Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


36th Annual Convention; San Antonio, TX; 2010

Event Details

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Poster Session #410
EDC Poster Session 4
Monday, May 31, 2010
12:00 PM–1:30 PM
Exhibit Hall A (CC)
124. Scientific Analysis of Texts and Verbal Skills in College Students
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MARIA DEL REFUGIO LOPEZ GAMIÑO (FES Iztacala UNAM), Maria Luisa Cepeda Islas (FES Iztacala UNAM), Carlos Santoyo (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México)
Abstract: At the university level, students are expected to actively respond to the learning process, not just memorize and repeat the information gained, but also is a producer of knowledge. Interested in this problem, Santoyo (2001) proposes "The text analysis strategy," which promotes the development of complex skills. This proposal has been assessed in different settings with encouraging results. A key part to raise this strategy as appropriate in the training college is to assess what other factors involved in its implementation. The importance of this study is to show the interaction between participants' verbal ability and training in scientific text analysis, thus enabling it to observe the development process. The research design was conducted with a pretest and posttest group. Were randomly selected group of students from the career of Biology who participated in the workshop of text analysis, two hours per week for seven sessions. Both the pretest and posttest consisted of two tests (the verbal ability and the analysis of texts). The training was the use of the strategy for five consecutive sessions. Each student was evaluated analyzing the corresponding article. The results were analyzed descriptively using as a primary measure achievements both in the pretest and posttest. The main finding of this study identifies an interaction between verbal ability and analysis of scientific texts
125. Text Analysis, Web-Based Reading, and Learning Transfer: The Case of Scientific Articles
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
DIANA L. MORENO (Universidad Nacional de Mexico), Guadalupe Rendon Ruezga (FES Iztacala UNAM), Maria Luisa Cepeda Islas (FES Iztacala UNAM)
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to show the benefits of using a Web based interactive system for the development of comprenhension reading skills of scientific texts in undergraduate psychology students. A learning system was constructed according to instructional design principles. The system includes programmed activities to teach the the following kinds of knowledge: declarative, concepts, principles, procedures and problem solving. Likewise the activities were programed in order to teach the following reading skills: Identification of Unit Analysis, Ideltification of the Methodological Strategy, Justification, Objetives of Purpose, Basic Assuptions, Internal and External Consistency. One hundred forty students participated in a Pretest and Postest, all students were trained to analyse Experimental Psychology articles from Web, the sessions of training were eigth and included different difficulty levels, in every session was revised one element of strategy (unit analysis, basic assuptions etc.), the activities included examples, evaluations, practices etc. Twenty students evaluated their projects of research development in class with strategy learned in the Web. The results showed significative differences between in the scores of Pretest and Postest, an analysis detailed indicated that students with the lower grades in Pretest were the main beneficiaries. The results suggest important advantages of the courses with on line material and demonstrated the ability of students to transfer their learning to novel situations. finally discuss the implications of online systems in the teaching of psychology
126. The Effects of Teacher Errors Using Data-Based Decision Strategies on Students’ Rate of Skill Acquisition
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
SARAH HIVELY (Marcus Autism Center), Dana M. Zavatkay (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Research has shown that increased rates of skill acquisition for students when teachers were trained not just to record acquisition data but also to analyze and use these data to make programming decisions according to a set of predetermined rules (Sharpe, Hawkins, &Ray 1995; Keohane & Greer 2005). In the present study 8 classroom teachers from both rural and metropolitan public school districts were trained by a Board Certified Behavior Analyst in methods of implementation and data collection associated with discrete trial training. The teachers were also trained to make data-based decisions according to specified rules for making changes in program targets and for adding or fading prompts used during teaching. Data will be presented showing the types of teacher decision making errors made and what effects these errors had on students’ rate of skill acquisition. Finally, some suggestions for reducing teacher errors will be presented.
127. The Effects of Intertrial Interval Duration on Maladaptive Behaviors, Compliance, and Acquisition
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the effects of intertrial interval duration (ITI) on maladaptive behaviors, compliance, and rate of acquisition. A concurrent operant design was used to the compare the effects with two children with autism. Each participant was taught to discriminate among 3 novel stimuli with a short and long ITI duration. The results indicated that short ITI durations were superior in decreasing maladaptive behaviors for both participants. Short ITI durations also increased the rate of acquisition for Child 1, whereas, Child 2 showed the highest rate of acquisition with the long ITIs. Further investigation is needed to find the optimal ITI duration for Child 2.
128. The Effects of a Direct Instruction Reading Program on Students Diagnosed With Learning and Behavioral Challenges
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Charles Johnson (Missouri State University), David Goodwin (Missouri State University), Lachelle Clemons (Missouri State University), Emily Eckert (Missouri State University), LINDA G. GARRISON-KANE (Missouri State University)
Abstract: The purpose of this applied study was to determine the effectiveness of a direct instruction reading intervention, Laubach Way to Reading (LWR), for 79 students with disabilities. This research study consisted of a pre test/post test group Quan-Qual model research design. A pre- and post-test measuring the Lexile Framework for Reading was given to each subject using the Scholastic Reading Inventory computer-based assessment. Additionally, survey data in the form of a questionnaire and random student interviews were conducted through out the study to assess students’ perception and attitudes regarding the reading intervention. In addition to the two group studies, a series of single subject design studies were also employed with 5 students at separate school sites to assess the effectiveness of the reading intervention (LWR) on the students' on and off-task behaviors. In each study (group and single-subject), reading behaviors increased. Results from the group study: paired-sample t-test on the first cohort (n=39) revealed that post test intervention scores on the SRI were significantly higher than pre-intervention scores (M=-1.49.13, SD=156.9t (38)=-5.95,p<.001. A paired-sample t-test on the second cohort (n=29) revealed that post interventions scores on the SRI were significantly higher than pre-intervention scores (M=-102.517 SD=140.4 t(28)=-3.931,p,.001. Data collection is currently in progress for the single-subject design studies.
129. Identifying Antecedent Events Correlated With High and Low Levels of Problem Behavior in School Settings: Using Visual Analysis of Data Collected With Descriptive Assessment
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
LISA PAANANEN (St. Cloud State University), John T. Rapp (St. Cloud State University), Nairim C. Rojas Ramirez (St. Cloud State University), Sarah M. Richling (St. Cloud State University), Aaron R. Nystedt (St. Cloud State University)
Abstract: Seven students from typical or special education classrooms were referred for behavioral services in school settings. As a part of a standard behavioral assessment, data for each student’s target behavior were collected across three or more academic activities (e.g., language arts, mathematics, hand-writing) within their typical classroom settings for approximately 20 hours. The data were graphically depicted according to each classroom topic or activity and then visually inspected within multielement designs. For nearly every participant, data were differentiated such that one or more conditions contained elevated levels of the target behavior and one or more conditions contained low levels of the target behavior. For most participants, the results were used to develop (a) specific experimental conditions that were used within a brief functional analysis or (b) context specific interventions to decrease problem behavior and increase appropriate behavior. These findings potentially extend the literature on descriptive assessment by illustrating an approach that can be utilized independent of conditional probability analyses by evaluating the data within a commonly utilized single-subject design.
130. The Collateral Reductive Effect of Three Mathematics Instructional Strategies on Challenging Student Behaviors
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JO A. WEBBER (Texas State University), Glenna Billingsley (Texas State University.)
Abstract: Effective academic instruction is touted as an important antecedent to appropriate school behavior and often recommended as a primary positive behavioral support (PBS). However, the relationship of instructional strategies to school behavior remains ambiguous for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) who present with both challenging behavior and below-average academic performance, with no clear determination of reciprocal influence. The most common school practices assume that appropriate student behavior must precede effective academic instruction. Accordingly, limited research is available regarding the effects of various academic instructional strategies for students with EBD on either academic performance or behavior reduction. This study used a single-subject alternating treatments research design to compare three math instructional methods: direct teach, computer-assisted instruction, and a combination of both methods on (1) math quiz scores, and (2) frequency of challenging behaviors (i.e., off-task behavior, inappropriate language usage, and absences) for two adolescents with EBD. Results confirm a reduction in inappropriate language usage and off-task behavior with the Combined method for both students. However, performance on math quizzes was highest with Direct Teach for both students and absences remained high across all three methods.
131. Teaching Check Writing to Adolescents With Special Needs
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ALONNA MARCUS (AdvoServ), Terry J. Page (AdvoServ), Daniel Davis (Advoserv), Maynard Caulk (Advoserv)
Abstract: Adolescents with emotionally disturbed diagnosis may have difficulties in learning functional skills. Particpants all had dual diagnoses and exhibited inappropiate behavior which included property destruction, self injurious behavior, and aggression. Following a task anaylsis, modeling was used to teach specific bill paying skills. Permanent product data was collected. A multiple baseline across individuals was used. Additonal data to be collected.
132. Jump Start: An Early Intervention Plan to Help Struggling High School Freshman Students Achieve
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
RICK SHAW (Behavior Issues), Joe Potts (Kent School District), Tracy Habrel (Kent School District)
Abstract: An early academic program was created to supply additional support to freshman students at a 4-year high school. As core classes, science, history, math, and English, become more challenging to meet national and state standards, students have struggled more recently then in years past to academically achieve. This struggle includes an increase in failing grades during freshman and sophomore years, as well as a decrease in graduation rates. Jump Start is a program that indentifies students who are considered at-risk prior to entering high school. These students are identified in the 8th grade by their counselors, teachers, and administration. During the summer, parents and students were directly called and invited to participate with Jump Start. A dinner for the parents included training for monitoring their child’s grades on-line. The following days the students participated in workshops for organization skills, note taking techniques, resources, and a play about school rules. Every student that participated in Jump Start entered school on the first day with a binder, paper, dividers, pencils, and a planner. Throughout the remainder of the year special groups met once a week to monitor academic progress, organization and provide additional ongoing support.
133. Using Multiple Targets and Variables for the Complexity of School Consultations: An Example
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
TODD F. HAYDON (CECH, University of Cincinnati), William Hunter (University of Cincinnati), David W. Barnett (University of Cincinnati)
Abstract: The overuse of redirections as a method to control student behavior creates chaotic, noisy, and disorganized classroom environments (Engelmann & Carnine, 1991; Madsen, Becker, & Thomas, 2001). However, as teachers ask more questions and provide feedback on correct responses (praise) and incorrect responses (error correction) they tend to use fewer redirections (Madsen, et al., 2001). A single case withdrawal design was used to investigate the effects of behavioral consultation on a teacher and two middle school students (a targeted student and typical achieving peer) during a health science class. During baseline the teacher had high rates of redirections, low rates of opportunities to respond and praise statements while the targeted student had low rates of on-task behavior. During intervention conditions, the teacher utilized two types of questioning strategies and the student demonstrated a higher rate of correct responses, increased on-task behavior, and higher test score percentages; furthermore, the teacher had fewer redirections and increases in praise statements. A discussion of data from a selected control condition is also provided. A discussion on study limitations, implications, and future research directions is included.
134. The Functional Relationship Between Social Skills of Preschool Children and Teacher Activities
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MARCO W. SALAS-MARTINEZ (Universidad Veracruzana), Esperanza Ferrant Jimenez (University of Veracuz), Cintia Sarai Aguilar Salazar (Cintia Sarai Aguilar Salazar), Claudia Nakazona Peña (Claudia Nakazona Peña)
Abstract: The Mexican Program for Preschool Education (NPPE, 2004) recommends to teach social skills to children but it does not specify what activities should be performed by the teachers, nor the skills, information that they should possess, nor identify the basic repertories that require children to learn the knowledge and social skills identified by the program. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the functional relationship of teachers activities, and social skills of preschool students. Participants were 20 students who were enrolled in the third grade of a kindergarten school, two teachers also participated in the research. They were randomly assigned to either, an experimental or control group. Once the students and teachers’ skills were behaviorally defined, they were video-recorded in pre and post test conditions. Only the teacher of the experimental group was trained in the establishment of basic repertoires and the skills and activities that she needed to perform in order their children acquire knowledge, skills and social attitudes. The teacher of the control group was performing according to the traditional program. The statistical data show that the purpose of the study was reached.
135. Teaching Adults Literacy Skills Through the Digital Method Based on Applied Behavioral Principles
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MARCO W. SALAS-MARTINEZ (Universidad Veracruzana), Marisol Barreda Cano (Marysol Barreda Cano), Esperanza Ferrant Jimenez (University of Veracuz), Martin Ortiz Beno (Martin Luis Ortiz Bueno), Rafael Jacome Serena (Rafael Jacome Serena), Enrique Zepeta Grcia (University of Veracruz)
Abstract: In Veracruz, Mexico, there are 651,470 illiterates adults. The methods used to teach literacy have not had the desired effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acquisition of literacy skills as a function of a digital programmed method based on Applied Behavior Analysis, which allowed the illiterate adult to read and write at their own time and pace, being motivated to learn. Tests were administered to 4 adults to assess their computer literacy skills. Later in the pilot phase was implemented to 4 adult women between 40 and 60 years old, a computer program that provided a repertoire computer’s basic skills, and they were exposed to the programmed digital literacy method. A Changing Criterion Experimental design was used. Pre and post tests about learning of every unit of literacy was applied. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of the method programmed digital literacy based on the principles of applied behavior analysis for developing literacy skills of adults. The characteristics of the method would probably reduce the rate of illiterate adults in the state of Veracruz.
136. Behavior Analytic Strategies in Postsecondary Instruction: A Quantitative and Qualitative Review
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MICHELLE TURAN (University of Windsor), Chrystal E.R. Jansz (NONE), Mana Ebrahimi (Mohawk College)
Abstract: In the last 15 years, relatively few behaviour analytic contributions to the literature on postsecondary instruction can be found. The research ranges from specific strategies, such as maximizing learning through equivalence class formations, to systems-based approaches in teaching, such as interteaching and personalized systems of instruction (PSI). This poster will review the types of behavior analytic strategies in postsecondary instruction in the literature and the number of articles published in each of these respective areas. Qualitative differences from each of the studies will be presented emphasizing the necessary direction for future research in postsecondary instruction and behaviour analysis. In order to maximize the dissemination of behaviour analysis, likeminded faculty in postsecondary institutions need to consider the use of evidence-based instructional strategies to maximize the effectiveness of their teaching and/or increase the research base for behavioural strategies in postsecondary education.
137. Evidence Based Interventions for the Most Common Problem Behaviors in Classrooms in the United States
Area: EDC; Domain: Experimental Analysis
JUDITH R. HARRISON (Texas A&M University), John Davis (Texas A & M University)
Abstract: Research on behavioral problems demonstrated by children and adolescents in public schools in the United States provides a foundation for evidence based intervention selection. Current data regarding the most common problem behaviors at the classroom level is typically gathered from research on office discipline referrals. However, not all maladaptive behavior results in a referral to the office. A thorough understanding of the most common problem behaviors in schools is needed to assist administrators and teachers in selecting evidence based interventions. The results of a study using nationally sampled data on the most common behavior problems identified by teachers will be presented with suggestions for evidence based interventions to address each identified behavioral domain.
138. University Partnerships: The Effects of Coaching in an Urban Alternative Education Charter School
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
MAURA MCGREGOR (Duquesne University), Temple Sharese Lovelace (Duquesne University), Jessie Gluck (Duquesne University)
Abstract: This study analyzed the effects of school-wide positive behavior support in an urban alternative charter school serving adjudicated high school students. A multiple baseline across behaviors design was implemented for students as well as participating teachers. Student variables consist of appropriate behaviors outlined by the school mission statement. Teacher behaviors consist of authentic implementation of the school-wide positive behavior support system and individual goals identified during the initial professional development session. This study includes 9 student-teacher pairs. Each teacher participates in a monthly professional development session and technical assistance is provided bi-weekly to the teacher-student pairs. Results indicate that the participants responded favorably to the differential reinforcement of low rates of behavior as well as the self-management intervention. Additionally an imbedded multiple probe design was used to assess the effects of the environmental rating scale as it relates to the above variables. Lastly, contributions of this study and future research are presented.
139. Effects of Self-Management of Behavior and Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support in an Urban Third-Grade Classroom
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
TEMPLE SHARESE LOVELACE (Duquesne University), Jessie Gluck (Duquesne University), Maura McGregor (Duquesne University)
Abstract: This study analyzed the effects of a multi-level intervention on the problem behavior of eighteen third-grade students in an urban elementary school. A combination changing criterion and multiple-probe design was used to assess the variables related to self-management of inappropriate behavior and a group contingency for school wide positive behavior support. Additionally, a comparison across experimenters was analyzed to assess the results of implementation between an inservice and preservice teacher. Results indicate that the participants responded favorably to the differential reinforcement of low rates of behavior as well as the self-management intervention through decreased individual responding as well as a positive change in the classroom environment as a result of the implementation of a group contingency. In addition, results across experimenters suggest no difference between experimenters across contingencies. The multi-level intervention was found to be a valid and reliable contingency across experimenters (classroom teachers and student teacher). Lastly, contributions of this study and future research are presented.



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