Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


36th Annual Convention; San Antonio, TX; 2010

Event Details

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Poster Session #202
DEV Poster Session 2
Sunday, May 30, 2010
12:00 PM–1:30 PM
Exhibit Hall A (CC)
84. Non Contingent Reinforcement and Treatment of Problem Behavior of Elderly in Long-Term Residential Care in Norway
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JORN ARVE VOLD (Raade kommune), Jon A. Lokke (Ostfold University College Norway), Erik Arntzen (Akershus University College)
Abstract: Elderly individuals in long-term residential care often exhibit problem behaviors such as physical aggression, wandering, and repetitive vocalizations. Despite common occurrence of problem behaviors in residential care units, only a limited number of studies have examined the functional determinants of problem behaviors, and implemented functionally based interventions. As far as we learned from behavior analytic literature, only four participants with dementia have been treated with NCR (Non Contingent Reinforcement) or NCE (Non Contingent Escape) procedures (Baker, Hanley & Matthews, 2006; Buchanan & Fisher, 2002; Dwyer-Moore & Dixon, 2007). Applied behavior analysis is almost unknown in the Norwegian geriatric ward system. In the current study, bachelor students have been trained in functional assessment, reinforcer assessment, and NCR procedures. We report data from the assessment and NCR treatment of wandering and other problem behaviors in a long-term residential care institution in Norway. The interventions are designed to facilitate generalization over time and therapists – from students to staff. Results are promising with clinically significant reduction of problem behavior.
85. Responsiveness, Effectiveness and Social Reciprocity of Preschool Age Children: A Longitudinal Study.
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CARLOS SANTOYO (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Maráa Celia Espinosa Arámburu (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México)
Abstract: Based on the Coyoacán Longitudinal Study an observational sampling of six preschool age children trough five consecutive semester cohorts was conducted in situ. The Observational System of Social Interactions was used to identify the contents, direction, quality, social agents involved and sequence of social episodes. The observational study of behavioral stream permits to identify social episodes where responsiveness, social effectiveness and reciprocity of target children with their peers can be analyzed. Observations where obtained in classroom and playground. Trajectory of effectiveness, responsiveness, and reciprocity of targets as a social and behavioral mechanisms are exposed, as well as social behavior directed to and received from peers. Reciprocity is important for the maintenance of social relations, while social effectiveness is important for initiate an interaction and social responsiveness is relevant to act in response to other acts. Data are analyzed and described on the basis of social competence implied. A theoretical discussion about social development from a behavioral perspective is presented.
87. Induction of Vocal Imitation in Children With Language Delays
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Martha Pelaez (Florida International University), JOSE JULIO CARNERERO (Centro Al-Mudarïs), Guadalupe Osuna (Centro Al-Mudarïs), Ana Pastor (Centro Al-Mudarïs)
Abstract: This study explored the effects of motherese speech as an eliciting stimulus and contingent adult vocal imitation as a reinforcing stimulus to increase infant vocalizations. The study was conducted with two children, one of them was 2 years and 4 months with autism and a girl of 8 months with developmental delay. The procedure consisted of 2 phases of 1 minute duration each. During the first minute motherese-speech spoiled emitted for 10 seconds, to elicit the children's vocalizations. If the child emitted a vocalization, the teacher child imitated the vocalization immediately trying to copy its topography, tone and intonation. In the second phase, the therapist presented the same sounds that the child delivered during the first phase for another minute. If the child emitted the sound produced by the adult the child was reinforced repeating the sound and giving a smile. We continued to introduce other sounds in that time. These two steps were repeated for 5 times consecutive cycles for 10 minutes. The data show that the function of vocal imitation meets enhancer and an increase in the vocalizations of children. The data should be replicated with more children with language delay.
88. Crying in 6-Month Old Infants: A Sign of Jealousy or Are They Manding Interaction?
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MARIA G. VALDOVINOS (Drake University), Adam Gallenberg (Drake University), Samantha Nelson (University of North Texas), Dustin F. Baker (Drake University)
Abstract: In developmental psychology, it is generally presumed that those younger than 2 yrs of age have not developed emotions such as jealousy; however, recent research suggests that jealousy may be present in infants as young as 6 months (Hart, Carrington, Tronik, & Carroll, 2004). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the negative behaviors observed in infants during conditions of divided attention from a behavior analytic perspective. Three infants (21-29 weeks of age) and their mothers participated. Seven conditions were run with the mother-infant dyads (i.e., control, neutral interaction/no toy, neutral interaction/toy, no attention/no toy, no attention/toy, divided attention/no toy, divided attention/toy). Infant negative behaviors were measured to determine if they occurred more often when mothers did not fully engage with their infants (i.e., neutral stare, reading a magazine, or talking to a life-like, life-size infant doll) or when infants did not have stimuli with which to engage (i.e., infants either had a novel toy to interact with during sessions or they had no toy). Negative behavior occurred more often in the absence of toys regardless of maternal behavior suggesting that negative behaviors are more likely accounted for by the lack of interaction rather than a mother’s divided attention.



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