Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


36th Annual Convention; San Antonio, TX; 2010

Event Details

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Poster Session #305
EDC Poster Session 3
Sunday, May 30, 2010
6:00 PM–7:30 PM
Exhibit Hall A (CC)
81. Student Research at Gonzaga University: 1978-2010
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
THOMAS FORD MCLAUGHLIN (Gonzaga University), Kimberly P. Weber (Gonzaga University), K. Mark Derby (Gonzaga University), Randy L. Williams (Gonzaga University), Anjali Barretto (Gonzaga University)
Abstract: The basic data presented are the publication and presentation data authored by students from Gonzaga University's behaviorally based special education program. The overall outcomes indicated that student publications and presentations were highest (52) during the 2001-2005 time period. Student publications and presentations ranged from 0 to 27 for the other five designated time periods. Gonzaga University's Special Education Program's students published in peer reviewed journals such as Child & Family Behavior Therapy, Corrective and Social Psychiatry, International Journal of Special Education, B. C. Journal of Special Education, Education and Treatment of Children, Reading Improvement, Remedial & Special Education, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Behavior Modification, Journal of Physical and Developmental Disabilities, Behavioral Interventions, Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, Journal of Behavioral Education, Open Rehabilitation Journal, and Psychology in the Schools. Presentations were made at the Northwest Association for Behavior Analysis conferences, Council for Exceptional Children, the Annual Virginia Beach Conference on Behavior Disorders, the Third Focus on Behavior Analysis in Education Conference, the Association for Behavior Analysis conventions, and the Student Intercollegiate Research Conference.
82. Effects of a Token Economy on Study Skills of At-Risk College Student-Athletes During Study Sessions
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Michael Roden (Gonzaga University), RANDY L. WILLIAMS (Gonzaga University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a token economy on appropriate study behaviors of at-risk college student-athletes during required structured study sessions. Three at-risk (GPA below 2.5) college students were the participants in this study. The token system consisted of checkmarks that were earned contingent upon meeting explicit criteria for improvements of being on time, duration of remaining during the study sessions, and on-task behavior during the structured study sessions. Different aspects of the token economy procedure were evaluated using a multiple baseline design, reversal design, and changing criterion design. A clear functional relationship was shown between the token economy and decreases in minutes late, increases in duration of study, and increases in on-task behavior. The procedure was cost effective in terms of time, money, and effort.
83. An Assessment of a Video Training Protocol to Teach School Teachers Shaping and Fading Methods Using Percentile Schedules
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JEFFREY M. GORDON (University of Kansas), L. Keith Miller (University of Kansas)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to analyze whether an instructional video plus feedback would teach classroom teachers how to fade three step prompting of task completion for a sever year old boy with mental retardation. The video used percentile schedule methods for quantifying shaping as a basis. An assessment to determine independent task completion was conducted. Tasks were then categorized based upon probability of completion. Tasks categorized as low-probability completion were then taught to the participant to develop the training protocol. We then assessed acquisition and generalization of the tasks. After all low-probability tasks were taught to a criterion of 85% of trials independently completed, the protocol was turned over to the classroom teachers. We used video-examples and descriptive feedback to teach the implementation of the protocol. We then assessed the effects the training protocol had on the teachers teaching of new skills. We also examined at what levels of fidelity teachers implemented and whether use of the protocol was maintained.
84. A Comparison of General and Descriptive Praise With Preschoolers
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MAKENZIE WILLIAMS BAYLES (University of Kansas), Paige M. McKerchar (Jacksonville State University)
Abstract: Two types of praise, general and descriptive, have been noted in the literature. Descriptive praise includes a description of the behavior being praised, whereas general praise does not. Descriptive praise is frequently recommended as more effective, despite few comparisons of the effects of general versus descriptive praise. The purpose of this study was to further evaluate the effectiveness of both types of praise with preschoolers. Five boys and five girls participated. Baseline, general praise, and descriptive praise conditions were evaluated using multiemelement and reversal designs. Interobserver agreement was assessed during a minimum of 25% of sessions; mean agreement was 98.5% for target responses and 96.9% for nontarget responses. General praise initially increased target responding relative to nontarget responding for three participants, but this effect was not replicated during the contingency reversal. Descriptive praise was only effective in increasing desired response allocation for one participant. For nine of ten participants, neither general nor descriptive praise was effective in increasing target responding relative to baseline responding. Results suggest that for the majority of preschoolers, praise alone may not be effective in producing desired response allocation, and thus, additional research is needed to study methods for increasing the effectiveness of praise.
85. Sequential Modification of Components That Contribute to Fluent Writing
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
BLAKE HANSEN (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Instruction combined with positive reinforcement was effective in improving writing skills and reducing errors for a child at risk for behavior disorders. Rate of words per minute and sentence completion were modified within a combined reversal and multiple baseline design. After the two skills had been modified sequentially, reinforcement procedure was reinstated for the rate of words per minute. While rate of words per minute was explicitly reinforced, sentence completion maintained at rates similar to the instructional phase, showing generalization using this procedure. Results are discussed in terms of generalization across skills and time.
86. Using Technology for Classroom Management: Self-Monitoring of Off-Task and Disruptive Behavior With a Cell Phone
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
COLIN QUILLIVAN (University of Tennessee), Christopher Skinner (University of Tennessee), Meredith L. Hawthorn (University of Tennessee)
Abstract: A self-monitoring intervention using a cell phone to prompt a kindergarten to self-record off-task and disruptive behavior during independent seatwork was implemented. Off-task and disruptive behavior consisted of a variety of behaviors, particularly the student’s tendency to fixate and manipulate random objects. Study is from a behavioral consultation case that included collaboration among the target student, the kindergarten teacher, and a school psychology doctoral student in developing, implementing, and evaluating the intervention. A withdrawal design revealed that a clear and immediate decrease in levels of off-task/disruptive behavior was present upon implementation of the intervention, with a return to baseline levels after its withdrawal. These results extend the self-monitoring research by demonstrating a kindergarten student’s ability to discriminate and record on- and off-task behavior as well as using a cell phone to occasion self-monitoring. The guidelines for implementing such an intervention, procedures to facilitate maintenance of the intervention’s effects, implications for using self-monitoring interventions for high levels of fixation, and using technology for classroom management are discussed.
87. Academic Choice Behavior: Do Students Choose Lower-Effort Assignments or Finishing What They Started?
Area: EDC; Domain: Experimental Analysis
MEREDITH L. HAWTHORN (University of Tennessee), Elisha Conley (Monroe County School District), Christopher Skinner (University of Tennessee), John Parkhurst (University of Tennessee), Daniel H. Robinson (University of Texas at Austin)
Abstract: Educators can assign academic tasks, but students’ skills will not improve unless they choose to engage in effortful academic behaviors. Although students may be more likely to choose to engage in behaviors that require less effort, they also may be motivated to complete assignments that they have already begun. In the current study, researchers investigated two variables that may influence student assignment choice: effort and partial assignment completion. Age appropriate math tasks were used to examine whether seventh-grade students (N = 88) preferred to complete a worksheet they had already started or one requiring approximately 10% less effort. Significantly more students (n = 54) chose the assignment requiring less effort and most of these students indicated they chose this assignment because it required less work. However, approximately 38% of the students chose to complete the assignment they had already started and most indicated they chose the more effortful assignment because they wanted to finish what they started. These results suggest that most students are more likely to choose an assignment that requires less effort than one they have started. Discussion focuses on the need to enhance students’ basic skill fluency and directions for future research.
88. The Use of Stimulus Control to Reduce Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in a General Education Classroom
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JASON M. STRICKER (Sanger Unified School Distict), Melissa Freitas (California State University, Fresno)
Abstract: This study assessed the effectiveness of stimulus cards to signal the availability of a teacher for two typically developing children who were 6- and 8-years old. Target behaviors were defined as getting out of seat and blurting out to the teacher who was at least five feet away from the child. Following baseline, the effectiveness of the stimulus cards were evaluated within a multielement design embedded within a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants. Responses were measured as rate per minute. During baseline, target behaviors occurred at an average of 2 times per minute for one child and 3.5 times per minute for the second. During the treatment comparison phase, target behaviors in the absence of intervention were comparable to baseline, while the stimulus cards resulted in reductions in problem behaviors to .3 times per minute on average for both participants. Inter-observer agreement averaged 97% (range 96% to 100%) for both children. For both participants the cards were effective with little effort on the part of teachers. Implications for implementing such procedures in a typical elementary classroom are discussed.
89. Using Direct Instruction to Remediate Reading Difficulties in a Boy With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Clinical Case Study
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ROSEMARY A. CONDILLAC (Brock University), Danielle Pessah (Brock University), Anastasia Rossinsky (Surrey Place Centre), Alyssa Goldberg (Surrey Place Centre)
Abstract: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often present with other learning challenges including reading disabilities and these issues are often difficult to remediate. Despite the large body of evidence on the effectiveness of direct instruction in regular education and reading remediation, it is not commonly used in schools. Few studies have examined the effectiveness of direct instruction in remediating reading difficulties in children with ADHD. Our poster will present a clinical case report of a 9-year-old male participant with ADHD who participated in tutoring using the DISTAR corrective reading program. The intervention was delivered by tutors in the child’s home in the morning before school which was reported by him as optimal for learning and concentration. Results of pre- and post-testing suggest that this program was beneficial to the child’s learning, and his anecdotal reports suggest that he found the tutoring to be helpful. This poster provides support for the use of direct instruction to augment reading skills in a child with ADHD.
90. Teaching Coin Discrimination Skills to Children With Visual Impairments Within a Stimulus Equivalence Paradigm
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
NICOLE M. HANNEY (Louisiana State University), Jeffrey H. Tiger (Louisiana State University)
Abstract: Monetary skills involving coins require a number of conditional discriminations including the abilities to (a) state the name or each coin (b) identify each coin given its name, (c) state the value of a coin, (d) identify each coin given its value, (e) name a coin given its value, and (f) state the value of a coin given its name. These skills have been taught within a stimulus equivalence paradigm to individuals with mental retardation using visual cues (e.g., color, size, and emblem differences) as the relevant discriminant features. This type of training will likely be unsuccessful for individuals with visual impairments who must rely on tactile cues (e.g., the presence or absence of ridges and comparative size) to discriminate between coins; however, this type of training has not yet been systematically evaluated. In the current study, we sequentially taught children with visual impairments to (a) identify the presence or absence of ridges on coins, (b) identify larger or smaller coins, (c) select a coin when presented with its name, and (d) select a coin when presented with its value. We then assessed for the cross-modal emergence of coin-name, coin-value, name-value, and value-name relations based on the stimulus equivalence paradigm. These relations emerged only after mastery of the name-coin and value-coin relations.
91. Using a Multiple Baseline Design Across Students to Determine the Effectiveness of an Independent Contingency With Randomized Components in Improving Academic Performance and Behavior
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
VANESSA MIZUTOWICZ (Stephen F. Austin State University)
Abstract: The experiment is a case study that includes a functional behavior assessment (FBA) of two elementary school students that display a wide range of behavior problems during baseline conditions. In addition, it includes a specific behavior intervention plan (BIP) developed as a result of the FBA, reliability measures, student performance prior to and subsequent to treatment, and other assessment measures, such as student and parent interview, behavior checklist, and curriculum-based assessment (CBA) that add support to the findings from the FBA. The intervention derived from the FBA was effective in reducing a wide range of maladaptive behaviors.
92. Comparing the Effects of Using Rule-Governed Checklist and a Modeling Procedure on the Independent Completion of Daily Living Domestic Tasks
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
LAUREN JACKSON (Nicholls State University), Grant Gautreaux (Nicholls State University)
Abstract: We compared two commonly used techniques for teaching sequentially based domestic skills in order to measure differences in the efficiency of each method. Students diagnosed with an autistic spectrum disorder attending a day treatment school participated in this investigation. These students had instructional histories of excessive prompting for task completion resulting in few steps of the domestic task analysis being completed with accuracy or independently. Results are reported in terms of learn units to criterion.
93. Increasing Oral Reading Fluency in a Third Grade Accelerated Independent Learner in a Comprehensive Application of Behaviour Analysis to Schooling Classroom
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
HILARY SARAH ZELLER (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: We tested the effects of an Oral Reading Fluency Tournament on 13 students in a third grade Accelerated Independent Learner (AIL). Researchers collected baseline data before the tournament on correct number of words per minute and number of errors each student read aloud during a one-minute reading. The participants were divided into three groups according to their developmental reading assessment instructional text levels. Each day the students received a novel passage. The students worked in groups to segment troublesome words and read in rotated partner pairs. At the end of the session, each student read aloud in front of the group for one minute while an adult recorded correct words read per minute and the number of errors. At the end of the week the top students from each group competed in a class wide competition. Once the tournament was over, researchers returned to baseline conditions and collected data on the correct number of words per minute and number of errors each student read aloud during a one-minute timing. The results showed an increase in correct words per minute for seven out of the ten participants.
94. A Comparison of the Intensive Tact Procedure and Multiple Exemplar Instruction on the Emergence of Naming With Academically Delayed Middle School Students
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Yasmin J. Helou-Care (Teachers College, Columbia University), Joan A. Broto (Teachers College, Columbia University), R. Douglas Greer (Teachers College, Columbia University), NOOR YOUNUS SYED (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: This study investigated the effects of multiple exemplar instruction versus intensive tact procedure on the acquisition of Naming with academically-delayed middle school students diagnosed with emotional and behavioral disabilities prior to the onset of the study. Two 12-year-old males in the sixth grade acted as participants. Participants were matched regarding level of verbal behavior. Using a time-delayed multiple probe design, both participants were pre-probed for the target untaught listener (point-to response) and speaker (tact and intraverbal responses) components of Naming following baseline match instruction for Set 1 stimuli. Participant A then began multiple exemplar instruction with a training set as Participant B began intensive tact instruction with a training set. Participant A met criteria on the four response topographies in three sessions (240 learn units total) and Participant B was matched for the number of learn units Participant A had required to meet criteria. Participants were post-probed on the target responses. After baseline match instruction, participants were probed on the untaught responses for a novel set. Results of the study indicate that Participant A acquired Naming at 100% accuracy across all response topographies. Naming did not emerge for Participant B.
95. The Effects of a Functional Writing Procedure on the Structural and Functional Components of Writing
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Joanne M. Hill (Teachers College, Columbia University), JESSICA ADELE VANDERHOEF (Teachers College, Columbia University), R. Douglas Greer (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: The study tested the effects of a functional writing procedure on six, fourth grade participants selected from an accelerated independent learner classroom that implemented the comprehensive application of behaviour analysis to Schooling model of instruction. The dependent measures were the functional components; the number of steps completed by a naïve peer reader, the number of words written, the number sentences written as well as the structural components; the number of accurately spelled words, and the correct use of punctuation and capitalization during post-probe sessions. The independent variable was the functional writing procedure. Treatment phases included various how-to tasks and were selected upon the participants’ level of verbal behavior and according to grade level curricular objectives. Results showed that the functional writing procedure increased the number of functional components completed by a naïve peer reader, the percentage of correct structural components, and the number of words and sentences written during the post-probe for Participants A, C, D, E, and F.
96. The Effects of a Yoked Contingency Game Board on the Classwide Acquisition of Tacts Through the Observational System of Instruction
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Darcy M. Walsh (Teachers College, Columbia University), KATHERINE ANNE BAKER (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: We conducted two experiments to examine the use of a yoked contingency game board on the acquisition of novel science tacts by observation for eight middle school students in dyads and in classwide learning. A delayed multiple probe design was used in both experiments. The yoked contingency game board consisted of the participants competing as a team against the experimenter to acquire tacts and win a pre-selected reinforcer. In order to move up the game board all participants on a team were required to emit correct responses to observational learn units. If any member of the participant team responded incorrectly the experimenter advanced on the game board. In both experiments after the completion of the intervention phase, the baseline probe phase was reintroduced. Results showed that the yoked contingency game board was a successful tactic in teaching the acquisition of science tacts.
97. The Effects of Writer Immersion on the Functional and Structural Components of Writing for Five Elementary Students
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Susan Buttigieg (Teachers College Columbia University), Alison M. Corwin (Teachers College Columbia University), Sharlene Joo (Teachers College, Columbia University), TOBYE VALENCIA (Teachers College Columbia University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to test the effects of writer immersion on the writing and reading responses for 5 second grade students. Five students were selected from a CABAS® second grade Accelerated Independent Learner classroom located in a suburban district outside a metropolitan area. The students were selected because they did not have structural or functional components of writing in repertoire. Participants G, M, N, and T functioned at reader-writer, emergent self-editor levels of verbal behavior, while Participant J functioned at emergent reader, emergent writer levels. A pre- and post- probe design across participants was used. The first probe consisted of reader responses to 20 functional writing components. A second probe was conducted after participants mastered criterion to the first probe, to measure writing responses to the same 20 functional writing components. The first phase of this study required readers to correctly identify an object from a basket of 18 objects based upon the writer’s description. Writers were required to revise writing until the reader could identify the object. The next phase of this study required readers to successfully build a block formation based upon the writer’s description of a teacher-drawn picture. The number of accurate reader responses increased for all 5 participants in the first post-probe.



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