|The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) and Relationships Among Attitudes and Overt Behavior
|Sunday, May 25, 2008
|1:30 PM–2:50 PM
|Area: VRB/CBM; Domain: Basic Research
|Chair: Diana Van De Kreeke (Illinois Institute of Technology)
|Abstract: It is well known that explicit attitudes and overt behavior are often incongruous. For instance most smokers will endorse that smoking is bad while continuing to smoke. The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) was used to compare implicit and explicit attitudes and overt behavior in clinically relevant behaviors. The relationships among attitudes and overt behaviors will be considered in terms of Relational Frame Theory and implications for prevention and treatment of problematic behaviors will be discussed.
|Using the IRAP to Assess the Verbal Networks of Adolescents about Smoking.
|SHAWN M. BOLES (Oregon Research Institute), Anthony Biglan (Oregon Research Institute), Carey Black (Oregon Research Institute)
|Abstract: A pilot study employing a web-based version of the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) was conducted to assess the utility of the procedure when used to investigate the verbal networks of adolescents with respect to the harmful behavior of smoking. Using a known groups procedure, eight smoking and eight nonsmoking adolescents were exposed to the sample concepts of Smoker and Nonsmoker in the presence of four social acceptance words (and their opposites) commonly associated with smoking in tobacco company marketing campaigns. The hypothesis that adolescent smokers would relate the sample word ‘Smoker’ as “Similar” to social acceptance words contained in tobacco company advertisements, while nonsmokers would not do so, was confirmed.
|Implicit Beliefs about Smoking Consequences in Smokers and Nonsmokers: A Study with the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP).
|MONICA HERNANDEZ-LOPEZ (Universidad de Valladolid (Spain)), Miguel Rodriguez-Valverde (Universidad de Jaen, Spain), Dermot Barnes-Holmes (National University of Ireland, Maynooth), Shawn M. Boles (Oregon Research Institute)
|Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyze the differences between smokers’ and nonsmokers’ arbitrarily established relations between smoking and health-related consequences, and between smoking and bodily sensations/arousal consequences.
In a first phase we presented the word “smoking” straight on words about negative (e.g. disease) or positive health consequences (e.g. safe). Participants had to respond in conditions of consistency (e.g. smoking similar to disease) or inconsistency (e.g. smoking opposed to disease), and their response latencies were obtained in each case. In a second phase we presented the same word “smoking” straight on words about negative bodily sensations (e.g. tired) and positive ones (e.g. relaxation). Participants had to respond again in conditions of potential consistency or inconsistency. We compare the results obtained by smokers and nonsmokers with the IRAP with the results obtained with the IAT. Besides, we compare the implicit attitudes and beliefs as measured by these procedures with explicit beliefs measured by a questionnaire.
|Implicit Attitudes towards Healthy and Unhealthy Foods in Normal Weight and Overweight Adults.
|DIANA VAN DE KREEKE (Illinois Institute of Technology), Patricia Bach (Illinois Institute of Technology), Daniel J. Moran (Trinity Services)
|Abstract: Normal weight and overweight subjects completed four different IRAP procedures assessing implicit attitudes towards healthy verus unhealthy foods. Participants also completed measures of their explicit attitudes towards different foods, and measures of acceptance and mindfulness, and reported recent food intake. Overweight and normal weight participants performed differently on the IRAP. A Relational Frame Theory account of the findings will be presented along with implications for prevention and treatment of obesity.
|Implicit and Explicit Attitudes of Clinicians towards Clients with Serious Mental Illness.
|JENNIFER LOWE (Illinois Institute of Technology), Patricia Bach (Illinois Institute of Technology)
|Abstract: It is well documented that there is much stigma towards persons with serious mental illness. The attitudes of professionals providing services to individuals with mental illness are particularly important because of their influence on their clients and on the general public. As professionals have more contact with clients with a variety of clinical concerns their attitudes may change over time. This study compared the implicit and explicit attitudes of lay persons, clinicians, and clinical trainees towards persons with serious mental illness. Participants completed an IRAP procedure using words associated with serious mental illness, as well as measures assessing explicit attitudes towards serious mental illness. The relationships among level of knowledge about and experience with persons with mental illness and implicit and explicit attitudes will be presented and. implications for professional training and interventions for reducing stigma will be discussed.