|Further Examination of the Use of Motivating Operations when Working with Persons with Autism and Developmental Disabilities
|Monday, May 26, 2008
|3:30 PM–4:50 PM
|Area: AUT/DDA; Domain: Applied Research
|Chair: Mark O'Reilly (University of Texas, Austin)
|CE Instructor: Mark O'Reilly, Ph.D.
In this symposium we present recent research regarding use of motivating operations when working with persons with autism and developmental disabilities. The first presentation summarizes the effects of motivating operations on the leisure activity of playing games with peers. Results show that prior access to reinforcers for challenging behavior reduced that challenging behavior during the leisure activity for three participants. The second presentation examines the effects of pre-session access to reinforcers for challenging behavior on such behavior during regular classroom activities. The third presentation summarizes the effects of prior access to reinforcers on the acquisition and generalization of mands across a variety of classroom settings. The final presentation explores methods for determining indicators of satiation with tangible items.
|An Examination of the Behavior-altering Effect of the Motivating Operation during Leisure Activities.
|JEFFREY MICHAEL CHAN (University of Texas, Austin), Mark O'Reilly (University of Texas, Austin), Mandy J. Rispoli (University of Texas, Austin), Russell Lang (University of Texas, Austin), Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Texas, Austin)
|Abstract: We examined the behavior-altering effect of the motivating operation on challenging behavior during leisure activities for three individuals with severe disabilities. Functional analyses indicated that challenging behavior was maintained by positive reinforcement in the form of attention or tangible items for all participants. During leisure sessions, each participant played preferred games with two individuals without disabilities. The discriminative stimuli for challenging behavior were present during leisure sessions but challenging behavior was never reinforced. Immediately prior to leisure sessions, the participants received either access to the reinforcers that maintained challenging behavior or no access. Access versus no access to reinforcers for challenging behavior prior to leisure sessions was alternated in a multielement design. Results demonstrated higher levels of challenging behavior during leisure sessions when the participants did not have access to the reinforcers prior to the sessions. Little challenging behavior occurred during leisure sessions when the participants had prior access to the reinforcers. Arguments for further examining the behavior-altering effects of the motivating operation in future applied research are presented.
|Influences of Motivational Operations on Challenging Behaviors in the Classroom.
|MANDY J. RISPOLI (University of Texas, Austin), Mark O'Reilly (University of Texas, Austin), Wendy A. Machalicek (University of Texas, Austin), Russell Lang (University of Texas, Austin)
|Abstract: Antecedent interventions for challenging behavior have received attention in recent literature. This study extended the literature on antecedent interventions in applied settings by examining the influences of motivational operations on the challenging behaviors of three participants with autism spectrum disorders in their classroom. Functional analyses were conducted with each participant and demonstrated that challenging behavior was maintained by access to positive reinforcement in the form of preferred toys. In a multielement design, students participated in one of two pre-session conditions: access to preferred tangible or no access to preferred tangible. Immediately following the pre-session condition, the participant was observed during group instruction in the classroom. Data were collected on percent of intervals engaged in challenging behavior during group instruction. Results are presented and implications for the inclusion of motivating operations in applied antecedent interventions for students with autism are discussed.
|A Systematic Analysis of the Influence of Motivating Operations on the Acquisition, Maintenance and Generalization of Mands.
|TONYA NICHOLE DAVIS (University of Texas, Austin), Mark O'Reilly (University of Texas, Austin)
|Abstract: n this three-phase study we examined the influence of motivating operations on the acquisition, generalization, and maintenance of mands for three children with autism who displayed challenging behavior. In the first phase of the study the consequences maintaining challenging behavior and their associated motivating operations were isolated. In Phase 2, we taught replacement mands and systematically examined the influence of motivating operations (identified in Phase 1) on the efficiency and effectiveness of the instructional process. Finally, we probed for generalization of these new mands across persons, settings, and activities while again systematically examining the influence of motivating operations on this generalization process. The results are discussed in terms of the importance of including motivating operations during functional communication training.
|Evaluation of a Functional Assessment Methodology for Determining Behavioral Indicators of Satiation.
|WENDY A. MACHALICEK (University of Texas, Austin), Mark O'Reilly (University of Texas, Austin), Russell Lang (University of Texas, Austin), Mandy J. Rispoli (University of Texas, Austin), Jeffrey Michael Chan (University of Texas, Austin), Tonya Nichole Davis (University of Texas, Austin)
|Abstract: Pre-session access to a reinforcer that maintains challenging behavior has been shown to have two possible and contradictory effects; a reduction in challenging behavior (O'Reilly et al.,2007) and subsequent increase in challenging behavior (Roantree & Kennedy, 2006). This discrepancy could be explained by whether satiation on the maintaining reinforcer was reached during presession access conditions. This study demonstrates a potential methodology for determining behavioral indicators of satiation. A functional analysis (FA) indicated that a child with autism engaged in challenging behavior to obtain preferred tangibles. Interviews with parents and teachers identified topographies associated with rejection of stimuli. An alternating treatment design was used to compare the occurrence of this rejecting topography with a high versus low preferred item. Results indicated higher levels of rejecting with the low preferred item than with the highly preferred item. This rejecting behavior was considered a behavioral indicator of satiation. This assumption was tested in tangible FA conditions consisting of: (a) 5 min. pre-session access to preferred item (b) pre-session access to preferred item until occurrence of rejecting behavior and (c) no pre-session access (control). Results provide insight to previous discrepant findings and suggest this methodology may be effective in identifying behavioral indicators of satiation.