Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


36th Annual Convention; San Antonio, TX; 2010

Event Details

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Poster Session #303
DDA Poster Session 3
Sunday, May 30, 2010
6:00 PM–7:30 PM
Exhibit Hall A (CC)
47. Evocative and Abative Effects of Varying Awake Durations on Challenging Nap Time Behavior
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
NARISSRA PUNYANUNT (Texas Tech University)
Abstract: Evaluating the influence of establishing operations has been demonstrated as highly valuable toward the development of procedures to reduce challenging behaviors (O’Reilly, 1995; O’Reilly, et al., 2007). In this study, the awake time prior to a nap was manipulated in an effort to reduce the challenging behaviors displayed by a preschooler during nap time. The participant was a 2-year-old attending a preschool setting who displayed challenging behaviors such as shouting, crying, running away from assigned area, and slapping others. These behaviors occurred only following instructions to take a nap and were evaluated using a multi-elemental design with reversals. A 10-s partial interval scoring procedure was used to measure challenging behaviors during 30-minute intervals. Challenging nap time behaviors were reduced to near zero by adjusting the amount of time that the child was awake prior to initiating a nap. The study demonstrates the importance of working closely with parents toward adjusting home routines which may have subsequent impact on preschoolers’ behaviors at school. The potential value of manipulating evocative and abative effects of establishing operations within applied settings will also be presented.
48. Some Effects of Caregiver Integrity Given the Initiation of Training
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
LAURA ELIZABETH MELTON (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Carrie S. W. Borrero (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: We evaluated treatment integrity measures for eight caregivers with children admitted to a 6-8 week intensive behavioral program to address food refusal. Typically, caregivers feed meals upon admission (pre-training) and do not feed again until they are trained to implement the mealtime protocol (post-training). Participants were split into two groups, one with caregivers trained during the first three weeks of admission (early training), and the second with caregivers trained during the last two weeks of admission (late training), which is the standard training plan. Data were collected on child behavior (e.g., expelling food) and caregiver behavior (e.g., spoon removal). Conditional probabilities of caregiver behavior were calculated for pre- and post-training meals, and follow-up meals. Although both groups demonstrated higher integrity with the protocol following training, the probabilities of correct protocol implementation were higher for the late training group as compared to the early training group. Higher integrity with the protocol was observed with the early training group during follow-up meals. The implications of providing caregivers with more opportunities to practice mealtime protocols and the potential effects on caregiver integrity will be discussed.
49. An Evaluation of a Fading Procedure to Increase Liquid Consumption
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Charles S. Gulotta (Kennedy Krieger Institute), LACEY LEBLANC (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Tessa Taylor Rivet (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Typically, treatment for food refusal initially incorporates reinforcement-based procedures, but ultimately the addition of extinction-based procedures are often needed in order to achieve an increase in food acceptance and a decrease in food refusal. The present investigation served to examine whether treatment gains made using both reinforcement and extinction procedures with solids generalized to a different skill set, cup drinking, with the use of a stimulus fading procedure thus eliminating the need for extinction. An alternating treatment design was employed with a 2-year, 2-month-old male with Down’s syndrome and gastrostomy tube dependence in an inpatient treatment program for feeding disorders. Specifically, the presentation of a standard cut-out cup was alternated daily with the presentation of a variety of stimuli, beginning with a small mother care spoon which was gradually faded up to a standard cut-out cup over the course of the admission. Acceptance levels and refusal behaviors were graphed across time. Results of these data will be discussed.
50. An Evaluation of the Effects of Observation and Intensive Caregiver Training for Parents of Children With Food Refusal
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JULIA N. WOODS (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Carrie S. W. Borrero (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Descriptive analyses were used to evaluate child behavior and parent integrity with mealtime protocols at various times during parent training. Participants included three children admitted to an intensive program for the assessment and treatment of food refusal and their mothers. Descriptive observations were conducted immediately following admission (pre-training), after the observation phase of training (post-observation) during which parents observed therapist-conducted meals using a mealtime protocol for approximately five weeks, following intensive training of the mealtime protocol, including role plays and direct feedback (Post-Training), and at 1-3 month follow-up (Follow-up). Child responses included bite acceptance and food refusal, and parent responses included responses following acceptance and food refusal (e.g., spoon removal). Results showed increases in protocol integrity with the mealtime protocol for all parents during the post-observation phase, prior to intensive parent training of the mealtime protocol. Furthermore, intensive training increased correct parent responding to 100% which maintained through follow-up for all participants. For all participants, increases in child acceptance were correlated with increases in parent integrity.
51. Treatment of Multiply Controlled Inappropriate Mealtime Behavior Using a Multiple Baseline Design
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
LAUREN M. MALECKI (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Carrie S. W. Borrero (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Meghan Pangborn (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: We initially conducted a functional analysis of inappropriate mealtime behavior to identify the function(s) of food refusal (e.g., head turns, negative statements, pushing the spoon away), which revealed that refusal was multiply controlled (i.e., reinforced by escape from bite presentation, access to tangible items, and attention). Following the functional analysis, individualized treatments consisting of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) were implemented for each function using a multiple baseline design. Reductions in food refusal and increases in consumption were observed when and only when each function was specifically targeted. Increases in consumption were observed initially without the inclusion of non-removal of the spoon (i.e., escape extinction) for both the tangible and attention treatments. An increase in refusal was observed following the presentation of a novel food in the tangible condition, thus, an escape extinction component was implemented in that condition. Finally, all interventions were combined into one collective treatment package that addressed all functions shown to maintain food refusal. Results of this study provide preliminary evidence of the effectiveness of DRA without the use of escape extinction, and were demonstrated using a novel variation of the traditional multiple baseline design.
52. Use of a Multiple Baseline Design to Evaluate Extinction Bursts With Parent-Conducted Meals
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
EMILY SANGKAVASI (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Carrie S. W. Borrero (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: We evaluated the inappropriate mealtime behavior for one child admitted to an intensive inpatient program during therapist-conducted meals, and parent-conducted meals. Utilizing a concurrent multiple baseline design, the therapist and parent conducted baseline sessions, and treatment components were introduced first with a therapist, then with a parent. Increases in food acceptance and decreases in inappropriate mealtime behavior were observed with both the therapist and the parent. We did not observe initial bursts in responding with the therapist or parent following the initial treatment however less inappropriate mealtime behavior occurred with the therapist as compared to parents. Finally, a burst in inappropriate responding was only observed with the caregiver when additional components were added to the treatment. Preliminary results suggest that children may be more likely to engage in inappropriate mealtime behavior during parent-conducted meals, and providing parents with more opportunities to implement treatment could decrease the likelihood or severity of a burst.
53. Feeding Problems of Children With Developmental Disorder and Its Impact on Parenting Stress: Coping Strategies and Social Support as Moderators of Parenting Stress
Area: DDA; Domain: Theory
U-JIN LEE (Yonsei University), Min-Jung Shin (Yonsei University), Jean H. Choi (Yonsei University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to compare feeding problems between children with developmental disability (DD) and healthy controls, and to predict parenting stress of caregivers of children with DD who had feeding problems. The participants were 134 caregivers of children with DD aged from 2 to 12 (108 boys, 26 females) and, 134 age- and sex-matched controls. Children's eating behavior inventory (CEBI), Korean-parenting stress index (K-PSI), ways of coping checklist, and multidimensional scale of perceived social Support (MSPSS) were used. The results showed that children with DD had more feeding problems and various behavior problems in mealtime than controls. Severity of feeding problems in children with DD predicted caregivers’ parenting stress significantly (p<.001). Caregivers’ coping strategies and social support increased the degree of explanation of the relationship between children’s feeding problem and parenting stress significantly (F(6,90) = 7.90, p <.001, R2=.34). This result implied that many children with DD had feeding difficulty in general and furthermore, children’s feeding problem affected negatively on parenting stress. However, the outcome also indicated that when caregivers were capable of using coping strategies and social support adequately, they could moderate parenting stress because they knew how to handle children's problem behaviors during mealtime.
54. Examining the Direct and Distal Effects of Noncontingent High- and Low-Calorie Foods
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MEGAN L. KLIEBERT (Louisiana State University), Jeffrey H. Tiger (Louisiana State University)
Abstract: The noncontingent delivery of edible items is often used to compete with mouthing behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities. However, it is unclear how long this reduction endures once the noncontingent delivery is terminated. Food delivery usually consists of high-calorie foods (e.g., cookies) although it is undetermined if high caloric foods provide any added value over lower-calorie foods. The current study examined the direct and distal effects of non-contingent high and low-calorie foods upon mouthing by measuring mouthing behavior during food delivery and after delivery was terminated. The results indicated that high and low-calorie foods were equally effective in suppressing mouthing, but these effects endure for only brief periods upon terminating delivery. That is, non-contingent delivery of edible items may produce substantial direct effects but limited distal effects, regardless of caloric intake.
55. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis Studies of Stimulant Drugs and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Where Are the Social Validity Data?
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MARC A. WEEDEN (Western Michigan University), Frans Van Haaren (Autism Early Intervention Clinics), Alan D. Poling (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: This study examined the extent to which social validity data were reported in studies examining the behavioral effects of stimulant medication in individuals diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis from 1968 through 2008. Twenty-two such studies appeared and none reported social validity data. Some possible reasons why social validity data were not presented are discussed and a case is made for the importance of collecting and reporting such data.
56. Behavior Analysis in Brain Injury: A Methodological Approach to Interdisciplinary Treatment Planning for Neurobehavioral Issues
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CHRIS M. SCHAUB (ReMeD Rehabilitation)
Abstract: A complex array of neurobehavioral sequelae are exhibited within the brain injury population that affect an individual’s ability to participate in and benefit from rehabilitation programming, integrate into other settings or the community, and ultimately maximize their independence. The application of behavior analytic principles and procedures within the rehabilitation process supports efficient and effective neurobehavioral programming for the survivor as well as the treatment team. A pyramidal model will be proposed that broadly categorizes neurobehavioral residuals. Specific behavior analytic principles and procedures will be identified and applied accordingly. Consisting of three distinct components (medical, cognitive/behavioral stability, and stable activity plan) the model structures the identification and development of effective assessment and intervention techniques, guiding interdisciplinary treatment efforts toward establishing and maintaining stability in these critical areas of programming. Each component requires thorough examination by specific team members within their respective areas of expertise. With careful attention paid with respect to the order in which each component is addressed, specific data collection tools and interventions associated with each component then guide overall treatment planning and programming. This comprehensive behavior analytic approach seeks to efficiently and effectively account for and accommodate programming for various combinations of sequelae.
57. Using Follow-Up Services to Generalize Interventions for Severe Behavior From Intensive to Naturalistic Settings
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JENNIFER K VALENTINE (Marcus Autism Center), Nathan A. Call (Marcus Autism Center), Jason T. Cavin (Marcus Autism Center), Natalie A. Parks (Marcus Autism Center), Joanna Lomas (Lousianna State University)
Abstract: Interventions for severe behavior have been shown to be effective and are often implemented in intensive settings such as residential or day treatment programs. However, these interventions frequently must be implemented by caregivers in the natural environment over a long period of time to maintain these gains. Few data exist on the generalization and continued use of these interventions by caregivers following intensive programs. The current study assessed implementation of behavior analytic interventions developed in an intensive day treatment program by three caregivers. All caregivers received up to two weeks of intensive training until procedural fidelity reached at least 90%. Direct observations were then conducted in the natural environment over a 6 month period. Data were collected on caregiver procedural integrity and rates of child problem behavior. Parent reports of frequency and intensity of problem behavior were also collected using the Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised (SIB-R). Following each observation additional training was conducted in treatment implementation. Results demonstrate that procedural fidelity by caregivers was generally poor during the initial follow up appointment. However, additional training conducted as part of the follow-up visits produced maintenance and improved procedural fidelity of the intervention by all caregivers.
58. Family Centered Behavioral Interventions: Outcome Data for In-Home and Workshop Service Models
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
TIMOTHY R. MOORE (Behavioral Dimensions, Inc.), John Hoch (Behavioral Dimensions, Inc.), Richard S. Amado (Behavioral Dimensions, Inc.), Nancy G. Schussler (Behavioral Dimensions, Inc.)
Abstract: Since 2006 the Family Centered Behavioral Interventions division of Behavioral Dimensions, Inc. has operated with the mission of empowering parents of children exhibiting challenging behavior to understand key principles of applied behavior analysis and use them to develop and use practical, positive interventions for teaching their children new skills during daily routines, limiting problem behavior, and accessing life’s important events. We offer two service models differing in frequency and duration built around a common problem solving model of four key factors: functional assessment, proactive strategies, reinforcement, and positive responses to problem behavior. The current program description is presented with outcome data indicating efficacy of both models in producing significant reduction in child problem behavior (p<.05, both models), and increase in desirable child behavior (p<.05 in-home, p<.01 workshop). The interaction between treatment integrity and child problem and desirable behavior outcome was significant for both models (p<.01) except behavior decrease in workshop model (p<.80). These outcomes are discussed with respect to generalization, after-care needs, and future experimental research in this clinical model.
59. Outcomes and Acceptability of Function-Based Treatments Conducted in Home Settings
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JOHN F. LEE (University of Iowa), Jay W. Harding (University of Iowa), David P. Wacker (University of Iowa), Wendy K. Berg (University of Iowa)
Abstract: We briefly describe the procedures and results of our in-home research projects. During the past 17 years, we have conducted 84 reinforcement-based treatments matched to the function of destructive behavior in home settings with young children. All participants were 6-years old or younger, had diagnosed developmental disorders, and displayed destructive behavior. All assessment and treatment sessions were conducted by parents who were provided with 1 hour of weekly consultation by the experimenters. During the consultations, experimenters video-taped sessions for subsequent data collection. Families participated in the projects for up to three years. We will present summaries of the results of the procedures on reductions in destructive behavior and parent ratings of acceptability of the procedures. Acceptability ratings were obtained from parents using the Treatment Acceptability Rating Form-Revised. Overall, 75% of the children displayed at least a 90% reduction in destructive behavior from baseline. Parent acceptability ratings averaged over 6 on a 7-point Likert-type scale, with 7 being the most positive rating. Results will be discussed regarding the effectiveness of function-based treatments in home settings and the acceptability of these procedures to parents.
60. Socio-Academic Adjustment of Children With and Without Special Needs in Integrated Classrooms
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
HUGO ROMANO (Universidad Nacional de Mexico), Carlos Santoyo (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México)
Abstract: Every year many special needs education students (SN) in Mexico incorporate into full time regular instruction through integration educative program. Isoleted studies, in our country, have examined the inclusion benefits not only in disabled children as well as in regular students (RS) who participate in the same setting. To analyze the social and academic adjustment in third graders, with and without special needs, enrolled in elementary integrated classrooms, the students were grouped in two groups (SN-RS) and twelve focal pairs coupled by grades and other demographic issues. The 12 pairs were assesing in academic achievement (AA) and three social variables: sociometric status (SE); friendship relations (FR) and social acceptance (SA), which were measured in two times, elapsed by six moths, to assess stability. The results showed a better AA (+18%) in RS over SN; however there were no statistical differences in the comparison of two groups in the three social variables measured. According to criteria 60% of SN and 83% of RS reached the social adjustment. Lastly, the temporal stability was low for three social variables (SE, FR, SA). Results are discussed in terms of the importance on SN inclusion and the socio-academic adjustment in the regular classroom.
61. The Effect of a Social Skills and Self-Management Training on Maladaptive Behaviors and Academic Performance Within a Public School Setting
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
EVELYN SAUCEDA (Stephen F. Austin State University), Chris Ninness (Stephen F. Austin State University), Robin Rumph (Stephen F. Austin State University), Glen L. McCuller (Stephen F. Austin State University), Rebecca Kietlinski (Stephen F. Austin State University)
Abstract: The subject was a kindergarten student from an elementary school. A functional behavioral assessment was utilized to determine the conditions of maladaptive behavior and to guide the design of treatment procedures. A multiple baseline design across school settings was utilized. Baseline data were recorded with the aid of a hidden camera during classroom instruction in both settings. The treatment conditions consisted of self management and social skills training. Maladaptive behavior and academic performance were recorded.



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