Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


36th Annual Convention; San Antonio, TX; 2010

Event Details

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Poster Session #473
AUT Poster Session 5
Monday, May 31, 2010
6:00 PM–7:30 PM
Exhibit Hall A (CC)
1. Using Video Modeling and Video Feedback in Training Paraprofessionals to Teach Daily Living Skills to Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
SHERRY ANN CASTANEDA (San Diego State University), Yasemin Turan (San Diego State University)
Abstract: This study was designed to evaluate effectiveness of video modeling and video feedback for training three paraprofessionals on use of most to least prompting procedures. A multiple-baseline design across participants was utilized to determine the effects of the intervention on paraprofessionals’ correct use of most to least prompting procedures to teach daily living tasks to students with autism. Following baseline, each participant was required to watch a 3-minute video of a teacher demonstrating a most-to-least prompting procedure to teach a typical daily living task. Video feedback was delivered as a secondary intervention to the paraprofessional when skill acquisition was not immediately observed after the video-modeling phase. Results indicated an improvement in most-to-least prompting skills for all paraprofessionals as well as quicker acquisition of skills for the corresponding students. These findings address the need for paraprofessional training in non-public schools and have similar implications for promoting staff development in public schools.
3. The Effects of Parents and Student-Therapists Training Program in Naturalistic Intervention Procedures for Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
YUNO TAKEUCHI (Keio University), Hitomi Kuma (Keio University, Japan), Yoshiko Hara (Keio University), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Keio University, Japan)
Abstract: The effects of parent-and-staff training for children with autism have demonstrated in several studies, but there were few studies that examined the effect of trainer training in naturalistic intervention procedure. The purpose of the present study was to develop the training program for parents and student-therapists to acquire the naturalistic applied behavior analysis (ABA) intervention, as well as evaluating the effect of the program. The program was consisted of a lecture of basic knowledge about naturalistic ABA method and a procedure of the training and role-playing of interaction. We measured parents’ and student-therapists’ basic knowledge about naturalistic ABA procedure and the self-efficacy assessment with paper test. We also evaluated the fidelity of implementation, social validity assessment, and the frequency of learn-unit in the interactions between children and parents or student-therapists, observing and analyzing free play sessions at pre- and post-training program. As a result, each measurement score improved and the frequency of learn-unit in free play sessions increased. The results suggested that parent-and-therapist training was effective even in the naturalistic ABA intervention procedure.
4. Service and Educational Needs of Chinese American Families With a Child With an Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
XIUCHANG HUANG (Duquesne University)
Abstract: Having a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may yield tremendous impacts on a family, particularly for families from diverse cultural background. This study investigates Chinese American parents’ perspectives on the service and educational needs of their child on the spectrum. We will employ qualitative research approaches including semi-structured interview and self-report to collect data in 12 Chinese American families. The method Constant Comparison will be used to analyze the descriptive data. The purpose of our study is to share our insights and findings with service providers and professionals in the field, so that children with ASD and their families coming from a different cultural background can have better access to the services or supports they really need at school or in the community.
5. Training Parents to Train In-Home Support Staff: A Descriptive Case Study
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JESSICA M. CAMP (Behavioral Dimensions, Inc.), Timothy R. Moore (University of Minnesota)
Abstract: Parents who have learned to implement successful interventions for their children with severe problem behavior often access in-home support staff to provide them with respite, but do not systematically train or rely on those staff to implement successful (and often intensive) interventions. Research in behavioral parent training suggests that parents can learn to implement a variety of interventions themselves, but little information exists on the efficacy of models for parents training others to implement them. The current case study presents a data-based model for parents as trainers of in-home support staff. The participant family consisted of a married couple (father diagnosed with autism as an adult) and two boys ages 6 and 8 (older boy diagnosed with PDD-NOS). The two support staff had worked with the family for 3year and 2 years, respectively. Data indicate the following three outcomes: 1) both parents implemented the training and supervision system with acceptable levels of integrity at all steps of gradually-faded intensity; 2) both support staff implemented all intervention components independently with high levels of integrity; 3) data were collected reliably between support staff, parents, and clinical staff.
6. Evaluation of a Self-Instructional Package for Teaching Discrete-Trials Teaching to Tutors
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
KENDRA THOMSON (University of Manitoba and St. Amant Centre), Sandra Salem (St. Amant Research Centre, University of Manitoba), Kristen Campbell (University of Manitoba and St. Amant Centre), Daniela Fazzio (St. Amant Research Centre, the University of Manitoba), Garry L. Martin (University of Manitoba), C.T. Yu (St. Amant Research Centre, University of Manitoba)
Abstract: Discrete-trials teaching (DTT) is commonly used for delivering applied behavior analysis (ABA) treatment for children with autism. Although individuals trained in DTT are in high demand, there are relatively few studies examining DTT training procedures. We evaluated the effectiveness of a self-instructional manual for training newly-hired tutors (in an ABA program for children with autism) how to conduct DTT sessions with a confederate role-playing a child with autism. We conducted a multiple-baseline design across a pair of tutors, replicated across three pairs, to assess the tutors´ accuracy in delivering 21 DTT components while attempting to teach the confederate 3 tasks. After an average of 4.6 hours to master the self-instructional manual, tutors showed an average improvement in DTT accuracy of 39% from Baseline. If tutors did not reach a mastery criterion of 80% correct on DTT skills after reading the manual, they were asked to watch a brief video demonstration of a highly-trained individual conducting DTT with a child role-playing a child with autism. Tutors´ accuracy in delivering DTT improved an average of an additional 10% from after reading the manual to watching the video. These results suggest that self-instructional strategies have significant potential for instructing participants to conduct discrete-trials teaching.
7. Implementation of “Sensory Diet”: Failure to Demonstrate Treatment Effects
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
LAURA D'ANTONA (BEACON Services), Robert K. Ross (BEACON Services)
Abstract: Many school aged students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are prescribed “sensory diets” by occupational therapists. Sensory diets are typically a general set of recommendations for a wide variety of activities and stimuli that are hypothesized to “organize sensation from one’s own body and from the environment and makes it possible to use the body effectively within the environment” (Ayres, 1986). Proponents of sensory diets claim that the procedures will help a person become more “self- regulated” (Aquila, 2004). While empirical support for sensory treatments is limited, among the claims made are that it will result in decreases in off-task behavior, hyperactivity, stimulatory behavior and sleep problems (Davis & Dubie, 2004). Claims are also made suggesting increases in “focus and attending, social relatedness, and vocal behavior may occur (Davis & Dubie, 2004). The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the effects of a prescribed sensory diet on the behavior of a 5-year-old child with a diagnosis of autism. A reversal design was implemented and partial interval data were collected on “ear plugging” and on “vocal stereotypy”. These data indicate that the sensory diet did not result in reductions in the targeted behaviors.
8. Using a Sensory-Diet-Approach to Reduce Stereotypic Behaviors
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MICHELLE WOOLWINE (The Aurora School), Lucy Vanessa Martinez (The Aurora School), J. E. Lee (The Aurora School), Carlos F. Aparicio (The Aurora School)
Abstract: An inverse relationship between stereotype behaviors and appropriate responding to structured teaching activities has been documented in several studies, suggesting that self-stimulatory behaviors negatively impact social integration and interfere with learning processes. Behavioral programs applied to treat self-stimulation have shown that stereotypic motor patterns can be altered, but the origin of the stereotypic behaviors remains unchanged, leading research to focus on regulating sensory input and manipulating conditions to increase acceptable behaviors in structured teaching activities. This study used a sensory-diet-approach to reduce the frequency of the stereotyped behavior of rocking back and forth in a chair of a 12-year old boy with autism. An ABAB design was used. For several sessions condition A recorded the frequency and duration of the behavior of rocking in a chair during structured teaching activities. Condition B scheduled times to provide the child with vestibular input; including activities such as swinging, using a rocking chair, and rhythmical input via therapy ball, in conjunction with the structured teaching activities. Changes in the frequency and duration of the stereotyped behavior occurring after receiving vestibular input were analyzed and compared to baseline. Overall, the results were consistent with research showing that behavioral programs reduce inappropriate or stereotypic behaviors.
9. Quantifying Measures of Intensity in Early Intervention
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Anibal Gutierrez, Jr. (University of Miami), FIORELLA SCAGLIA (Nova Southeastern University), Mary Pawlowski (Nova Southeastern University), Melissa N. Hale (University of Miami), Michael Alessandri (University of Miami), Stephen P. Starin (Behavior Analysis, Inc.), David Garcia (Behavior Analysis, Inc.)
Abstract: Early intervention programs are recommended as an effective treatment for children with autism and other developmental disabilities. Although early intervention has been shown to be effective, program intensity is typically measured and compared in terms of hours in program (e.g., 40 hours per week). Measuring an early intervention programs in terms of hours may not allow for an appropriate evaluation and comparison of the intensity of treatment. Rather, a measure of learning opportunities during intervention sessions would allow for a quantitative analysis of program intensity which would result in a useful measure on which to evaluate and compare early intervention programs. The purpose of this presentation is to propose a quantitative measurement system to quantify the intensity of early intervention programs based on the number of learning opportunities provided to the individual. This presentation will also present pilot data that illustrates the results of this measurement system and discuss implication for clinical practice.
10. Family Characteristics That Contribute to Successful Interventions for Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
KYLE PEER (Temple University), Emily B. Bisen-Hersh (Temple University), Abbi Campbell (Temple University), Philip N. Hineline (Temple University)
Abstract: While early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for individuals with autism, its outcomes vary, and it is important that we attempt to understand this variation. The present study examined family characteristics as potentially affecting the progress of of students between the ages of 3-7 years, who were receiving EIBI within public school classrooms. These factors included (1) maternal age, (2) maternal education, and (3) hours of in home programming prior to entering an EIBI public school setting. Outcome and baseline scores were measured using the academic and language subscales of the Brigance Inventory of Early Development-II assessment. Maternal age and level of education were found to be positively correlated with both baseline scores and child outcome. Number of in home treatment hours were negatively correlated with baseline scores but positively correlated with later outcome. This kind of investigation is important to better understand why students with autism progress at different rates, even when their interventions are similar.
11. Outcome Research of Comprehensive, Intensive, Behavioral Treatment Program for Young Children With Autism: Randomized Control Trial Study
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
YOSHIAKI NAKANO (Tokyo Seitoku University), Takahiro Yamamoto (Japanese Institute for Education and Treatment), Maiko Miyazaki (Japanese Institute for Education and Treatment), Mari Kashio (Japanese Institute for Education and Treatment), Akiko Kato (Japanese Institute for Education and Treatment)
Abstract: There is a great need for additional comprehensive psycho-educational research on early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We started a randomized controlled study of the EIBI for ASD children. To solve the ethical dilemma to conduct randomized studies, we created a least intensive treatment group instead of a placebo. The most intensive treatment group consists of five ASD children (autism=2, PDD=3) and the least group consists of six ASD children (autism=4, PDD=2). We developed a 190-pages treatment manual and trained novice therapists for each families. They provide intensive therapy for 30 or more hours per week for at least two years and the therapy progress is strongly supervised by senior therapists and a supervisor at a weekly clinic meeting. The intensive intervention consists of initial one-on-one teaching at home. The program is comprehensive to meet all of the needs including a toilet training. We also encourage gradual integration into regular kindergarten through deployment of team members. The least intensive treatment group receives a home-visit three-hour consultation for parents, two times a month, for two years. Measures on IQ, SQ, VQ, DQ, and ELM, and direct observation data of social behaviors in a structured setting are taken regularly for all participants.
12. The Acquisition of Stimulus Equivalence Through the Use of Computer Software
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JILL HUNT (Judge Rotenberg Center), Michelle Harrington (Judge Rotenberg Center)
Abstract: In this study, we examined the use of computer software that was designed to make use of the stimulus equivalence phenomenon. Using pictures of common household items, users matched to sample, paired spoken word to image and paired image to written word. We looked to see if further learning occurs; such as being able to match the spoken word to the written word. Each step of this sequence was taught to a pre-determined fluency, before moving onto the next step. All data was plotted on a standard celeration chart.
13. Using Fluency-Based Instruction to Teach Paraphrasing Skills to a 5-Year-Old Boy With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
SARA GOLDSTEIN (FEAT of Washington), Kelly J. Ferris (Organization for Research and Learning), Michael Fabrizio (FEAT of Washington)
Abstract: Rising Star Academy is a behavior analytic and inclusive preschool and kindergarten inclusive. Each student receives a battery of assessments that drive the individualization of their program in combination with their participation in general education curriculum. An assessment of pragmatic language identified paraphrasing as a critical skill for a 5-year-old boy with autism. Paraphrasing was identified to be important for his pragmatic language and social development as well as his participation in the kindergarten general education curriculum. Teachers designed an instructional program utilizing the techniques of fluency based instruction to teach this 5-year-old student the skill of paraphrasing. Charted measures included frequency of correct syllables per minute, correctly paraphrased segments and incorrectly paraphrased segments were charted on the standard celeration chart. Student performance data and detailed instructional sequence data will be shared.
14. The Effects of Voice Output on Word Identification Acquisition and Generalization During Discrete Trial Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
LAWRENCE L. LOCKWOOD (Evergreen Center), Gordon A. DeFalco (Evergreen Center)
Abstract: The effects of auditory labeling of stimuli produced by a voice output device during discrete trial training were evaluated. Participants with diagnoses of autism and mental retardation were taught to point to Mayer-Johnson pictures with printed words. A prompt delay was increased by one second, up to a 5-second delay, after 2 consecutive successful sessions. The effects of picture selection paired with auditory labeling were compared to picture selection with non auditory labeling. Two lists of similar words were selected based on: 1) the average age of receptive acquisition as indicated in the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory, 2) the starting letter of each word, and 3) overall word length. An alternating treatments design was implemented with one auditory and one non auditory discrete trial session conducted each day in alternating order in the morning or afternoon. The number of trials to independent word identification, defined as 2 consecutive discrete trial sessions at 100% independently correct, and the total number of words independently labeled in each condition was compared. Participants were also assessed on their ability to identify physical objects corresponding to the pictures from both lists of words when presented with a verbal cue to point to the object.
15. Effects of Choice-Based Activity Schedules on On-Task Behavior in Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
KRISTIE LYNN MURANO (Garden Academy), Tina Sidener (Caldwell College), Sharon A. Reeve (Caldwell College), David W. Sidener (Garden Academy)
Abstract: We evaluated the effects of choice and no-choice photographic activity schedules on on-task behavior in two boys with autism. Several preference assessments were conducted. An interview was conducted with parents and teachers regarding preferred food items. A stimulus preference assessment was conducted with participants prior to each session. A color preference assessment was conducted daily with participants. Choice and no-choice schedules were identical in every way except for selection of the order of activities. Varied, mastered, and highly preferred leisure activities were used to prevent decreases in on-task behavior due to exposure, skill deficits, or low preference. Reinforcement for schedule-following, but not on-task behavior, was included across conditions to assess the effects of choice alone on on-task behavior. Results indicated that both types of schedules produced substantial increases in on-task behavior, with choice-schedules producing slightly larger effects. Both types of schedules resulted in similar decreases in vocal stereotypy for one participant. Social validity questionnaires indicated high caregiver acceptability of choice schedules. Treatment preference evaluations suggested that participants preferred to choice schedules to no-choice schedules.
16. Generalizing Direction Following With a Child With Autism: With Peers and Around the Classroom
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ELIZABETH B. SNYDER (FEAT of Washington), Kelly J. Ferris (Organization for Research and Learning), Michael Fabrizio (FEAT of Washington)
Abstract: This poster will demonstrate how fluency-based instruction was used to teach a 7-year-old boy with severe autism to follow gesture directions followed by systematic generalization sequences to ensure use of the skill in an integrated kindergarten program. Ensuring skills transfer from tightly controlled teaching arrangements to classroom contexts, is essential for the usability of skill. The student participated in a full day kindergarten behavior analytic inclusive program, five days per week. Fluency-Based Instruction was implemented in a one-on-one setting to teach gesture direction following to a frequency of 30 correct directions per minute. Two generalization outcomes were then targeted in the context of the student’s classroom. First, the student received daily practice opportunities to follow previously acquired gesture directions from his peers throughout the school day. Second, the student was taught to follow gesture directions from across the room in order to make appropriate play choices during his free time. Instructional sequences will be described and all performance data will be displayed on standard celeration charts.
17. The Treatment of Vocal Stereotypy Using Response Interruption and Redirection
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ALLISON GENOVESE (RCS Learning Center), Christina Marie Boyd-Pickard (RCS Learning Center), Bill Leveillee (RCS Learning Center)
Abstract: Recent research has shown that response interruption and redirection (RIRD) of vocal stereotypy has been successful in reducing the occurrence of vocal stereotypy in students with a diagnosis of autism (Ahearn, Clark, & MacDonald, 2007). The current study used a single subject A-B design in which RIRD was implemented for a 12-year-old student with autism who engaged in a high rate of vocal stereotypy. A functional analysis was completed and revealed that vocal stereotypy was most likely maintained by sensory consequences. At baseline the student engaged in vocal stereotypy for an average of 63% of intervals. Following baseline the RIRD procedure was implemented. During intervention all instances of vocal stereotypy were immediately interrupted by the therapist then the student was presented with various known intraverbal fill-ins and questions related to the current task or activity. This procedure continued until the student engaged in three consecutive and appropriate vocal responses in the absence of vocal stereotypy. Data was collected on the occurrence of vocal stereotypy using a 1-minute partial interval recording procedure across the six-hour school day during baseline and intervention. IOA data collection was collected.
18. Differential Reinforcement of a Replacement Behavior to Reduce Aggression of an Adolescent With Severe Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Kelli Adams (Whitworth University), Whitney Randall (Whitworth University), BETTY FRY WILLIAMS (Whitworth University)
Abstract: The purpose of this intervention was to determine if the aggressive behavior of a 17-year-old student with autism could be reduced using direct instruction and differential reinforcement for a replacement behavior in his special education classroom. During each session the researchers used direct instruction methods to work on the student’s IEP goals. When the student showed gentle behavior and used the hand signals taught, he was rewarded with verbal praise and/or a neck rub. When the student started to show signs of behavioral aggression the researchers or instructors working with the student prompted a replacement behavior by having the student squeeze his own hands together instead of displaying aggression on other people. An ABAB research design was implemented. The intervention was effective in decreasing the frequency of behavioral aggression from an average of 23 times per 15-minute session in baseline to an average of 5.4 times per 15-minute session in intervention. The procedure was cost effective and easy to implement.
19. The Use of Self-Management and Delayed Reinforcement to Reduce Maladaptive Behavior in a 14-Year-Old Autistic Boy
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
VIVIENNE GANGA (Autism Spectrum Therapies), Nicole Knudtson (Autism Spectrum Therapies)
Abstract: Self-Management is an intervention commonly used to teach a variety of skills ranging from increasing play skills (Stahmer and Schreibman ,1992) to decreasing self-stimulatory behaviors (Koegel and Koegel, 1990). However, limited research has been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of self-management for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. This case study illustrates the effects of self-management paired with the use of a delayed reinforcement system to reduce maladaptive behaviors, such as aggression, screaming and non-compliace, in a 14-year-old adolescent male with autism spectrum disorder. The student was taught to use the self-management system across the entirety of his day with collaboration between both the school and home environments with intervention and training also occurring in both environments. Results of this intervention showed an initial decrease in maladaptive behavior following the first month of intervention and continued decrease each month after for a period of nine months to near zero levels.
20. Decreasing Disruptive Behavior Through the Use of Differential Reinforcement of Diminishing Rates of Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ADRIENNE J. FREY (Devereux CARES), Jennifer N. Amoroso (Devereux CARES), Jean Hirst (Devereux CARES), Cathleen M. Albertson (Devereux CARES), John Bennett (Devereux CARES), Justin Royer (Devereux CARES)
Abstract: The study examined the effectiveness of differential reinforcement of diminishing rates of behavior on disruptive behaviors using a multiple baseline across subjects. The participants were four male students with autism ages 13-19 years who attended an approved private school for children with autism. Each student chose a reinforcer to earn if he met the set level of criteria for the behavior or lower. In most cases, this reinforcement schedule was visually-mediated for the students by use of a "chance board." When an instance of disruptive behavior occurred, staff removed an icon representing a ‘chance’ from the board. Otherwise, instances of disruptive behavior were ignored by staff. After consecutive days the criteria to earn the chosen reinforcer were changed, either by decreasing the number of instances of disruptive behavior allowed in each interval or lengthening the interval to earn the reinforcer. Results showed that the students’ disruptive behavior decreased after the implementation of the differential reinforcement of diminishing rates of behavior. Inter-observer agreement data was collected on approximately 40% of sessions.
21. The Effects of a Self-Management Treatment Package on Stereotypic Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CARON COSSER (Northwest Behavioral Associates), Mary Tinsley (Northwest Behavioral Associates), Stacey L. Shook (Northwest Behavioral Associates)
Abstract: The literature in using self-management procedures to reduce stereotypic behaviors is extremely limited. However, self-management treatment packages have at least two possible significant advantages over other interventions. These advantages are that the self-management procedures may be applied without the presence of a treatment provider and may be utilized across various natural environments. The current study intends to extend previous research by examining the extent to which a 10-year-old student with moderate autism can reduce his stereotypic behaviors by learning to use a self-management intervention package. A multiple baseline design across behaviors will be used to evaluate the treatment package. The treatment package will consist of training the discrimination of occurrences versus non-occurrences of each targeted behavior, training the implementation of the partial-interval data recording and reinforcement system, and training independence in using the self-management package. Data will be visually summarized and discussed in terms of potential advantages in using individualized self-management procedures to decrease stereotypic behavior.
22. The Effects of Noncontingent Reinforcement in the Treatment of Rumination
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
REGINA A. CARROLL (St. Cloud State University), John T. Rapp (St. Cloud State University), Tasha M. Rieck (St. Cloud State University)
Abstract: Rumination occurs most often in populations with developmental disabilities and can pose many serious health risks. The current study evaluated the effects of noncontingent reinforcement on the post-meal rumination for a young boy with autism. Specifically, the percentage of time the participant engaged in rumination immediately following a meal was measured under conditions when the participant did and did not have noncontingent access to alternative oral stimulation via a chew toy. The results show that post-meal rumination was lower when the participant had noncontingent access to a chew toy than during baseline conditions (i.e. when the chew toy was absent). These results suggest that alternative oral stimulation produced by chewing the toy effectively competed with or substituted for the stimulation produced by rumination. The results are discussed in terms of functionally matched stimulation and motivating operations. Furthermore, the potential benefits of using noncontingent reinforcement with non-food items in the treatment of rumination are discussed.
23. Use of a Multiple Schedule Thinning Procedure to Fade Access to Matched Stimuli Which Reduced the Rate of Automatically Maintained Stereotypy
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ERIC FRANTINO (Johns Hopkins University), Jennifer L. Thorne (Johns Hopkins Medical Institute), Zachary Fisher (Johns Hopkins University)
Abstract: Providing access to preferred stimulation which matches the product of stereotypy has been proven effective in reducing rates of automatically maintained stereotypy. However, often times, the stereotypy will continue to occur once the alternative stimuli are removed. Following an initial functional assessment to confirm the occurrence of the response in the absence of social contingencies, clinicians delivered noncontingent access to matched stimuli in order to access the effects upon stereotypy. The matched stimuli reduced the rate of stereotypy during treatment conditions. An ABAB reversal design was utilized to demonstrate experimental control of the matched stimuli. By identifying the effects of providing access to the matched stimuli, a differential reinforcement based treatment procedure was developed to teach an alternative communication response to access the source of reinforcement. A multiple schedule used distinct stimuli to signal whether alternative responses would produce reinforcement. Schedule thinning for the alternative communication response was accomplished by gradually altering the duration of each schedule of reinforcement while maintaining rates of stereotypy at intervention levels.
24. Treatment of Severe Behavior in a Young Boy With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
KATHRYN M. PETERSON (Help Services Inc.), Richard M. Foxx (The Pennsylvania State University)
Abstract: A comprehensive behavioral treatment was developed for a young boy with autism who engaged in frequent, severe problem behavior in home and school. The need for an intervention became especially evident when this child was hospitalized for extended periods in an inpatient neurobehavioral hospital for severely injuring several family and staff members. Certified behavior analysts conducted initial assessments and observations which led to the implementation of a complex treatment involving antecedent management, various reinforcement techniques as well as behavior reduction strategies. Motivational techniques were developed for the classroom and academic instruction was modified in order to increase attention and focus as well as enhance academic progress. Staff and family members were trained to implement the program within the school and home while the behavior analyst remained involved. As a result, severe problem behavior was reduced to near-zero levels within the first few weeks of intervention and has remained at low rates since that time. There is no longer a fear of injury to the child or others or a threat of being transferred to a more restrictive educational or residential setting. In addition to this progress, the child is now rapidly excelling through academic goals and beginning to integrate into a lesser restrictive classroom.
25. Using the Parent as the Experimenter in Home-Based Functional Analyses: Advantages and Limitations in Application
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
GINA T. CHANG (Autism Spectrum Therapies), Andrea Ridgway (Autism Spectrum Therapies)
Abstract: Functional analyses have been well documented in the literature as the critical practice for accurately determining the function of aggressive and self-injurious behaviors, as well as for determining appropriate interventions to treat these behaviors (Hanley, Iwata, & McCord, 2003). Although numerous studies have replicated its successful use across multiple topographies and functions, limited research has documented its use in naturalistic settings (i.e., the home environment). Even when studies have incorporated naturalistic setting, most still utilize a location within the environment that is easy to control (i.e., corner of a classroom away from the rest of the class) (e.g., Taylor & Miller, 1997), thus the context of the functional analysis “is neutral with respect to the behavioral history,” (Hanley, et al., 2003). This poster examined the use of functional analyses in the home environment to accurately determine the function of aggressive and self-injurious behaviors in three children with autism. For each participant advantages and limitations surrounding parent involvement, impact of the naturalistic environment, and the use of a brief functional analysis were discussed in light of the success of determining the function of the behavior.
26. Further Demonstration of Noise as an Establishing Operation for Negative Reinforcement
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Eric Boelter (Kennedy Krieger Institute), JESSICA ANN BOISJOLI (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: The current study further demonstrates noise as an establishing operation for negative reinforcement during demand conditions. Identifying the variables that maintain problem behavior is the first step in the development of effective interventions. In addition to social consequences maintaining problem behavior, antecedent variables may affect the reinforcement value of a particular event. Such antecedent conditions include establishing operations. The participant of the current study was an 8-year-old male with autism and moderate intellectual disability admitted to an inpatient hospital due to severe problem behaviors. An initial functional analysis resulted in low and variable rates of responding in the demand condition. Anecdotally, problem behavior was reported to occur in situations where loud noise and demands were presented simultaneously. A subsequent modified functional analysis was then conducted to determine if loud noise increased the occurrence of problem behavior during demand situations. Four conditions (demands without noise, demands with noise, toy play without noise, and toy play with noise) were evaluated in a multielement design. Results indicate that loud noise may serve as an establishing operation, increasing the value of negative reinforcement in demand conditions. These results partially replicate previous research (i.e, O’Reilly, Lacey, & Lancioni, 2000).
27. Comparison of Assessment Methods for Indentifying Preferred Topographies of Attention
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MAUREEN KELLY (The New England Center For Children), Eileen M. Roscoe (New England Center for Children), Katurri Phillips (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Numerous studies have documented assessment methods for identifying preferred tangible and edible items for children with developmental disabilities (DeLeon & Iwata, 1996; Fisher et al., 1992; Pace, Ivancic, Edwards, Iwata, & Page, 1985; Roane, Vollmer, Ringdahl, & Marcus, 1998). To date, few studies have evaluated preference or reinforcer assessments that include multiple topographies of attention (e.g., high fives, tickles, hugs, back pats). The purpose of this study was to compare two assessment methods for identifying preferred topographies of attention. Seven topographies of attention were assessed for each participant. Selection of these topographies was based on the results of indirect and descriptive assessment data. The same set of seven stimuli was assessed in both a single-stimulus presentation format and a paired-stimulus presentation format. A reinforcer assessment was conducted using a task on participants’ individualized education plan to validate which method of assessment identified topographies of attention that function as reinforcers.
28. A Functional Analysis of Pica: Distinguishing Between Satiation, Habituation, and Extinction Effects During Extended Alone Conditions
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ALEXANDRA MARIA VLAHOGIANNIS (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey), Shara Marrero (Rutgers University), Yair Kramer (Douglass Devlopmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey), Kimberly Sloman (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey)
Abstract: A functional analysis of pica was conducted to determine the variables maintaining the behavior. First, three series of a traditional functional analysis conditions were conducted, during which the room was baited with uncooked edible items (e.g., uncooked pasta) and non-toxic substances (e.g., modeling clay). Results of the functional analysis showed that pica occurred at high rates across a number of conditions. However, to rule out social reinforcement as a possible maintaining variable , several extended ignore conditions were conducted. Decreases in behavior were observed during the extended alone conditions which could be indicative of extinction of attention-maintained behavior. During the last two extended ignore conditions the room was re-baited with novel non-toxic substances (e.g., crayons and thread) to determine if decreasing rates of behavior were due to either satiation, removal of attention (i.e., extinction), or habituation. Results indicated that decreases in behavior were due to habituation rather than satiation or extinction.
29. Teaching Joint Attention and Imitation in the Comprehensive Early Intervention for Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JUN'ICHI YAMAMOTO (Keio University, Japan), Yoshiko Hara (Keio University), Airi Katoh (Keio University)
Abstract: We have established and applied the comprehensive behavioral early intervention program, which includes discrete-trial teaching, pivotal response teaching, and positive behavioral support with Japanese children with autism. In the present study, we examined our program with respect to how joint attention and imitation promoted the acquisition of language and communication for 10 children with autism. First, we established responsive and initiating joint attention and positive social interaction with adults. This procedure was effective for the development of triadic relationship with child, adult and object. Next, we taught the specific imitation skills of the following responses: self-directed and other directed response, gross and fine motor response, facial expression and eye movement, symmetrical and asymmetrical movement, mouth movement and babbling response, and phonetic and prosodic vocal response. The results indicated that children with autism acquired not only joint attention and generalized imitation and generalization of these acquisitions to the naturalistic situation, but also facilitated the receptive and productive linguistic skills. From the results above, we discussed on the developmental relationships of preverbal skills, which were required in the early behavioral intervention.
30. Video Modelling: Teaching Social Skills to a Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Crystal Chee Ching Chiu (Monash University), ANGELIKA ANDERSON (Krongold Centre, Monash University)
Abstract: The identification of effective psycho-educational interventions to minimize the core deficits of autism, and maximize functional independence and quality of life of individuals with autism, is a challenge for researchers and practitioners. The present study focused on a relatively novel intervention—video modeling, and examined its effectiveness in teaching social skills to a four year old child with autism. Videos of the three target behaviors (sharing, joining in play, and initiating play) were constructed by showing incidences of similar-aged peers or the participant demonstrating those behaviors. A single subject, multiple baseline across behaviors design was employed. Results indicated that the three target behaviors improved through the video modeling intervention. In addition, these behavior changes generalized across settings and peers, and maintained at two-week follow-up. These findings support the effectiveness of video modeling as a procedure for teaching social skills to children with autism, and illustrate its usefulness as a time- and cost-efficient teaching tool, which can be used in a natural environment.
31. Teaching Social Interactions to Students Using Augmentative and Alternative Communication Devices Through Video Modeling
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Bonnie Kraemer (San Diego State University), CHRISTINE W. DALY (San Diego State University)
Abstract: Video modeling is an evidence-based practice that can be used to facilitate social skills in children with autism (Nikopoulos & Keenan, 2004). The present study will explore the effects of a video modeling intervention specifically, on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) usage and social interactions, with a child with autism. A unique aspect of the present study is teaching functional use of an AAC device during social interactions. A videotape of a peer utilizing a communication device and a second peer using verbal speech for engagement during each of three different play and social situations will be presented to the participant. The intervention will consist of using video modeling to teach the student how to use his speech-generating device to interact socially during these target activities. Outcomes will be evaluated using a multiple baseline across activities design. Generalization probes will be conducted across different communication partners. This study will contribute to the every growing research base on video modeling by teaching students who use AAC devices to communicate with their peers in a functional way.
32. Increasing Social Skills in Students With High-Functioning Autism in Inclusion Settings
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
STEPHANIE L. HART (Texas Tech University), Devender Banda (Texas Tech University), Stephanie Sokolosky (Texas Tech University), Lan Liu-Gitz (Texas Tech University), Maud Selasie Dogoe (Central Micihgan University)
Abstract: While students with autism often display delays or deficits in social skills, few studies have been conducted in inclusion settings with high-functioning students diagnosed with autism. This study was conducted to increase peer-to-peer social skills using direct instruction and peer training in two elementary students with high-functioning autism in general education classrooms. The participants were a kindergartener with limited speech and a first-grader with fluent speech. Both participants seldom interacted directly with peers. Each participant was grouped with two to three peers from his classroom. The intervention had two components: guided practice and prompts. First, participants and peers were simultaneously trained to make initiations and responses before the data collection session; next, prompts were given to participants and peers during data collection. A multiple-baseline design across participants was used to determine the effects of the intervention, including probes for maintenance and generalization. Dependent variables were initiations, responses, and prompts. Initiations and responses by peers were recorded to establish norms for each phase. Results showed increases in initiations and responses for both participants, with few overlapping data points for responses. Generalization and maintenance findings and implications for practice are discussed, as well as characteristics of students who may benefit from this intervention.
34. Teaching a Child With Autism to Respond Appropriately to Others' Emotions
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
KATHLEEN MULCAHY (Autism Behavior Intervention, Inc.), Christine Soliva (Autism Behavior Intervention, Inc.), Marla Saltzman (Autism Behavior Intervention, Inc.)
Abstract: Children with autism often experience significant deficits in social skills. One reason for these deficits may be failure to correctly infer the private events of others even though they have experienced similar events. Skinner (1945, 1953, 1957) described how the verbal community, through observation of public accompaniments (i.e., public stimuli) and collateral events (i.e., accompanying public behavior), may teach individuals to tact private events. Failure to correctly tact public accompaniments and collateral events may result in failure to infer the private events of others and result in inappropriate behaviors in social situations. This poster presentation will describe an intervention used to teach a four-year old boy, diagnosed with autism, to infer others’ emotions by teaching him to tact public accompaniments and accompanying public behaviors, answer “how” and “why” questions in order to demonstrate a relationship between the events and the inferred emotions, and to teach him to respond appropriately to others’ emotions in social situations. Data will be collected during this intervention and will be presented during the poster presentation to demonstrate the effectiveness of the intervention and to identify variables responsible for skill acquisition and increasing appropriate social interactions in a young child with autism.
35. Using Stimulus Fading to Teach Word Search Completion With an Individual With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JOSEPH H. CIHON (Special School District of St. Louis County), Sarah Smugala (Loyola University of Chicago), Traci M. Cihon (University of Northern Texas)
Abstract: Stimulus fading can help to increase correct responding through exaggerated stimulus features. In the current application of stimulus fading, font size, and style were manipulated across a series of word search puzzles. Response effort was gradually increased. Initially, the learner was asked to find only one word (presented from left to right). In latter puzzles, the learner was asked to find several words presented in a variety of different directions (e.g., backwards, diagonal). Fifteen puzzle variations were required to produce independent word search completion.
36. Token Systems: An Evaluation of Token Delivery and Removal Procedures
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ARIELLA HABER (BEACON Services), Kristine Fais (BEACON Services), Nicole K. Steber (BEACON Services), Keller MacMath (BEACON Services), Gilah Haber (BEACON Services), Robert K. Ross (BEACON Services)
Abstract: Many children diagnosed with autism and developmental disabilities engage in nonfunctional toy play and demonstrate limited vocalizations. Token economy systems have been effectively used with children with autism to increase social skills and language production (Matson & Boisjoli, 2009). The format of the token economy may vary and may include the contingent delivery of tokens, checks, or points. Once a terminal goal is met (i.e., tokens obtained) the reinforcer is delivered. Likewise, the token economy may involve the contingent removal of tokens (i.e., countdown) in which a student begins with a predetermined amount of tokens and they are removed contingent upon correct responses; once all of the tokens are removed, the reinforcer is delivered. The present study evaluated the effects of the use of both a token delivery and a token removal system used to teach play and language skills to four students with autism.
37. The Effects of Auditory Matching on the Emergence and Improvement of Echoic Responses With Kindergarten Students Diagnosed With Developmental Disabilities
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Jinhyeok Choi (Teachers College, Columbia University), NOOR YOUNUS SYED (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: We tested the effects of the auditory matching procedure on the emergence of full and partial echoic responses with two kindergarten students diagnosed with developmental delays. The students were chosen from a private, publicly-funded elementary school that followed the Comprehensive Application of Behavior Analysis teaching methodology in a self-contained, special education classroom. A time-delayed multiple robe design across participants was used. The dependent variables in the study were the number of partial and full echoic responses emitted by the participants during probe sessions. During intervention sessions, participants were required to match a target sound or word by pressing a button that emitted the correct response. The use of a touch-screen computer technology was used and students progressed through phases after criterion was met on the previous phase. Probe sessions were conducted prior to the onset of the study, as well as following the completion of each phase. Results of the study indicate that for both students, the number of full echoic responses are increasing. For participant A, the number of partial echoic responses are decreasing, as are incorrect responses. For participant B, the number of partial echoic responses are increasing and the number of incorrect responses are decreasing.
38. The Use of Multiple Schedules of Reinforcement to Increase Participation With Nonpreferred Activities
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
COURTNEY BLOOM (Shabani Institute), Rachel Adler (California State University, Los Angeles), Erika Myles (California State University, Los Angeles), Robert R. Pabico (Center for Behavior Analysis and Language Development), Daniel B. Shabani (California State University, Los Angeles)
Abstract: Language training with individuals with developmental disabilities often begins by teaching requesting skills (i.e., mands). Teaching mands often involves delivering the item requested immediately and frequently. This can lead to an undesirably high rate of mands. As a result, multiple schedules of reinforcement have been used to maintain the mand taught at reasonable or sustainable rates in the natural environment. Requests for breaks are mands that may occur frequently since they often times result in a discontinuation of demands. The purpose of the current investigation was to evaluate a multiple schedule arrangement with a request for breaks. In addition, attempts were made to increase academic demands and participation in low preference activities (e.g., dinner time with family members). Results indicated that the multiple schedule was successful in increasing responding and participation during both academic and other non-preferred activities.
39. Teaching Adolescents With Autism to Request Additional Supplies During Vocational Tasks Using an iPod Touch
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MELISSA KAHN (Alpine Learning Group), Deanna Cappiello (Alpine Learning Group), Kathryn Gately (Alpine Learning Group), Karissa Masuicca (Alpine Learning Group), Jaime A. DeQuinzio (Alpine Learning Group), Bridget A. Taylor (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract: As the appearance of activity schedules becomes more technologically elaborate, their use in vocational settings as a means of prompting response chains becomes less stigmatizing for learners with autism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of a photographic and textual schedule presented on an iPod Touch to teach learners with autism to ask coworkers for additional supplies during vocational tasks. A multiple-baseline-across-participants experimental design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the iPod Touch, graduated guidance, and reinforcement on teaching three adolescents with autism to approach a coworker and request more materials in order to complete vocational tasks. Training was conducted in a simulated environment at an educational program for individuals with autism and generalization was assessed in the actual work environment during weekly probes. All three participants learned to approach a coworker and request additional supplies using the iPod Touch in both the simulated environment and in the work environment.
40. Using Video Modeling With Video Feedback to Teach Students With Autism to Make Comments
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
LEIGH ANN S WHEAT (The Shape of Behavior), Brandi M. Castillo (The Shape of Behavior)
Abstract: Children with autism generally make fewer verbal initiations than their peers. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of a video-modeling intervention on making verbal initiations during snack time. A multiple baseline across subjects design will be used. The three subjects are all diagnosed with autism and none of them showed verbal initiations during baseline data collection. During intervention, just prior to snack time the students will watch a video. Two of the three students show imitation of cartoon characters; therefore, puppets will be used in the video segments in an effort to make the videos more appealing to the students. In addition video feedback will be used after snack to give the students information on their verbal initiations. The authors feel that a video modeling approach that includes actors that may be more appealing to students and providing immediate video feedback will result in increased verbal initiations for all students. Data to be collected.
41. Teaching Echoic Behavior in Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
RUBY J. LEWIS (May Institute), Melissa Kay Chevalier (May Institute)
Abstract: In the simplest case in which verbal behavior is under the control of verbal stimuli, the response generates a sound pattern similar to that of the stimulus.” This is how Skinner defined echoics in his book, Verbal Behavior (1957). Many children with Autism and similar developmental disorders are deficit in the area of functional communication. An important prerequisite skill for learning functional language is echoic behavior. In this study, clinicians increased verbal imitation skills in two children with Autism through the use of an echoic behavior training protocol. Much of the previous research on this topic focuses on slightly more advanced vocal imitation skills such as articulation (Eikeseth, S. & Nesset, R., 2003) and accurate imitation of sentences (Risley, T.R. & Reynolds, N.J., 1970) as opposed to solely attempting to increase imitation of simple sounds.
42. Teaching Tooth Brushing to Developmentally Disabled Individuals
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MICHELLE HARRINGTON (Judge Rotenberg Center), Jill Hunt (Judge Rotenberg Center)
Abstract: In this study, we examined different strategies to teach developmentally disabled and autistic individuals to brush their teeth. We used both manual and electric toothbrushes. Procedures used included (1) using a backwards chaining and a set of small predetermined steps, (2) teaching with a group performing each step together, (3) use of external models of teeth, and (4) checking accuracy with the use of tinting mouthwash fluids. Participants were required to be fluent on each step, before moving to the next step. Data was plotted on a standard celeration chart. We were looking at the differences in time to master steps, independence in completing the task and long-term retention when using either the manual or electric toothbrush.
43. The Use of the MP4 Player Watch to Promote Independence and Social Acceptance in Adolescents With Autism in the Local Fitness Club
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
GLORIA M. SATRIALE (PAAL), Peter F. Gerhardt (Organization for Autism Research), Kaori Nepo (PAAL), Avram Glickman (PAAL)
Abstract: The implementation of assistive technology across environments became much easier through the recent advancement of technology with the improved portability. The visual schedule and the auditory prompts with preferred music can be programmed in the portable devices such as MP4 players watch or iPod. The present study is designed to examine whether the use of technology (MP4 player watch and iPod) will promote independent functioning of adolescents with autism in the community. The participants are three students diagnosed with moderate to severe autism between the age of 13 to 21 years. Students will receive visual prompts and/or auditory prompts through MP4 player watch or iPod for their exercise routines at the local fitness center. The data will be collected three to five times per week over a two-month period. Authors plan to demonstrate the effects of the current technology to promote independence and social acceptance of adolescents with autism by delivering visual and auditory prompts via MP4 player watch or iPod.
44. Comparing Point-of-View Versus Scene Video Modeling: In the Teaching of Daily Living Skills
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
AMIE HAHN (BEACON Services), Nathan C. Hahn (BEACON Services), Cheryl Archer (BEACON Services of Connecticut), Robert K. Ross (BEACON Services)
Abstract: Research indicates that video modeling may lead to faster acquisition of targeted responses than in-vivo modeling when teaching skills to children with autism (Charlop-Christy, Le& Freeman, 2000). While many variations of video based instructional (VBI) practices have been identified in the literature, this study compares two variations on the perspective of the video being presented. They are point-of-view (POV) and scene video modeling (SVM). POV procedures involve placing the camera over the shoulder and recording a video model that portray the subject completing a task from their own visual perspective. SVM procedures place the camera distally, portraying a model completing the task. This study compares the effectiveness of POV to SVM in the teaching of daily living skills to children with autism. A multiple baseline design across children and within child across the two conditions (POV and SVM) and across tasks was used. Subjects were presented two activities of daily living from their curriculum; one task for POV, the other for SVM. After viewing the video, children were tested for acquisition of target skills.
45. Ethnicity Reporting Practices for Empirical Research in Three Autism-Related Journals
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
NIGEL PIERCE (Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk), Christina L. Fragale (Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk), Jeannie Marie Aguilar (The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk), Pamela White (Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk), Mark F. O'Reilly (Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk)
Abstract: Over the last eight years, ethnicity has not adequately been reported in autism related journals. This issue exists even though the American Psychological Association Publication Manual provides guidelines for such reporting practices. With a proliferation of research conducted in the field of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), it is imperative to reevaluate the methodological practices in reporting ethnicity. The purpose of this review is to first, identify the ethnicity reporting practices for research participants in three autism-related journals. Second, identify the frequency of ethnicity reporting. An examination of how the field of ASD research can advance its’ ethnicity reporting practices is also described.
46. An Evaluation of Responding During Generalization Training Trials With Computer-Assisted Instruction or One-on-One Instruction
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ANDREA STEARNS (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Tiffany Kodak (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Wayne Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Kelly J. Bouxsein (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Previous research has compared computer-assisted instruction (CAI) to other methods of instruction (e.g., one-on-one instruction) to evaluate whether CAI produces superior levels of acquisition (Chen & Bernard-Opitz, 1993; Moore & Calvery, 2000; Williams, Wright, Callaghan, & Coughlan, 2002). In these preliminary studies, CAI was associates with decreased levels of problem behavior, but differences in the rate of acquisition favoring CAI were observed in some studies but not others. We sought to extend the research on CAI by comparing one-on-one instruction and CAI during generalization trials to evaluate which procedure resulted in generalization of previously-trained stimuli with an individual diagnosed with autism. Results indicated that one-on-one instruction produced prompt dependence, and the participant waited for a prompt to engage in a correct response. In comparison, CAI resulted in correct unprompted responding during generalization trials. The implications of instructional formats for programming for generalization will be described.
47. Effect of Performance Feedback in In-Home Settings on Appropriate Tone and Audibility of Speech of Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CHISATO KOMATSU (Autism Spectrum Therapies), Andrea Ridgway (Autism Spectrum Therapies), Glenda Ramos (Autism Spectrum Therapies), Aghavni Jouharian (Autism Spectrum Therapies)
Abstract: Parent education is a vital component in intervention delivery in in-home settings with children with autism. Frequent verbal feedback given from the intervention provider, however, does not result in high treatment integrity by the parents. Performance feedback is a successful model of consultation that has been widely utilized in general education settings with classroom teachers. Research on its effect in in-home settings with parents is scarce. The current study was conducted in order to evaluate the effectiveness of performance feedback during in-home behavioral services provided to children with autism and their families. Specifically, performance feedback was practiced on parents’ use of behavioral strategies in teaching appropriate tone and audibility of speech. Through the program, two parents participated and were given process feedback (i.e., treatment integrity) and outcome feedback (i.e., child behavioral outcome) three times weekly. Utilizing a multiple baseline across participants design, parents’ treatment integrity and the use of appropriate tone and audibility of speech by the child participants were monitored across baseline, intervention, and generalization phases.



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