|Naming: A Verbal Developmental Cusp and Stage
|Monday, May 26, 2008
|9:00 AM–10:20 AM
|Area: DEV/VRB; Domain: Basic Research
|Chair: R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College)
|CE Instructor: R. Douglas Greer, Ph.D.
We present four papers on naming as a verbal developmental cusp involving multiple experiments. Findings are reported on the relation between acquisition of naming for 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional stimuli with preschoolers, the relation between reading comprehension and naming vs. the role of phonemes, the role of the echoic as reinforcer, and the source of the reinforcement, for naming, and the effects of naming on reading comprehension with academically delayed middle school students.
|Emergence of Naming for 2-D and 3-D Stimuli: A Comparison of Multiple and Single Exemplar Instruction.
|NIRVANA PISTOLJEVIC (Columbia University Teachers College), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College)
|Abstract: We compared Singular Exemplar Instruction (SEI) and Multiple Exemplar Instruction (MEI) with 3-dimentional stimuli and their respective effects on emergence of untaught listener and speaker responses (naming) by preschool children missing naming for both 3D and 2D contrived stimuli. We used an experimental-control group with a nested single-case multiple probe design. Naming emerged for the MEI group for both 3D and 2D contrived stimuli, but did not for the SEI group. Instructional histories that involve the rotation of speaker listener responding appear to predict the emergence of naming for both 3D and 2D stimuli. We discuss the findings in terms of the relation of the MEI experience to the notion of higher order operants.
|An Investigation of the Source of Reinforcement for Naming.
|JENNIFER LONGANO (Columbia University Teachers College), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College)
|Abstract: Two experiments were conducted to examine potential sources of reinforcement for naming. In the first experiment, the effects of match and point instruction with an echoic component were tested on the acquisition of a full naming repertoire for three young participants diagnosed with autism. Results showed increases in correct responses on untaught listener and speaker repertoires for all participants. However, only one participant acquired a full naming repertoire. The second experiment tested the effects of an “ostensive pairing” procedure as a source of reinforcement for both incidental and instructional naming. Participants included students with and without disabilities who did not have a full naming repertoire prior to the onset of the study. Findings from both procedures suggest different but not incompatible contributions for each.
|Reading Comprehension and Naming.
|TRACY REILLY-LAWSON (Columbia University Teachers College), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College)
|Abstract: We investigated the effects of multiple exemplar instruction of phonemes across written and vocal topographies on the extension of naming to print control. The participants mastered French words in textual form only by matching the French printed word to the English printed word. The students demonstrated comprehension by matching the French word to the picture; however, they did not tact the pictures in French or write the French word. Multiple exemplar instruction of phonemes was implemented in which the experimenter taught point to, textual response and written topographies of phonemes. Post probes demonstrated the participants’ acquisition of the naming capability extended to print control. Students used novel words learned only in textual form across vocal and written response topographies.
|Emergence of 2D and 3D Naming in Middle School Students.
|YASMIN J. HELOU-CARE (Columbia University Teachers College), R. Douglas Greer (Columbia University Teachers College)
|Abstract: We tested the emergence of the untaught listener and speaker responses of naming for both 2- and 3-dimnsional stimuli across 7 male middle school participants diagnosed with emotional disabilities. Naming emerged for both 3-dimensional stimuli and 2-dimensional pictures as a function of multiple exemplar instruction (MEI) with 3-dimensional stimuli across speaker/listener responses for training sets. Instruction across one type of stimuli that involve the rotation of both the speaker and listener responses appears to be sufficient to induce naming acros other forms of stimuli for participants like those we studies.