achievement which has been defined as maintenance of performance in a signaled situation. In this ongoing experiment, a progressive ratio schedule task was used to evaluate the effect of the ratio requirement increase in the maintenance of performance. The breaking point (when participants decline responding) was used as a measure of persistence. As proposed in this line of research, participants were exposed to the task in two different moments with a time lapse of a month between them and it was not established an answer requirement (open condition). A close condition was designed in which participants were explicitly required to win the maximum of possible points. This close condition was used as an experimental control phase. Therefore, an experimental design considered two groups: one exposed to an open close condition sequence in both sessions and another exposed to the close condition at the end of session two. Data will be plotted to evaluate intraindividual consistencies across time.


Differential Outcomes in a Feature Ambiguous Discrimination Task

Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
MARICELA FLORES (University of Guadalajara), Gabriel Velazquez (Universidad de Guadalajara), Carlos Flores (Universidad de Guadalajara)

The aim of the present study was to explore the differential outcomes effect in a feature ambiguous discrimination task employing same outcomes for the non-differential group. In a previous study it was reported that using mixed outcomes for the non-differential group might have caused a delay in learning the task, deriving in higher indexes for the differential outcomes group. In the present study, for the Differential Outcomes Group each lever press during A in X A type trials produced a drop of sucrose solution and during B in B type trials, each lever press produced a 45mg pellet. Lever presses during X B and A type trials were not followed by a consequence. For the Same Outcomes Group, the arrangement was the same except that during A in X A type trials and during B in B type trials, each lever press was followed by a drop of sucrose solution. Results were not consistent with the ones reported by Nakajima and Kobayashi (2000), in which subjects from the differential outcomes group had higher correct responses compared to subjects from the non-differential outcomes group (or mixed outcomes group). Sistematic research could help identify the conditions to facilitate learning in this type of discrimination task.


Effects of Exposing Students to Technical Terminology and Ordinary Language to Explain Psychological Phenomena

Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
MARÍA ANTONIA PADILLA VARGAS (University of Guadalajara), Alejandra Isabel Rodríguez Núñez (University of Guadalajara)

The aim of the present study was to identify the effects of exposing undergraduate students to technical terminology and ordinary language in order to explain psychological phenomena. Forty-five psychology students participated, distributed according to the semester they belonged to (15 from the first semester, 15 from intermediate semesters and 15 from last semesters). Participants from each grade level were assigned randomly to one of three sub-groups: G1, Technical Language Explanations; G2, Ordinary Language Explanations, and G3, Control group, no explanations. During the experimental procedure: 1) Participants were exposed to two psychological phenomena descriptions, 2) then, they were exposed to explanations about the phenomena (in terms according to the group they were assigned to), 3) participants had to write a paraphrase and 4) chose, from four different options, the best description to each phenomenon. Preliminary data suggest that students in the first and last semesters tend to use ordinary language to explain psychological phenomena, whereas most intermediate semester students tend to use technical language. The importance for Psychology students to master the technical language of their discipline is discussed.

47. Effects of Task Segmentation on Procrastination
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
GERARDO TORRES (University of Guadalajara ), María Antonia Padilla Vargas (University of Guadalajara), Cristiano Dos Santos (University of Guadalajara)
Abstract: Procrastination is the choice of a larger, more delayed response cost over a smaller, more immediate response cost. With humans, experimental studies suggest that the response cost of a task is not critical, whereas field studies suggest that task segmentation is related to the phenomenon. We designed two experiments to examine the effects of task segmentation in procrastination. In the first, twelve undergraduate students were exposed to three phases: two with a task consisting of 100 exercises and one with a task consisting of 200 exercises. In each exercise, participants had to calculate the proportion of green and blue dots displayed on a computer screen and, during execution of the task, they had access to distractors. Experiment 2 was similar to Experiment 1 except that each task was segmented into five parts with an equal number of exercises. In the first experiment, five participants procrastinated for a total of 36 minutes (defined as the engagement in entertainment activities), while eight participants procrastinated for a total of 123 minutes in the second experiment. These results suggest that the segmentation of the task brought about more procrastination. Discussion focuses in pre-ratio pausing: the control of behavior due to the nearest response cost.

Evidence Against Anticipatory Hunger

Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
VARSOVIA HERNANDEZ ESLAVA (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Carlos A. Bruner (National University of Mexico)

If a constant-duration feeding opportunity is accompanied by a signal that precedes a long period without food, rats may eat more than when a different signal precedes a short period of abstinence. This effect has been called anticipatory hunger but previous research has failed to reproduce it reliably, possibly due to non-essential procedural complications. For this study, the procedure was stripped to its bare minimal operations to ascertain its existence. Three rats remained 24/7 in their respective chambers. For all rats after 3-hours of food deprivation, a 1.5-hour feeding period was allowed. Co-terminal with the feeding period, either one of two signals was presented. One signal preceded a 10-hour period of abstinence and the other a 3-hour period. After either period of abstinence free-feeding was allowed until the following day, when the procedure was repeated. The experiment lasted 20 cycles. The three rats ate more or less the same quantity of food during the daily feeding periods, regardless of the stimuli. These results add to other failed attempts to reproduce anticipatory hunger which as a set questions the existence of the phenomenon.

49. Behavior Under Non-verbal Transitive-inference Procedures: Transitivity Without Awareness, Value Transfer, or Stimulus Control?
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
ANN GALIZIO (College of Charleston), Adam H. Doughty (College of Charleston), Dean C. Williams (University of Kansas), Kathryn Saunders (University of Kansas), Alyssa L. Kresselman (College of Charleston)
Abstract: Transitive inference refers to choice interpreted through the property of transitivity and, traditionally, is studied with humans and verbal procedures. Assessments of behavior under non-verbal transitive-inference procedures have increased, with no consensus regarding the most effective interpretation of such behavior. We present four studies with adults to examine three interpretations: transitivity without awareness, value transfer, and stimulus control. In Study 1, adults with intellectual disabilities who failed verbal transitive-inference procedures were exposed to baseline discriminations (A+B-, B+C-, C+D-, D+E-) before receiving AE and BD probes. Consistent with each interpretation, participants reliably chose A and B over E and D, respectively. In Study 2, adults with intellectual disabilities were exposed to baseline discriminations involving A+B-, B+C-, C+D-, E+F-, F+G-, and G+H- (i.e., DE was omitted, preventing transitive relations among all stimuli). Consistent with value transfer and stimulus control, participants reliably selected, in probe trials, A and B over H and G, respectively. In Study 3, similar results occurred with college students. In Study 4, college students were exposed to baseline discriminations involving A+B-, B+C-, C+D-, D+E-, D+F-, D+G-, D+H-, and D+I- before receiving BD probes. Across participants, there was no reliable selection of B or D. Inconsistent with value transfer, these results provide preliminary support for an approach emphasizing select and reject stimulus-control relations.
50. Trace Conditioning in a Neural-Network Model
Area: EAB; Domain: Theory
EMETH DELGADO PÉREZ (Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones en Comportami), José Enrique Burgos Triano (Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones en Comportamiento)
Abstract: The aim of this work was to simulate Pavlovian trace conditioning with a strongly bottom-up neural-network model that takes into account the roles of hippocampal and dopaminergic systems in conditioning. In trace conditioning, the conditioned stimulus (CS) offset occurs before the unconditioned stimulus (US) onset. The interval between CS offset and US onset is known as “trace interval” and increasing it has been shown to reduce conditioned responding. A simulation was run according to an experimental design with 2 control y 2 experimental conditions. Each condition had a training and a testing phase. Four neural networks described by that model were used. All networks had the same architecture: two input units connected to both units of a first hidden layer connected to a both units of a second hidden layer connected to one output unit. The activation of one input unit simulated the CS. The activation of the other input unit simulated a context that filled the trace interval. Results were consistent with the evidence: a short trace interval resulted in stronger conditioning than a long trace interval. The model predicts that this effect depends critically on the trace interval being filled by the context.
51. Context Specificity of Trace Conditioning in a Neural-Network Model
Area: EAB; Domain: Theory
EMETH DELGADO PÉREZ (Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones en Comportamiento (Universidad de Guadalajara)), José Enrique Burgos Triano (Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones en Comportamiento (Universidad de Guadalajara))
Abstract: The aim of this work was to simulate the context specificity of Pavlovian trace conditioning with a strongly bottom-up neural-network model that takes into account the roles of hippocampal and dopaminergic systems in conditioning. In trace conditioning, the conditioned stimulus (CS) offset occurs before the unconditioned stimulus (US) onset. The interval between CS offset and US onset is known as “trace interval.” The evidence shows that trace conditioning is context specific. To simulate this, five neural networks described by that model were used, all with the same architecture: three input units connected to both units of a first hidden layer connected to a both units of a second hidden layer connected to one output unit. The activation of one input unit simulated the CS. The activation of the other two inputs units simulated two contexts that could fill the trace interval. Some networks were trained in a context and tested in another. All initial connection weights were nearly minimal, to simulate experimentally naive subjects. All activation and learning free parameters were the same as in previous simulations. The model predicts trace conditioning to be context specific, but much more strongly than what the evidence shows.

Training in Language Reactive Modes and Its Effect on the Active Write Mode

Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
ENRIQUE ZEPETA GARCIA (University of Veracruz ), Agustin Daniel Gomez Fuentes (Universidad Veracruzana), Josue Antonio Camacho Candia (Universidad Veracruzana), Sarai Arias Pérez (Universidad Veracruzana), Minerva Pérez Juárez (Universidad Veracruzana)

The language training effect in the reactive modes was evaluated on three different conditions: observing, observing-listening and observing-listening-reading on writing active mode, on a second order matching-to-sample task. This effect has been called habilitation. Twelve 4th graders of both sexes aged 9 to 11 experimentally naíve, participated in the experiment. It was used a design with a pretest, a training phase and a habilitation posttest. The results showed that the effect of habilitation was higher in writing mode when the training condition was observing-listening, this effect was lower in observing-listening-reading, and small in the observing mode when is used alone. The results suggested that the habilitation effect is greater when the three reactive modes are trained simultaneously and was included the complementary active mode. The analysis of the habilitation as a type of learning from Ribes and Lopez (1905) proposal is an alternative approach to Skinner (1957), Sidman (1994) and Hayes and Hayes (1992) among others, who have studied the verbal behavior based on morphological characteristics or from the conditions that enable its emergence. The study of this problem is important theoretically and methodologically and its applications can be extended various fields, especially education.

53. Strategic Concerns in Social Traps: An Experimental Analysis
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
LUIS FERNANDO GONZÁLEZ-BELTRÁN (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México), Carlos Santoyo Velasco (Facultad de Psicología UNAM)
Abstract: In social traps individuals choose between cooperation and defection: the individual is tempted with an immediate benefit that produces a cost shared by all. If all succumb to the temptation, the outcome is a collective disaster. The present experiment examines this conflict, comparing three general hypotheses to explain the behavior of individuals: a) players will behave “selfishly”; b) individuals will seek to be reciprocal; and c) participants come to strategic interactions with a propensity to cooperate, respond to their partners by maintaining or increasing cooperation. A computer analog was devised to simulate conditions that produce social traps. Undergraduates played a four-player resource dilemma game against three dummy players programmed to play more or less cooperative, in four experimental conditions (80, 60, 40 and 20%). The minimum level of renewal was set at 16, which represents 40% of the total pool of 40 points. A significant effect of group decision was found, individual consumption correlates inversely with the virtual consumption. The findings suggest that the effect depend on the particular sequence of experimental phases. The results support the strategic cooperation explanation. Reasons for the observed differences and implications for research on social dilemmas, as in studies of self-control, are discussed.

A Happy Superiority in IRAP Tasks

Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
RENATO BORTOLOTI (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos), Julio C. De Rose (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos)

The current study investigated if the valence of faces expressing emotions has differential impact on latencies registered by the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP). On each IRAP trial, one sample- either the word "happy" or "angry", one target- either a happy or an angry face, and two response options- V (for true) and F (for false)- were displayed on a computer screen. In consistent blocks, trials presenting the word "happy" and a happy face, and trials that presented the word "angry" and an angry face as target demanded the choice of the option V (true). In the inconsistent blocks, the choice of the option F (false) was required for the same display. Participants yielded a positive IRAP effect: They were faster in consistent blocks. Moreover, the IRAP effect for trials involving "happy" and a happy picture was four times larger than the IRAP effect for trials involving "angry" and an angry face. A possible whole of the valence of emotional stimuli on the semantic relatedness between words and pictures is discussed.


Effect of Definitional and Constative Texts on Reading Comprehension

Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CECILIA MAGDALENA MOLINA LPEZ (University of Veracruz ), María Enriqueta Sánchez Hernández (Universidad Veracruzana), Agustin Daniel Gomez Fuentes (Universidad Veracruzana), Enrique Zepeta Garcia (University of Veracruz )

The purpose of present research was evaluated the effect of the type of text in reading comprehension. This research is based on behavior theory, proposal for Ribes and Lopez (1985). Two types of text were used: a) the definitional text, which refers to the conventional properties of the objects, and b) the constative text, which describe the situation in which the reader interacts with the text. Six experimentally naïve students participated, both sexes, between eight and nine years old from a public elementary school. It was used a replication inter subjects design with a pretest, a training phase, a transference test and a posttest. The participants were training in reading comprehension using the five functional levels of the taxonomy of behavior theory. The correct responses of the Participants received feedback. The results suggest that students who read constative text get percentages of correct responses higher than those who read definitional texts. These results suggested than characteristic of the type of text were an important factor in the acquisition level achieved.


Effect of Three Learning Strategies on Different Aptitude Levels

Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CECILIA MAGDALENA MOLINA LPEZ (University of Veracruz ), José Antonio Cruz Gómez (Universidad Veracruzana), Carlos Ibáñez-Bernal (Universidad Veracruzana), Enrique Zepeta Garcia (University of Veracruz )

The purpose of the research was evaluate the effect of three learning strategies -underline, look up words in the dictionary and write notes- based on the concept of competence. It was used an experimental design with inter and intra subject groups with a pretest, a training phase and a posttest. In each test it was used a adjustment criteria to evaluate intrasituational and extrasituational aptitude levels. Twenty children experimentally naïve participated, both sexes, between ten and twelve years old from a public school from the city of Xalapa Veracruz. The results showed positive differences on the experimental group. In the posttest, it was observed higher percentages of correct responses in the differentially and precision aptitude levels than in the effectiveness level. The underline and take notes strategies showed higher percentages of performance that strategy to look up words in the dictionary. The results are discussed in the context of functional levels of the taxonomy proposed by Ribes and Lopez (1985).


Overweight and Obesity in Children: Application of the Matching Law

Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ALEJANDRA CAVITA (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Anayeli Hernández (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Ariel Vite Sierra (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico)

The objective of the research was to develop self-control in children with overweight and obesity based on the matching law, through a choice paradigm, by manipulating the dimensions of reinforcer (Neef et al., 2001) such as reinforcer rate (R), reinforcer quality (Q), reinforcer immediacy (I), and effort (E), on the students' choices between two concurrent sets of additions that were equal on two dimensions but competed on two other dimensions. Participated 14 children aged 8 to 10 years old. The sample was divided into two groups third and fifth grade. The results indicate that the children in the third and fifth grade had a change in their preferences for healthy unhealthy foods and changes in dimensions (immediacy, effort or schedule of reinforcement). In conclusion, children of third and fifth grade with overweight and obesity were sensitive to the model of self-control based on matching law.


Motivational and Instructional Variables on Verbal and Non-Verbal Behavior in a Time Based Task

Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
THAIS FERRO NOGARA (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso ), Marcelo Frota Benvenuti (Universidade de São Paulo)

Research in behavior analysis has produced data showing the possibility of selection of behavior from a temporal relationship with environmental changes. Coincidences between actions and noncontingent events can also help to provide a contingency-based description to a similar effect, known as illusion of control. The objective of the present study was to investigate the motivational and instructional variables on behavior acquired and maintained by accidental relationship with reinforcement and on estimatives of control. Participants engaged in a computer task in which points were presented according to a multiple schedule with variable time (non-contingent) and extinction components (mult VT 8s EXT). In Experiment 1, two experimental conditions differed: in the first, participants received points during experimental sessions and these points were not exchangeable for nothing; in the second, points obtained in experimental sessions where exchangeable for tickets for photocopies at the end of the session. In Experiment 2 points were exchangeable for photocopies for all participants, but an incorrect instruction was introduced in a multiple baseline design. This instruction suggested that it was necessary to respond to get points. The results showed that points exchangeable for photocopies produced a higher frequency of responses, but it was not enough for consistent occurrence of accidental selection, although participants that responded at higher rates presented higher estimatives of control. Superstitious behavior was generated by incorrect instruction in Experiment 2. It has been shown that motivational and social variables can interact with the noncontingent presentation of reinforcers and facilitate both the occurrence of superstitious behavior as the overestimation of control by participants.

59. Learned Helplessness Do not Depend of the Estrous Cycle in Female Rats
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
TATIANY PORTO (Universidade de São Paulo), Maria Helena Hunziker ( University of Sao Paulo, Brazil)
Abstract: Hormonal changes during the estrous cycle influence some behaviors of female rats (e.g; startle response when shocks are administered to tail and conditioned avoidance). The goal of this experiment was to study whether the cycle's phase during which the rat is exposed to uncontrollable aversive stimuli influences the occurrence of learned helplessness. Ten experimentally-naive Wistar female rats were distributed in two groups selected by vaginal cytology as being in estrus or diestrus phases. Each rat was exposed to 60 uncontrollable and unpredictable shocks of 1mA and 10 s each, scheduled according to a variable-time (VT) 60s. Twenty-four hours later, the rats were exposed to 60, 1mA shocks, with a maximum duration of 10 s, which were turned off immediately if the animal jumped from one compartment to the other of the experimental box (escape response). The different phases in the cycle did not influence the occurrence of learned helplessness differentially: the rats in both groups had equally high escape latencies throughout the test (i.e., learned helplessness). These results do not replicate those already published. Different behavioral processes, described as learned helplessness, might be differentially sensitive to experimental manipulations in relation to the estrous cycle.
60. Response Acquisition with Conditioned Reinforcement: Effects of Stimulus-food Frequency Pairings
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
KARINA BERMUDEZ (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Carlos A. Bruner (National University of Mexico)
Abstract: The establishment of a new response with conditioned reinforcement (Sr) may be studied using a procedure which involves two different parameters. One is the unconditional pairing of Sr with primary food reinforcement (SR), and the other is the delivery of Sr as the only consequence of responding. In a previous study we demonstrated the acquisition of lever-pressing by rats with intermittent delayed Sr. A constant random-time (RT) 60 s schedule was used for the Sr-SR pairings. A tandem random-interval 7.5 s fixed-time of either 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 or 32 s scheduled Sr presentation after responding. Three rats each were assigned to the different FT delays. Although at low rates, responding followed the familiar decreasing delay-of-reinforcement gradient. The current experiment attempted to replicate these results with higher rates of responding. For this, we used a shorter, 15 s RT schedule of Sr-SR pairings while the R-Sr contingency remained the same as in our previous experiment. While the delay-of-Sr gradient was replicated, response rates were even lower than in the previous experiment. Direct observation of the rats suggested that the frequent SR deliveries reinforced tray-proximity, incompatible with lever pressing. The latter observation points at a limit to the usefulness of this procedure to study Sr.
61. Extension of Conditional Control in Preschoolers
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
MARIANA MICCIONE (Federal University of Pará/Brazil), Grauben Assis (Federal University of Pará/Brazil), João Carmo dos Santos (Federal University of São Carlos/Brazil)
Abstract: The paradigm of ordinal relations subsidizes interpretation and analysis of behavioral repertoires involved in the acquisition of ordinal academic behaviors. The present study aimed to investigate the extension of conditional control in auditory-visual modality to six new numerosity stimuli over ordinal relations. Three children aged 4 to 5 years with experimental history on simple and conditional discrimination were exposed to computerized procedure for overlapping pairs of stimuli. On computer screen there was choice area, located on bottom, where stimuli where presented randomly in two of fourteen cells; and the building area, on top, where the sequence was constructed. In the presence of Loud 1 the participant should select them in ascending order; In the presence of Loud 2, in descending order. Experiment was composed by pretest, training, probes, equivalence and transitivity tests phases. Pretests results showed that all participants had already the repertoire programmed for teaching and testing. Results proves the extension of conditional control in auditory-visual modality and ensures the principle that the effects of a variable applied to stimulus of same class extends to other members of the same class.
62. Effect of Novelty in a Contingencial Arrangement of Curiosity
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
MARÍA ESTHER VALLE MORFÍN (Universidad de Guadalajara), María Elena Rodríguez Peréz (Universidad de Guadalajara)
Abstract: Empirical studies have shown a relationship between novelty and curiosity. According to the interbehavioral paradigm, curiosity is understood as an interactive style. Ribes (1990) proposed the notion of "interactive style" instead of personality, to highlight the modal and particular characteristics of behavior that allow the identification of individuality and personal differences through intraindividual consistencies. Curiosity is defined as choosing variable contingencies instead of constant contingencies or as responsiveness to unprescribed contingencies. In the present experiment, it was evaluated the effect of novelty in a contingencial arrangement of curiosity. Two equivalent tasks were designed. In the first task, participants were presented with pairs of figures and they had to choose between a familiar and a novel figure. In the second task, they were presented with a virtual house in which they could explore rooms and manipulate certain objects. Exploration time was set in fixed regular intervals. In each trial, participants were returned to the house entrance and the numbers of different exploration routes were considered a measure of curiosity. The two tasks were carried out with one month interval between them in order to evaluate intraindividual consistency across time. Data collection is still in progress.
63. Reinforcer Availability and Eating Behavior in Rats
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
IRERI BRAVO MENDEZ, Emmanuel Flores Michel (Universidad de Guadalajara), Felipe Diaz (Universidad de Guadalajara)
Abstract: The availability of a food reinforcer modulates intake during access to food periods that are preceding by a food deprivation period. In this experiment the effect of varying both, food deprivation and access to the reinforcer in rats, was investigated. Nine rats were exposed to 15 days of free food and water condition then were food deprived using 300 and 100 minutes of restriction combined with 10, 30 o 100 minutes of access to food reinforcement. Food intake was proportional to the food availability period. Latency for food intake was short regardless of the food deprivation period and food consumption was present during all food access intervals programed. After the deprivations all rats were re-exposed to free food and water. It was found that food intake decreased in the groups that had been exposed to 30 and 100 minutes of food access compared to the group with 10 minutes access. It is concluded that both, food availability and food deprivation periods, modulate the properties of food as a reinforcer. CONACyT 131896
64. Effects of a Interpersed Training Procedure for the Establishment of the Contextual Control Over Recombined Conditional Relations
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
TATIANE CARVALHO CASTRO (Federal University of Sao Carlos), Mateus G. N. dos Santos Gonçalves Nogueira (UFSCar), Kaíque Porto (UFSCar), A. Celso Goyos (Federal University of San Carlos)
Abstract: Studies about the effects of contextual control over equivalence classes have been conducted since the 1980s and a relevant question in this area, is whether changes in contextual variables could result in changes in classes originally formed under different contextual variables. This research investigated the effects of a interpersed training procedure for the establishment of the contextual control over recombined conditional relations. The procedure consisted of six phases. In Phase1 was conducted a conditional discrimination training interspersing the colors of the background. In Phase 2, we carried out the test of relations trained in Phase1. In Phase 3, tests were conducted in which trials were included with a green background. Phase 4 included the symetry relations. Phase 5 presented the same relations that were tested in Step 4, however the configuration of stimulus presentation on the computer screen was different. Finally, in Step 6, a test aimed to verify the abstraction of responding under contextual control, with new stimulus and background colors. The results suggest that the contextual control was established for some of the participants. Investigations about the baseline relations training, specifically the interspersed training , for establishing the contextual control is required to produce more robust results.
65. Parametric Food Deprivation in Rats
Area: EAB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
FELIPE DIAZ (Universidad de Guadalajara)
Abstract: The effect of access duration and food deprivation period was explored in this study using 36 rats that were exposed to one of three manipulations. The first manipulation consisted in food deprivation during 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours. Six rats were exposed to these values in ascending order and other six in descending order. For the next condition 8, 12 and 16 hours of food deprivation were used as before. In the next manipulation 20, 21, 22 o 23 hours of food deprivation were used to expose six rats in ascending order and other six in descending order. Each one of the previous conditions described was available during 15 days. Before the manipulations all the rats were exposed to free food and water access during 15 days. Regardless the order of exposure to deprivations after the last deprivation period the free condition of food and water was repeated. A positive correlation was found between food and water consumption irrespective to deprivation and order of exposure. Food intake increased as well as food deprivation regardless the order of exposure. It is concluded that both variables modulate the power function of food as a reinforcer. CONACyT 131896



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