Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


34th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2008

Event Details

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Poster Session #296
#299 Poster Session (OBM)
Sunday, May 25, 2008
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
South Exhibit Hall
124. Generalization of a Treatment Package to a Residential Setting.
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
KYONG-MEE CHUNG (Yonsei University), Yoo Na Kim (The Catholic University of Korea's Graduate School), Joo-hee Kim (Yonsei University), Hyun-sook Jang (Seoul Metropolitan Municipal Children's Hospital)
Abstract: Although applied behavior analysis has been successfully applied for the treatment of self-injurious behaviors, it has been rarely used in a residential setting due to its great demand for financial support and limited staff. The purpose of this study was to successfully implement the effective function-based treatment in a residential setting with limited staff and resources. A participant was a 12-year-old boy with cerebral palsy and severe mental retardation, who was referred for severe self-injurious behaviors(e.g., head-banging, hitting his jaw with his fist, biting his hand and pinching his body parts) and aggression(e.g., biting and pinching others). FA revealed that his SIB and aggression were maintained by social attention and the pursuit of sensory stimuli. His treatment program consisted of removal of social attention and use of arm restraints and helmet along with functional communication training and improving play skills. Once his problem behaviors were stabilized in a manageable level, staff education and training was conducted. He was successfully placed in a residential setting after 6 months of intensive treatment. Several suggestions and practical issues to implement the program in a residential setting were discussed.
125. A Function-Based Treatment for a Child in a Residential Setting.
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
HYUN-SOOK JANG (Private Practice), Joo-hee Kim (Private Practice), Yoo Na Kim (Private Practice), Kyong-Mee Chung (Yonsei University)
Abstract: A function-based behavior treatment used for a 3-year-old boy with cerebral palsy, who exhibited self-injurious behaviors (e.g., hitting head to hard surface, hands to head, head-banging, scratching his jaw), pica, biting, and aggression. He was an orphan and resided at a residential hospital with 15 other children at the time of referr. Functional behavior analysis results revealed that his pica was maintained by sensory stimulus and social attention and his SIB and aggression was maintained by social attention and divided attention. Upon this result, a treatment package (e.g., blocking, withdrawal of social attention, extinction, and positive reinforcement for compliance) was developed at a treatment setting and administered directly to his living environment by the treatment team. During the 3 month treatment periods, staff members were educated and trained for successful implementation of the treatment program. The results suggested the effectiveness of the function-based treatment program. Several suggestions were made to develop a treatment program for a residential setting where limited resources are available. Also, related practical difficulties were also discussed.
126. Data-Based Decision Making: A Proactive Measure to Staffing an Inpatient Unit.
Area: OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
SAMANTHA HARDESTY (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Lynn G. Bowman (JHUSOM), Melissa M. Schulleeta (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Pamela Flamer (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Direct care personnel are critical for the care and safety of patients within hospital settings. However, turnover is a chronic problem, often leading to increased costs associated with recruitment and training of qualified staff (Konetzka et al, 2005; Developmental Disabilities Task Force, 1983). The current study describes the use of an Access database in monitoring the turnover and recruitment of direct care staff. Specifically, data are presented regarding how this database has been instrumental in proactively changing the method of recruitment. Data from 2006 indicated that the overall cost associated with recruitment of direct care staff significantly impacted the budget, with 89% of the cost delegated towards newspaper advertisements. In addition, applicants from newspapers often failed to progress through the application process. Based on these data, recruitment efforts were altered to target college students during job fairs, and newspaper advertising was reduced. Following these efforts, most applicants successfully progressed through the hiring process and 50% of newly hired staff were recruited from job fairs. The costs associated with recruitment decreased by 48%. Future applications include monitoring the retention and performance of direct care staff recruited from various modalities so that future recruitment efforts and expenditures can be allocated most effectively.
127. Reported Obstacles for Staff Use of Computer Software in an Agency Serving Individuals with Autism.
Area: OBM; Domain: Service Delivery
AMOS EL-ROY (Eden II Programs), Frank R. Cicero (Eden II Programs), Daphna El-Roy (Eden II Programs)
Abstract: In today's age of technological advances, the education and treatment of individuals with autism is seeing an increased use of directly and indirectly associated computer software packages. Unfortunately, teachers and therapists are sometimes reluctant to use this technology within their classrooms. The current study was run by the Information Technology Department of a large ABA program that serves individuals with autism. A baseline of computer program usage was first collected for several pertinent target programs within the classrooms. A survey was then sent out to teachers, and support staff, regarding their reported use of these programs. The survey asked questions related to why certain programs are not frequently used so that the function of the staff's reluctance to use computer technology could be assessed. The current poster will present and discuss these functional assessment data. The current data will serve as the basis for a future study, investigating function-based treatments to increase computer usage of staff within the organization.
128. Improving Occurrence Agreement in an Inpatient Feeding Unit Setting.
Area: OBM; Domain: Basic Research
MELANIE H. REIS (Search Consulting, LLC.), Sigurdur Oli Sigurdsson (University of Maryland, Baltimore County), Peter Girolami (Kennedy Krieger Institute), James H. Boscoe (Columbus Organization)
Abstract: Few research studies in applied behavior analysis have explicitly investigated methods for improving interobserver agreement in applied settings. Many new employees had recently been hired on a specialized hospital unit, which resulted in low levels of interobserver agreement in data collection. A training package consisting of clarification of operational definitions, practice through scoring pre-recorded feeding sessions, and feedback on scoring was designed to increase levels of interobserver agreement. Pre- and post-test questionnaires were also administered. The current investigation utilized a multiple baseline across behaviors design for three behaviors that had been determined to be difficult to score. Results indicated a significant improvement in interobserver agreement for all three behaviors. Implications for future research are that using methods such as those employed in this study may help to increase interobserver agreement in applied settings, and may also aid in training new employees in the future.
129. Recording Data on Recording Data: A Plan That Increases Data Collection through Applied Behavior Analysis.
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
CHRIS PERSEL (Centre for Neuro Skills), Mary H. Halford (Centre for Neuro Skills), Heather A. Moore (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Accurate, efficient data collection is essential to support the efficacy of behavior programs and is at the heart of all applied behavior analysis. Without such objective measures, true representations cannot be made. Therapeutic and direct care staffs are often responsible for a variety of client related tasks in addition to the accurate recording of behavior data. Occasionally, behavioral data collection can become a low level priority by direct care staff. However, by providing reinforcement it is anticipated that the amount of missing data will decrease. This study was conducted over a 5-year period and included randomized immediate, tangible reinforcement daily (ie: money, edibles, gift certificates) and during the control measures staff were rewarded with verbal praise or ignored. Data was collected using a 15-minute interval data sheet during the entire therapy day with each client who received behavioral services. Providing incentives increased data collection to as high as 87% and without incentives to as low as 50% over the five year period. It is suggested that because of the utility of this program, it could be implemented in settings outside of Brain Injury Rehabilitation.
130. Recording Accuracy in the Use of Momentary Time-Sampling and Whole Interval.
Area: OBM; Domain: Applied Research
STEPHANIE P. SANCHEZ (Queens College, City University of New York), Matthew A. Taylor (Queens College, City University of New York), Andreas C. Skourides (Queens College, City University of New York), Alicia M. Alvero (Queens College, City University of New York)
Abstract: Interval and momentary-time sampling procedures are among the most common data sampling procedures within behavior analytic research. This study explored the accuracy of direct observation data collection of safety behavior with two different data sampling procedures: momentary-time sampling and whole interval. The study used a mixed design (between and within subject factors) by exposing each subject to both sampling procedures. The order of data sampling procedure was counterbalanced in randomized blocks of two subjects. The subjects observed a thighs/lower legs response. The results show that subjects score significantly more accurate with momentary-time sampling than whole interval.
131. Testing Prospect Theory in a Simulated Business Environment.
Area: OBM; Domain: Basic Research
JASON VAN DER HORST (Brigham Young University), Harold L. Miller Jr. (Brigham Young University)
Abstract: We will report the results of a study that utilized a laboratory-based business simulation to study the risk aversion component of Tversky and Kahneman’s prospect theory as it relates to stimulus control. Multiple subjects participated in a simultaneous bidding procedure across a series of hypothetical transactions. In one condition, subjects had access to two successive descriptions of the transaction. The first description was a partial version of the second. In the other condition, only the second description was presented. Subjects received feedback about the success of their bids in the form of dollars added to a hypothetical personal account that appeared on the same screen where the transaction descriptions appeared. According to prospect theory, the two-description condition should produce higher bids than the single-description condition. Our analysis of the results will provide a behavior analytic interpretation as well.



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