Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


36th Annual Convention; San Antonio, TX; 2010

Event Details

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Poster Session #98
EDC Poster Session 1
Saturday, May 29, 2010
6:00 PM–7:30 PM
Exhibit Hall A (CC)
106. The Effects of Copy, Cover, Compare Training on the Acquisition of Sight Words in Children Diagnosed With Autism
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
KARI L. COLWELL (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Susan K. Malmquist (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Jennifer Goubeaud (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: Abstract: Research has demonstrated that the use of phonics is effective in teaching reading skills in general, however little research in sight word acquisition has been conducted with children diagnosed with Autism. The systematic use of phonemes includes presentation of a logical sequence to build letter-sound recognition (NPR, 2000). Research suggests that with fluency training, students can be expected to have longer endurance and more correct responding for trained tasks (McDowell & Keenan, 2001). Previous research that included the copy, cover, and compare (CCC) method to teach a variety of skills across different subject areas demonstrated an increase in student’s academics. (Cieslar, McLaughlin, & Derby, 2008). Additionally, research suggests the CCC method is more effective than picture matching in improving the reading skills of typically-developing children (Cieslar, McLaughlin, & Derby, 2008). The current study examines the use of phonemic fluency and CCC to determine if teaching letter sounds to fluency in addition to implementation of the CCC method affects the acquisition of sight words in children diagnosed with Autism.
107. The Effects of Training Component Skills to Fluency on Mathematic Word Problems Accuracy and Rate
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JENNA K. NIKULA (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Susan K. Malmquist (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Melissa Twarek (The Hope Institute)
Abstract: Mathematical word problem solving is an area in which children have difficulties efficiently extracting critical information. Specifically, speed of responding has been shown to be a problem with individuals with disabilities, such as Specific Learning Disabilities or Autism. The results of this study will be used to further a research base that has largely focused only on accuracy of responding for children with special needs. In this study, we will examine the effects of teaching 2nd and 3rd grade children diagnosed with Autism or another developmental disability to identify component aspects of addition and subtraction word problems. Children will be taught to identify the component responses (initial value, change value, operation, and resulting value) using a fluency-based approach. A multiple baseline design across behaviors will be used to show treatment effects. This research will help to determine the extent to which teaching component skills to fluency improves both speed and accuracy of an important composite skill, correct word problem solving.
108. The Effects of Mobile and Immobile Record Floors in Fluency Timings on the Rates of Responding and Endurance for Learners in General Education Settings
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ANNA BARBARA BRANSKI (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), John W. Eshleman (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Charles T. Merbitz (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: In this replication and extension of Cissell (2009), the differences in rates of responding during fluency timings are compared between conditions in which immobile and mobile record floors are used. Participants are five- to nine-years-old students from general education classrooms in a public school. Dependent variables in this study are numbers of words read and math facts answered per minute. Several sets of flash cards are used and participants learn to respond to them to pre-determined fluency levels where the recording time is either variable or fixed. First, participants learn to respond to a set of 15 flashcards in each condition until they reach fluency, and then later, they learn new sets of 40 flashcards to fluency in each condition. In each condition, participants are asked to respond to their flashcards in two-minute trials after they reach their fluency aims to determine endurance (Binder, 1996). The present study will check for any differences between rates of responding in mobile and immobile record floors conditions, and differences between these results for sets of 15 cards and sets of 40 cards. Frequency data of acquisition and outcomes of endurance checks will be presented.
109. Observational Learning and Peer Tutoring Sessions for Teaching Spelling Words
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
NANCY MARIE MONDELLO (Hawthorne Public Schools), Patrick R. Progar (Caldwell College), Sharon A. Reeve (Caldwell College), JoAnn Pereira Delgado (The Fred S. Keller School and Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: Observational learning, a commonly used classroom technique, has also been used to examine the effects of peer models, especially for students with developmental disabilities. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of observational learning when peer tutoring sessions were conducted both correctly and incorrectly. The participants were three elementary school students diagnosed with either autism or multiple disabilities. All students were members of a self-contained, language/learning disabled primary grade class that utilized the principles of applied behavior analysis. The target behavior was vocally spelling target words. An alternating treatments design was implemented to investigate test conditions in which peer tutoring sessions were delivered correctly and incorrectly and the effects on learning were measured for both the observational learner and peer tutoring dyad. The results indicated that correct spelling of words during phases in which tutoring sessions were delivered correctly yielded higher gains when compared to tutoring phases not delivered correctly for both the tutee and the observational learner. However, gains were generally comparable for the tutor under both conditions. These results demonstrated that tutors may make academic gains just by instructing others. Even though learners spelled more words correctly during higher levels of treatment integrity, learning also occurred during treatments that were implemented with lower levels of integrity. These results suggest that similar to other behavioral interventions, the benefits of observational learning were greatest for the observer when treatments were implemented correctly, but the acquisition of correctly spelled words still occurred under conditions with low treatment integrity.
110. Implementation of the Peer Assisted Learning Strategies Curriculum in a Special Education Classroom by Assigning Cross-Grade Peers
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
TIMOTHY MICHAEL YEAGER (California State University, Fresno), Marianne L. Jackson (California State University, Fresno), Amanda N. Adams (California State University, Fresno)
Abstract: The passage of the No Child Left Behind Act requires teachers to implement and use research supported practices in their classrooms. These practices must be applicable to core-curriculum instruction and must facilitate access to standards-based curriculum for students with disabilities. Peer Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) was created to support the general, standards-based curriculum by manipulating a series of research based instructional methods to deliver reading instruction through peer mediation. The PALS curriculum centers around the use of high- achieving peers to prompt, correct, and reinforce lower-achieving peers in a series of reading tasks. PALS has shown to be effective in improving reading fluency and comprehension for both general and special education students. At this time, research on PALS implementation in a classroom serving multiple grade levels using cross-grade peers has not been conducted. My research will present the effectiveness of implementing the PALS curriculum in a special education classroom, serving multiple grade levels, by assigning cross-grade peers according to ability. Results from this examination will be presented. The effectiveness of implementing the PALS curriculum in a special education classroom serving multiple grade levels by assigning cross-grade peers according to ability will be discussed.
111. Heads Together: A Peer Mediated Option to Improve Student Reading Comprehension Scores
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
WILLIAM HUNTER (University of Cincinnati), Todd F. Haydon (CECH, University of Cincinnati)
Abstract: Students with disabilities in self-contained classrooms frequently exhibit academic skill deficits as well as behavioral deficits, particularly in the area of reading. Cooperative learning strategies, such as peer mediated instruction, when used as an intervention has increased reading and language achievement for students with various disabilities (Fore, Riser, & Boon, 2006, Jenkins et al., 1994). Numbered Heads Together (NHT) is an instructional intervention that combines the components of teacher-directed and peer-mediated instruction while using a distinct teacher questioning strategy that increases active student participation (Maheady, et al., 1991). This poster will provide an overview of the participants, setting, research design, procedures, measurement, and results of a study, which examined the effects of numbered heads together (NHT) on teacher behavior and student academic outcomes in reading comprehension.
112. Moving Beyond Picture Naming: The Next Generation of Oral Language Individual Growth and Development Indicators
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Tracy Bradfield (University of Minnesota), AMANDA C. BESNER (University of Minnesota), Alisha Wackerle (University of Minnesota), Braden Schmitt (University of Minnesota), Scott R. McConnell (University of Minnesota), Kate Jones (University of Minnesota)
Abstract: For the past decade, the Picture Naming Individual Growth and Development Indicator (IGDI) has been the most widely and consistently used general outcome measure (GOM) of oral language development in young children. While Picture Naming has been useful for general screening purposes, and to examine very broad scale growth in language development over the preschool years, the existing Picture Naming format is not sensitive enough to be used for progress monitoring within an early childhood Response to Intervention (RtI) system. Further, we currently do not have sufficient evidence that Picture Naming is the best possible measure of oral language development in young children. The current study describes the research, development, and field testing of several newly developed general outcome measures (GOMs) of oral language development in preschool aged children. Evidence of the newly developed tests’ psychometric properties as well as recommendations for their use within a tiered model of language and literacy assessment and intervention (i.e.: language and literacy focused early childhood RtI) are discussed.
113. Effect of Function-Based Intervention for Behavior Problems of a Student With Developmental Disabilities and Treatment Implementation in School Settings
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
YOICHI GOMI (University of Tsukuba)
Abstract: The present study examined the effects of the function-based interventions for the student’s participation and teachers’ implementation. A student with Asperger's syndrome and whole school staffs were participated. Descriptive Functional assessment for the student behavior suggested that the behavior problems might be maintained by function of escape and attention. In primary intervention, procedures for setting events and extinction were introduced. In secondary intervention, based on the functional assessment for teachers, the modified procedure with visual cues for implementation was introduced. The visual cues were also expected to function as an alternative behavior of the behavior problems and discriminative stimulus for student participation. The results showed that the function-based intervention with visual cues was more effective for reducing the student’s behavior problems and facilitating the school staff implementation than primary intervention. The results suggested that the visual cues functioned as following: (a) the reinforcer which was functionally equivalent to the behavior problems, (b) the visual cues for participation, (c) the visual cues for teacher implementation of extinction. The results were discussed in terms of the function of the permit cards and importance of assessment for teachers.
114. School-Wide Behavior Support Research: Treatment Integrity, Outcome Measures and Initial Results
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Leia D. Blevins (East Tennessee State University), JAMES J. FOX (East Tennessee State University), Ashley Hansen (East Tennesse State University)
Abstract: School-wide Behavior Support (SWPBS) is a positive, skill building approach to school discipline wherein the intervention targets are all students in school, students with disabilities as well as students who are typically developing. Although SWPBS has been increasingly applied in schools over the past 12 years and there have been some applied analyses of its effects, significant methodological and clinical issues remain. This poster will first present selected parameters of an empirical review of SWPBS research, focusing on treatment integrity (a measure of the independent variable, the SWPBS intervention) and on measures of behavior outcome (the dependent variable, student behavior change). Secondly, we will present preliminary results of our ongoing research in which SWPBSis being replicated across 5 elementary schools in two different school districts. Treatment integrity measures include data on teacher and staff use of a token reinforcer ticket system. Student outcomes include the number and type of office disciplinary referrals (ODRs). Initial results of school Number 1 indicate a reduction in ODRs concurrent with application of the SWPBS intervention as well as fewer students exhibiting high-risk levels of ODRs. Replication is underway in the other 4 schools. Suggestions for future research and implications for SWPBS are addressed.
115. Application of Three-Tiered Instruction Model for Japanese 2nd Grade Students to Improve Multiplication Fact Performance
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
WATARU NODA (Kwansei Gakuin University), Junko Tanaka-Matsumi (Kwansei Gakuin University)
Abstract: In Japan, 4.5 % of students in regular classrooms have been reported to exhibit academic difficulty (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology, 2003). The present study applied a three-tiered instruction model and the Instructional Hierarchy (Haring & Eaton, 1978) to improve multiplication fact accuracy and fluency of 2nd grade students in Japan. The authors assisted in the design of the program. Students in two Japanese 2nd grade regular classrooms (N = 61) participated in the study. Throughout the study, the number of students who mastered multiplication fact (think-say multiplication fact accurately, and see/write 20 multiplication fact in one-minute) and the number of correct/incorrect digits in one-minute assessment were monitored on a daily and weekly basis. In Stage 1, as baseline, the classroom teachers conducted typical classroom instruction and monitored students’ progress. Two-thirds of the students in each class reached the criterion of mastering multiplication fact, but the remaining students showed variable lack of progress. In Stage 2, classroom teachers implemented a class-wide intervention (Cover, copy, Compare etc.) to help students with poor performance. Finally in Stage 3, intensive instruction was implemented to students who did not respond adequately to the class-wide intervention. Results of the present study were discussed in terms of data based educational decision-making in regular classrooms.
116. Effects of Attention on Free-Operant Preference Assessments
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MEGHAN PANGBORN (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Crystal Marie Wissinger (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Jennifer Dawn Magnuson (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Preference assessments are frequently conducted to determine potential reinforcers for use in skill acquisition and problem behavior reduction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether attention influences toy preference in young children. Three typically developing individuals with a mean age of 4 years 2 months participated during an admission into an intensive feeding program. In Phase 1 researchers conducted a free-operant preference assessment with 7 items and recorded the duration of toy engagement across 3 sessions. Based on the results of Phase 1, the items were separated into two groups that were presented concurrently during Phase 2. The first group consisted of the 3 items with highest percentage of engagement and the second group consisted of the remaining 4 items. If the participant interacted with any of the items from the first group no attention was provided but engagement with items from the second group resulted in continuous attention from a staff member. After 3 sessions researchers reversed back to Phase 1 and presented all 7 items in the absence of attention. Results demonstrate that attention impacts toy preference in 2 of the 3 participants. Implications for providing attention during preference assessments and treatment are discussed.
117. Functional Assessment Checklist for Students: Students as Informants in the FBA Process
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
SHELLEY KAY MULLEN (University of Oregon), Cristy Coughlin (University of Oregon)
Abstract: The majority of evidence guiding the use of functional behavioral assessment in schools is derived from research evaluating the utility of conducting FBAs with individuals with significant difficulties in controlled, experimental settings. Because of this, there is considerable concern regarding the applicability of the methods and tools involved in the FBA process to higher-functioning students in applied settings. This poster will describe a research project that was conducted to explore the use of a student-guided interview as part of the FBA process in schools. Students referred for behavior problems at school were interviewed with a tool that we created based on the format of an existing structured interview designed for use with teachers. We piloted this tool with students in 3rd-8th grade and evaluated agreement between information gathered from teachers with information gathered from students. We will present the results of this pilot study in our poster presentation, highlighting the areas in which the highest level of agreement was found and the areas in which sources agreed to a lesser degree. Session attendees will learn about the potential use of student interviews to help inform FBAs and behavior support planning.
118. The Effect of an Applied Behavior Analysis Based Treatment on the Participation of a Kindergarten Student With Autism Spectrum Disorder in a General Education Classroom
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
BRANDI SLIDER (West Virginia University), Daniel E. Hursh (West Virginia University), Bobbie Warash (West Virginia University), Reagan P. Curtis (West Virgina University), Vicci Tucci (Tucci Learning Solutions, Inc.)
Abstract: Most difficulties the student experienced at school were due to deficits in the participator repertoire. These difficulties occurred when the student was involved in a non-preferred activity. He many times did not reach a desired level of appropriate participation and in the process disrupted the activity. The study employed a multiple baseline design applying a sticker-based token system intervention across classroom activities. The reinforcer was one minute of access to preferred activities after completing the non-preferred activity. Across the study the delivery of the same number of stickers was spread over longer periods creating a more intermittent schedule of reinforcement. The results of the intervention showed increases in appropriate participation and decreases in inappropriate participation across classroom activities. These results allowed the student to be successfully integrated into the general education kindergarten class. The student now is in a general education first grade class and participating well across all class activities.
119. Preparing Teachers to Train Parents in the Use of Evidence-Based Tutoring Strategies for Reading Fluency
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
SARA S. KUPZYK (University of Nebraska-Lincoln), Edward J. Daly III (University of Nebraska-Lincoln)
Abstract: Although evidence-based tutoring strategies for improving reading fluency have been identified, parental reports indicate lack of information from teachers about how to help at home. Furthermore, researchers have yet to examine the effectiveness of providing parent training in the use of effective strategies in school settings using teachers as trainers. An evidence-based reading package including listening passage preview, repeated reading, error correction, and performance feedback was developed. Teachers were trained in dyads using video-training and practice with feedback. Once teachers met criteria for parent training in tutoring for reading, they trained parents in the use of the tutoring strategies. Parents implemented the reading fluency tutoring package for eight weeks. The teacher monitored student performance and provided feedback to parents and students regarding progress and implementation. A series of multiple-baseline across participants designs were employed to evaluate the effects of the training on parent tutoring skills and student reading performance. Results will be discussed in terms of the treatment elements that appear to improve and maintain teacher, parent, and student skills. Additionally, future applications of evidence-based practices and considerations for implementation and sustainability in real world settings will be presented.
120. Barriers to the Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices in Early Childhood Education
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
Kristen Rezzetano (Duquesne University), Stephanie Marshall (Duquesne University), Kara McGoey (Duquesne University), TEMPLE SHARESE LOVELACE (Duquesne University)
Abstract: This study analyzed the barriers introduced by local early childhood education facilities located in a midsize metropolitan area. This study was done in an attempt to understand the research-to-practice gap that exists in early childhood settings, service providers were provided with a multi-part survey that addressed the variables of treatment acceptability, treatment identification, and job satisfaction. The research team posed the following research questions: The research team poses the following research questions: (1) What are the effects of job stress as it relates to teachers’ degree of intervention implementation? (2) What levels of training correlate to the teachers’ degree of intervention implementation? (3) How do the availability of resources relate to the teachers’ degree of intervention implementations? (4) How does the availability of support from others related to the teachers’ degree of implementation? (5) How do student variables correlatewith the teachers’ degree of intervention implementation? (6) How do educator variables relateto the teachers’ degree of intervention implementation? (7) Is the acceptability of an intervention different than the barriers to intervention implementation? Lastly, contributions of this study and future research are presented.



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