Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


36th Annual Convention; San Antonio, TX; 2010

Event Details

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Poster Session #477
EDC Poster Session 5
Monday, May 31, 2010
6:00 PM–7:30 PM
Exhibit Hall A (CC)
96. Use of Brief Experimental Analysis to Determine the Best Intervention for Increasing Sight Word Acquisition and Maintenance
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
AMY BARANEK (The May Institiute), Daniel Mark Fienup (Queens College, The University of New York), Nicole L. Dion (The May Institute), Gary M. Pace (The May Institute)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to look at the effectiveness of using a brief experimental analysis (BEA) of academic interventions to increase sight words acquisition of a student with cortical dysgenesis. The student had a history of difficulties learning sight words. The student’s sight word knowledge was assessed using flash cards from the dolch list to determine known and unknown words. Next, a BEA with unknown words was used to determine which intervention yielded most improvement in sight word acquisition. After conducting a brief analysis of each intervention, an extended analysis of the two highest interventions from the BEA was conducted. In addition to collecting data on the two interventions which had shown to be most effective, a control list of unknown words was also monitored to maintain that increases seen were due to the interventions and not due to maturation or instruction from the classroom. Pairing the words with pictures yielded the highest acquisition for sight words for this student. All interventions were implemented four to five times a week in either an empty classroom/conference room or in the school library. Integrity and IOA was measured a minimum of 30% of the time.
97. Efficacy of a Personal Frequency Modulation Device in the Classroom for a Child With Pervasive Developmental Disorder and Auditory Processing Disorder
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
KELLEY MARTIN (Children's Medical Center Dallas), Adam Feinberg (The May Institute)
Abstract: This case study examines the efficacy of a personal frequency modulation (FM) device for a 10-year-old boy who carries the diagnoses of pervasive developmental disorder and auditory processing disorder. Latency, rate of response, rate of compliance, and distance from the speaker were included in the observation protocol in addition to the contextual variables assessed by the Listening Inventory for Education. A multiple baseline reversal design was used to assess the efficacy of the FM device in a classroom setting. Based on the student’s responding behavior to his teacher’s directives, the presence of the FM device was found to negatively impact his classroom performance, which was in direct conflict with his stated experience. His rate of compliance and responding speed improved over the course of the trial. Compliance was highest (over 91%) and latency was shortest (x = 7.3s) when not using the FM device. Contextual variables such as teacher behaviors and background noise did not influence treatment outcome. However, he consistently responded more frequently and with fewer prompts when sitting in the front row. Results suggest that environmental modifications and compensatory strategies would have likely produced better outcomes for this student.
98. An Experimental Analysis of Case Order Difficulty With Simulation in Developmental Disabilities Software
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MARCIE DESROCHERS (SUNY, Brockport), Jill Papke (College at Brockport, State University of New York), Darlene E. Crone-Todd (Salem State College)
Abstract: Functional assessment is an important approach for treating problem behaviors of individuals with developmental disabilities. Simulation in Developmental Disabilities (SIDD) is a multi-media computer program that teaches functional assessment. Using SIDD, students are placed in the role of a behavior analyst and are presented with a client who engages in a problem behavior. Functional assessment strategies are used by the student to identify the functional hypothesis and design effective treatments. Previous correlational research suggests that sequencing case difficulty may be important for teaching client case problem-solving. In the current study, order of client case difficulty was experimentally manipulated. Student participants were randomly assigned to conditions and exposed to either increasing or decreasing order of difficulty of simulated client cases. Students’ performance during the simulation to a test client case will be examined to determine the effect of order difficulty of instructional material. These analyses are expected to reveal that the order of difficulty is an important consideration for learning clinical decision-making skills.
99. The Effect of Instructor Self-disclosure on Preservice Teachers' Knowledge and Dispositions
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
CARRIE FITZGERALD (State University of New York, Fredonia), Laura Geraci (State University of New York, Fredonia), Barbara Mallette (State University of New York, Fredonia)
Abstract: Although a plethora of research exists that documents the effects of teacher self-disclosure on pupil memory and pupil perceptions (for example, Ejsing, 2007; Woolfolk, 1979), little research exists that examines self-disclosure in preservice teacher education. This poster will depict a study that examined the effect of instructor self-disclosure on preservice teacher content knowledge and preservice teacher professional dispositions. Subjects included undergraduate students enrolled in general education and inclusive education programs. The investigation utilized multiple opportunities of instructor self-disclosure on her experiences with typical and atypical child development. Measures of student content knowledge and professional dispositions were obtained prior to and subsequent to instructor self-disclosure. Preliminary results indicate that preservice teachers do benefit from instructor self-disclosure in several immediate ways. First, preservice teachers reported that they linked content vocabulary and concepts to specific instructor stories/experiences. That is, preservice teachers appeared to remember more content when they linked it to instructor self-disclosure. Second, preservice teachers exhibited more positive professional dispositions following instructor self-disclosure. The limitations of the study will be display as well as recommendations for future research. The use of self-disclosure with preservice teachers who work in general education, special education, and inclusive education settings will be highlighted.
100. Practice-Based Evidence: Behavioral Applications in General Education Settings
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
LAWRENCE J. MAHEADY (State University of New York, Fredonia), Michael Jabot (State University of New York, Fredonia)
Abstract: Practice-based evidence refers to data that are collected to assess the effects of evidence-based practices in a real life setting (Dietrich, 2008). In effect, practice-based evidence examines implementation issues surrounding the practical applications of interventions with documented efficacy under more tightly controlled experimental conditions. During the past three years, master’s candidates in a general education teacher preparation program have been engaged in a variety of practice-based evidence studies. These studies have examined the impact of a range of academic and behavioral interventions (e.g., group contingencies and mystery motivators, Class Wide Peer Tutoring, response cards, and numbered heads together) on the academic and behavioral performance of general education students across a variety of age levels, content areas, and educational settings. This poster session will: (a) provide summary tables on the impact of four selected interventions noted above, (b) present single case research data from selected studies, and (c) discuss the implications for disseminating behavior analytic practices more extensively “under the dome” of the normal curve.
101. Assessing Inter-Observer Agreement and Accuracy in Training and Acquisition of Experimental Functional Analysis Skills
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JON A. LOKKE (Ostfold University College Norway), Lars Rune Halvorsen (Akershus University College), Gunn Lokke (Ostfold University College Norway), Erik Arntzen (Akershus University College)
Abstract: Two recently published studies in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis focus on the assessment of observer accuracy in continuous recording of behavior (Mudford, Martin, Hui, & Taylor, 2009; Mudford, Taylor, & Martin, 2009). The authors recommend further research with real behavior streams to assess behavior analysts’ choice of suitable agreement and accuracy algorithms. Experimental functional analysis skills (EFAS) are an important part of behavior analysts’ repertoire. Several studies have documented that EFAS may be trained in a short period of time (Lokke, Lokke, & Arntzen, 2009; Moore & Fisher, 2007). However, obtaining an accurate percentage of correct teacher or therapist responses depends on one criterion derived from observable client behavior and specified protocol requirements. Comparison of registrations and the criterion produces accuracy measures. Comparing independent observers’ scores, on the other hand, produces a measure of interobserver agreement. However, as far as we know, no standard procedure has been developed for establishing the criterion for measuring accuracy in training EFAS. Such a procedure is necessary for effective training of EFAS, in that the training is guided by the percentage of correct responses (accuracy). In this study we have by the use of videotaped sessions developed a procedure for establishing accuracy in assessments of EFAS training. The procedure for establishing accuracy and agreement is presented.
102. More Data on the Changeability of Misconceptions in Behavior Analysis Among Students
Area: EDC; Domain: Theory
JON A. LOKKE (Ostfold University College Norway), Gunn Lokke (Ostfold University College Norway), Erik Arntzen (Akershus University College)
Abstract: Misconceptions may be described as “…beliefs that are held contrary to known evidence” (Taylor & Kowalski, 2004, p. 15). Behavior analysis appears vulnerable to misconceptions, partly due to the quantity of technical terms (DeBell & Harless, 1992; Lamal, 1995; Todd & Morris, 1992). Students frequently show misconceptions regarding basic constructs in behavior analysis. It is important to try to change such widely held misconceptions (Arntzen, Lokke, Lokke, & Eilertsen, in press). In an earlier presentation (Lokke, Lokke, & Arntzen, 2009) we reported some preliminary data on the changeability of misconceptions in students. Data indicate that the ConsepTest manual for changing misconceptions may be successful, but further research was warranted on: (a) Different types of misconceptions that can be changed with the ConsepTest. (b) Whether the effects generalize over time and misconceptions within operant psychology and over behavioral phenomena, such as classical conditioning and operant conditioning.The purpose of the current study is to investigate these two groups of research questions. We present the technology used, and data on changing misconceptions about behavior analysis in students from Norway. We emphasize generalization issues regarding the technology, the ConcepTest, and whether changes are stable over time.
103. Functional Assessment and Intervention of Escape and Attention Maintained Aggressive Behavior in the Classroom
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JOSHUA NEEDELMAN (Munroe-Meyer Institute), Mark D. Shriver (Munroe-Meyer Institute), Jessica A. Knight (Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: This poster presents a case of a 12-year-old male with a diagnosis of Asperger’s Disorder who was engaging in aggressive and destructive behavior in the classroom setting. He attended a self-contained classroom for children with behavior disorders. He had at least average intelligence, but academic deficits across reading, math, and writing. Functional analyses conducted in an outpatient clinic setting and in the classroom suggested target behaviors were maintained by escape from academic demands and access to social attention. Data from the brief functional analyses in the clinic and classroom are presented. The link between the functional analyses data and subsequent intervention components is described. Intervention data are presented. Implications of the functional analyses data in demonstrating the need for a comprehensive, intensive intervention in the classroom are presented.
104. The Use of a Concurrent Operants Assessment to Inform Behavioral Intervention for Severe Problem Behavior
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
STEVE VERSTRAETE (Summit Educational Resources), Johanna F. Shaflucas (Summit Educational Resources), Amy K. Burkett (Summit Educational Resources), Gretchen G. Abdulla (Summit Educational Resources)
Abstract: A concurrent operants assessment was conducted to assess the behavioral function of aggressive behavior in a 12-year-old male student with multiple disabilities for whom conventional analog functional analysis techniques were contraindicated due to the severity of his problem behavior. The assessment exposed the student to four concurrent operants comparisons in alternating sequence until clear preferences emerged for each set of conditions. The results of the assessment showed that in three of the four comparisons, the student demonstrated a preference for conditions in which adult attention was readily available. Subsequently, a behavioral intervention using socially-mediated positive reinforcement in the form of attention as a hypothesized maintaining contingency was implemented during the school day. Following implementation of the intervention, the frequency of the student’s aggressive behavior decreased below baseline levels, thus lending further support for the utility of concurrent operants assessments in the analysis and treatment of severe problem behavior in cases where conventional functional analyses are difficult or unfeasible.
105. Early Childhood Preschool Aggression: Descriptive Study of Topographies, Roles, Setting, and Peer or Teacher Consequences
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
DAVID M. RICHMAN (University of Illinois), Katherine Fettig (University of Illinois), Annamarie Hayner (University of Illinois), Carly Slavin (University of Illinois), Chad Rose (University of Illinois)
Abstract: We conducted a descriptive analysis of the topographies of aggression (i.e., physical, verbal, social exclusion, and relational), roles (i.e., aggressor, victim, neutral bystander, defender, or reinforcer), setting (i.e., outside playground, indoor gross motor room free play, centers, and circle time), and peer or teacher consequences (e.g., reprimand, redirection, ignore) during three months of observation at a private preschool / daycare center that predominantly served typically developing young children. The participants were 44 children ages 2-6 that attended three different classrooms and their six teachers (two per classroom). In-vivo descriptive observations documented the previously mentioned variables for 238 occurrences of aggression. Interobserver occurrence agreement was collected for 16% of the aggressive incidents with mean agreement across all variables being 85% (range, 63-100%). Results indicated that the vast majority of aggression was either physical or verbal aggression (93%) with very little relational aggression or social exclusion. The most common setting was surprisingly the group instruction center time (48%) followed by outdoor playground recess (36%). Peer reactions and consequences were almost always ignore (87%) with very little occurrence of peers defending their peers or encouraging the aggressor. Finally, the most common teacher reactions were (a) ignoring or appearing to be unaware that the aggressive instance occurred (56%) and (b) verbal reprimand (38%). Results will be discussed within the context of early intervention for aggressive behavior and linked to literature on prevention of bullying behavior / aggression in school-aged children.
106. Acquisition of Stimulus Relationship of Translation Writing Through Respondent-Type Training for English as a Second Language Learning
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MIKIMASA OMORI (Keio University), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Keio University, Japan)
Abstract: Japanese students with developmental disabilities have difficulty on English writing as second language. Our previous research suggested constructed-response matching-to-sample procedure showed better results of acquisition and transfer on English writing than matching-to-sample (MTS) procedure. However, presenting negative comparison stimuli might disturb the acquisition of stimulus relationship. Respondent-type training had shown the utility of acquisition of stimulus relationship. Although some studies suggested the acquisition of stimulus relationship using MTS testing on the computer, few of them suggested using MTS as writing outcomes on the paper. In the present study, we examined the controlling variables on acquisition of stimulus relationship in English translation writing through respondent-type trainings. Sample stimulus was presented on the computer display for 1 second, then paired stimulus was presented for 2 seconds. With 4 participants, result indicated that they could successfully acquire the stimulus relationship in English translation writing. This result shows the extensive use of respondent-type trainings.
107. Stimulus Equivalence and Brain Function in Broca’s Area: A NIRS Study
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
HIROSHI SUGASAWARA (Tokiwa University), Mikimasa Omori (Keio University), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Keio University, Japan)
Abstract: Equivalence relations are established by functional learning in a verbal community or through an ontogenetic process. Previous study showed that the verbal fluency (VF) task activated Broca’s area, but the match-to-sample task did not. In this study, we assessed whether participants showed a difference in the change of oxygenated hemoglobin in the interior frontal gyrus including Broca’s area for the derived relations of identity matching, symmetry, and transitivity during training, before training, and after training. As a result, we found that the change of oxygenated hemoglobin level in Broca’s area was lower for the VF task than for evaluation of derived relations, including symmetry and transitivity in the post-assessment. This means that an overt stimulus naming response did not occur when the participants showed an equivalence relation.
108. The Challenging Behavior Service: A Training Service for Members of Challenging Behavior Teams in Iowa
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
TORY J. CHRISTENSEN (University of Iowa), Brenda J. Bassingthwaite (University of Iowa), David P. Wacker (University of Iowa), Kelly M. Schieltz (University of Iowa), Todd G. Kopelman (University of Iowa Hospitals & Clinics), Sean D. Casey (Iowa Department of Education), Barbara Ohlund (Iowa Department of Education)
Abstract: Iowa is divided into nine Area Education Agencies (AEAs) who are responsible for delivering a variety of services to local school districts. Historically, AEAs have been responsible for identifying needs of their school districts and providing the necessary supports and services for meeting the needs. The Iowa Department of Education (DE) supported an initiative for all AEAs to develop a challenging behavior team to conduct functional behavioral assessments and to develop intervention plans with children who exhibit problem behavior in the school setting. The DE contracted with behavior analysts from the University of Iowa Children’s Hospital to provide training and consultation in the area of applied behavior analysis to each challenging behavior team. This poster will describe the activities of the first year of this project. An assessment of each teams’ prior experience was conducted so that consultation and training was customized to fit the needs of each challenging behavior team. Services were provided through a combination of onsite visits, visits to a training clinic held at the University of Iowa Children’s Hospital, didactic training, conference calls, and network cameras. This poster will highlight information about the service delivery model and display data from the project.
109. Effects of Self-Regulated Strategy Development on Persuasive Essay Writing of High School Students With Disabilities
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Sharlene Kiuhara (Vanderbilt University), ROBERT E. O'NEILL (University of Utah), Leanne S. Hawken (University of Utah), Steve Graham (Vanderbilt University)
Abstract: Six high school students with high incidence disabilities were trained (in a multiple baseline design across student pairs) to write persuasive essays using a modified self-regulated strategy development approach similar to that developed by Graham & Harris. Visual analysis of the results indicated that the training was effective in increasing (1) the number of both total and functional elements in each essay, (2) total words written, (3) time spent planning and composing, and (4) quality of essays as indicated by independent judges. In addition social validity data indicated high satisfaction of students, parents, and teachers with the process.
110. The Effect of Preteaching Vocabulary on Reading Passages for Third Grade Participants
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
GAIL COULTER (Western Washington University), Michael C. Lambert (Western Washington University)
Abstract: Oral reading fluency is the bridge between decoding and comprehension (Chard, Vaughn, & Tyler, 2002; Piluski & Chard, 2005). Fluency’s contribution to the reading process was suggested by LaBerge and Samuels (1974) through the theory of automatic information processing, underscoring the necessity of the reader recognizing subparts of words in extended text in order to release conscious attention, facilitating meaning of the text itself. However, many students read quickly and accurately but demonstrate little comprehension. This study explored the reciprocal nature of vocabulary and fluency, leading to more powerful interventions, beyond speed. This study used a multiple baseline design across three third grade typical developing students. The effects of preteaching vocabulary on reading passages was measure on the number of words read correctly in one minute, the percentage of number of words read correctly across passages and the number and percentage or correct literal and textually explicit multiple choice questions based upon each passage.



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