Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


40th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2014

Event Details

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Poster Session #294
Sunday, May 25, 2014
7:00 PM–9:00 PM
W375a-d (McCormick Place Convention Center)
42. Effects of Parent Training on Treatment Integrity and Academic Skills
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
SARA S. KUPZYK (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Mark D. Shriver (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Parent tutoring has been identified as a promising practice for improving academic skills. Treatment integrity is essential to making valid decisions about the effectiveness of interventions. In parent tutoring research, assessment of integrity has generally been limited to adherence. There has been a recent call for a broader conceptualization of integrity that includes domains such as adherence, quality, dosage, and engagement. The purposes of this study were to (a) assess the impact of parent tutoring on students skills and (b) extend measurement of integrity in parent tutoring research to multiple domains. Youth referred to an academic clinic and their parents participated. Graduate students in school psychology conducted academic assessments, identified an effective intervention, and taught parents to use the intervention in the home environment. Procedural integrity (i.e., training of the parents) and implementation integrity (i.e., use of the intervention by the parent) were measured using adherence checklists. Data will also be collected on quality, dosage, and engagement in tutoring. Preliminary results indicate that students skills in targeted academic areas improved following parent tutoring. Treatment integrity ranged from moderate to high across domains. Discussion will focus on assessment of treatment integrity in applied settings and factors affecting implementation and outcomes.
43. Preliminary Analysis of a Simple Observational Tool for the Assessment of the Quality of Afterschool Reading Instruction: The Reading Environment Practices Survey (REPS)
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Samira Kaskel (Nova Southeastern University), DAVID REITMAN (Nova Southeastern University), Sheree Tarver (Nova Southeastern University)
Abstract: Efforts to promote reading fluency and literacy have been the subject of extensive study and debate over the past decade. While intervention approaches have proliferated, there has been relatively less attention devoted to the analysis of intervention content and the extent to which various curricula and instructional practices correspond to best practices in reading fluency and literacy promotion. Efforts to assess literacy intervention quality have been exceptionally limited outside of school settings, for example in afterschool and community-based summer camp programs. The present study sought to develop a brief observational measure to evaluate the extent to which elements of high-quality reading instruction are present during brief observations conducted by trained raters. The Reading Environment Practices Survey is a 10-item measure the was considered to have two-factors, Reading Processes (RP) and Instructional Content (IC) . The 5-item RP scale consisted of items concerned with observations of reading fluency building strategies (i.e., guided oral reading), observer impressions of instructor enthusiasm and modeling, and students being provided with opportunitues to practice reading with feedback. The 5-item IC scale consisted of items assessing behavior management practices, and instructional planning, as well as items assessing the quality of instructional materials and the instructional space itself. Data analyses include the presentation of means and standard deviations and reliability (coefficient alpha) for the proposed subscales, as well as exploratory factor analysis and discriminative validity assessment (i.e., a comparison of subscale scores for certified teachers, certified teachers with reading specializations, and uncertified staff). The results suggested the the measure required some modification to improve the internal consistency of the subscales. Data from the exploratory factor analysis suggested a possible third factor, Preparation, as well as the need for relabelling of the primary factors. Specifically, Reading Processes was renamed Reading Practices and Instructional Content was renamed General Instructional Quality. Preliminary validity assessment utilizing over 40 classroom observations suggested that Certified Teachers with Reading Specializations were, in fact, perceived as being more liklely to practice instructional techniques that are in-line with best practices than others without such specialization.
44. Incorporating iPad Technology Within RepeatedReading Interventions for Students With Learning Disabilities
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
WILLIAM J. SWEENEY (The University of South Dakota), Krislyn J. Carlson (Beresford Schools & University of South Dakota)
Abstract: Fluent reading is a prerequisite for understanding what one reads. The inability to decode what one is reading automatically often leads to reading comprehension problems and low achievement in content areas. Reading fluency problems, i.e., the inability to quickly and accurately identify words in textual passages, is even more pronounced in populations of school-age children with learning disabilities. Of the five essential components to good reading, the National Reading Panel identified reading fluency as one of the most neglected skill in reading instruction. In addition to the importance of incorporating reading fluency into the instruction for readers who are struggling in this area, many schools are also embracing a variety of emerging educational technologies in their ongoing efforts to improve literacy instruction. Educational technologies, such as the introduction of Apples iPad and other electronic tablet technologies, may expand the use of mobile technology within reading instruction and reading fluency interventions. Unfortunately, while educators report promising anecdotal results with students using iPads and tablet technologies for literacy and reading fluency instruction, little formal research exists to support the use of these devices for improving reading performance of students experiencing reading difficulties. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the effects of reading fluency interventions that incorporate repeated readings and Precision Teaching measurement approaches that employ iPad technologies to address the oral reading performance of second- and third-grade students with learning disabilities. More specifically, this study compares two variations of repeated readings intervention conditions to see what effects the addition of audio modeling by a fluent reader will produce on the reading rate and accuracy of the participants.
45. CANCELED: Using Constant Time Delay to Teach Braille Word Recognition
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
SARAH IVY (Vanderbilt University)

Braille illiteracy is a severe and serious issue concerning education for students with visual impairment. Time delay is a systematic response prompting procedure with a strong evidence base to teach functional and academic skills to students with a range of disabilities. Although time delay is considered an evidence-based strategy to teach literacy skills to children with severe disabilities, research on the efficacy of time delay to teach literacy skills to children with severe visual impairment has not been published to date. In this poster session, the presenter will share the results of two single subject studies using constant time delay procedures to teach braille learners. In one study, prompts included physical guidance, modeling, and pointing out salient features of braille words to teach highly motivating words to four students with multiple disabilities. In the second study, verbal prompts were used to teach braille or Nemeth code to three students transitioning from print to braille. The results of these two studies provide strong evidence of the promise of constant time delay as an effective and efficient intervention to teach students with the most severe visual impairments, with and without additional disabilities.

46. Differential Effect of Preteaching Content Words on Accuracy in Connected Text for Students With Learning Disabilities and Typical Readers
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Gail Coulter (Western Washington University), MICHAEL C. LAMBERT (Western Washington University)
Abstract: The differential effect of preteaching content words on accuracy and fluency in connected text was examined with three participants identified with learning disability and reading two grade levels below their same age peers and with three typical developing peers at grade level. Researchers incorporated a multiple baseline design with three phases (i.e., Baseline, Wordlist, and Wordlist + Vocabulary) and found that preteaching increased fluency to some extent and significantly increased accuracy for the students at grade level and increased both fluency and accuracy for the students with learning disabilities. The technique was less time intensive and required minimal instructional support while providing participants with access to general education curriculum. Pretaught words generalized to unfamiliar passages containing the pretaught words and were maintained for fourteen days after the interventions concluded.
47. Efficacy of a Fluency-Based Training on Reading Performance in Students With Dyslexia
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
SARA ANDOLFI (TICE Learning Centre), Iris Pelizzoni (University of Parma), Eleonora Villani (TICE Learning Centre), Francesca Cavallini (University of Parma)
Abstract: We studied the effects of a fluency-based training on reading performance. The participants were ten students diagnosed with dyslexia who were attending primary school. This study was a single subjects study in which the dependent variable was the number of correct syllables read during the probe sessions. The independent variable was a fluency-based training in which participants practiced in reading syllables and words twice a week. The results showed that all the students increased the number of correct syllables read, indeed they outperformed the expected improvement; the outcome's magnitude and the total amount of training will be analyzed.
48. Ludic Contingencies As Enhancement To Reading Teaching Procedure
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
DEISY DAS GRAÇAS DE SOUZA (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos), Leonardo Brandão Marques (Universidade Federal de São Carlos)
Abstract: The enhancement of teaching reading procedures is an important strategy to improve the literacy rates in development countries. In Brazil a procedure has been effective in teaching reading for children with academic failure history. However, keeping children engaged in these learning activities has been a challenge. This study evaluates the impact of ludic activities as motivational factor for maintenance on the reading teaching procedures. Two teaching conditions were available for the children: (1) on condition one, standard matching-to-sample (MTS) and constructed MTS (CRMTS) teaching procedure was used; (2) on condition two, mini-games was intercalated with the same MTS and CRMTS procedure, as a ludic condition. On beginning of each session the participant could choose with procedure will use. On both conditions the same four teaching blocks were presented in the same order and mastering the reading activities was the criterion for access the next teaching block. The results indicate that a majority of participants choose the ludic condition, keeping this preference stable until the study finishes. Participant with different preference patterns had the same learning rates. Spontaneous engagement and number of errors’ analysis indicates that the mini-games can be a useful engagement tool for teaching Portuguese reading skills.
49. The Effects of Token Economy on Rate of Correct Responses: Evaluating Math Performance in Students With Behavior Disorders
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
UZMA MANZOOR (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), John W. Eshleman (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: The effects of an exaggerated token economy system were evaluated on multiplication performance of students with behavior disorders. The participants ranged from ages 9 to 11 years and were part of a special education classroom that was already under a token reinforcement system. The researcher used a multiple baseline design across participants combined with an ABA design. The investigator collected data on the rate of correct problems, percentage of correct problems, and celeration trends during each phase of student performance. Overall results suggested that students performed better on average when the exaggerated token economy system was implemented compared to baseline phases. The results also indicated that the use of rate of performance versus percentage as a dependent measure may yield different conclusions and therefore it was observed that rate of performance should be an integral dependent measure in Applied Behavior Analysis literature.
50. Some Effects of Large and Small Numerosities Over the Discrimination of Quantities in Elementary Students
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
ALESSANDRA CAMPANINI MENDES (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Rogério Crevelenti Fioraneli (Universidade Federal de São Carlos - UFSCar), João S. Carmo (Universidade Federal de São Carlos)
Abstract: Visual enumeration seems to be in the origin of math behavior. It involves the immediate discrimination of small quantities without counting (frequently known as subitizing) and rough estimation. Studies indicate as crucial variables the spatial arrangements of the objects as well as the interval of time those objects are exposed each time. This study aimed to verify the effects of small and large quantities of dots over visual enumeration when dots are distributed into different arrangements. Participated 37 elementary students with an average age (in years) of 10.6 (SD = 0.6), from a public school in Brazil. An individual and computerized Test of Visual Enumeration was applied, consisting of 30 tasks involving subitizing (display of four dots or less on the screen) and numerical estimation (five to ten dots on the screen). There were a higher percentage of correct responses, as well as a smaller latency, in subitizing than in numerical estimation for most participants, mainly when dots were presented in a canonic distribution than in random distribution, and when dots were closer from one another than when they were dispersed. Data confirms the literature and can provide support to applied tasks such as the teaching of basic counting.
51. Effects of Response Cards Versus Hand-raising During Smart Board Activities on Response Accuracy of Elementary Students With Language Impairments
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
Kenda E. Smith (Auburn University at Montgomery), SARA C. BICARD (Auburn University at Montgomery)
Abstract: Response cards have been used with a variety of populations and in a variety of content areas. However, very few studies investigated language skills among students with language impairments. In addition, there is limited evidence about how to effectively use interactive white boards systems with students with disabilities. This study investigated the effects of response cards and hand raising during interactive whiteboard activities on immediate and delayed response accuracy of five participants with language impairments in an urban elementary school. Participants answered ten questions to assess their language comprehension at the end of each session as well as on weekly tests. Each week onditions were alternated between using write-on response cards to respond by each student for every question or the teacher calling on a individual student who raised their hand to respond. The response accuracy during the questioning session for three of the five participants was slightly higher during response cards than hand raising. Weekly test scores were also slightly higher during response cards for 3 of the 5 participants. Sampling of off-task behavior indicated that participants were more on-task during the response card condition. The results are consistent with previous findings about response cards.
52. Using Functional Analysis to Identify Effective Interspersal Ratios
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
SCOTT SINGLETON (University of Central Oklahoma), Hailey Hinkle (University of Central Oklahoma), Micah Highfill (University of Central Oklahoma), Jennifer Hancock (University of Central Oklahoma), Patty Nuhfer (ABA Oklahoma)
Abstract: Interspersal of known and unknown items have been used to effectively teach academic skills. The specific ratios used in previous research has varied. Additionally, some research has suggested that the additional time required to include known items reduces the opportunity to respond to items targeted for intervention. Given the current trend for the inclusion of Response to Intervention models, intervention efficiency is a critical factor in the selection of interventions. Four elementary students were selected based on risk identification and failure to respond to initial reading interventions provided through the school's Response to Intervention (RtI) program. A functional analysis was used to compare the effectiveness of no interspersal, 50% known, 70% known, and 90% known to unknown interspersal ratios. Additionally, student choice to continue the intervention was included as a measure of social validity and an indicator of reinforcement density. Interventions were limited to 10 minutes to ensure the efficiency of the intervention. Following the analysis, each participant was provided with a best treatment phase. [Data collection is underway and will be completed by the end of January]
53. A Comparison of Regressive and Progressive Prompt-Delay Procedures for Teaching Sight-Words
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
MACKENZIE SOMMERHALDER (University of Nebraska-Lincoln), Polly Daro (University of Nebraska-Lincoln), Maureen O'Connor (University of Nebraska-Lincoln), Whitney Strong (University of Nebraska-Lincoln), Edward J. Daly III (University of Nebraska-Lincoln)
Abstract: Prompting strategies are useful for teaching sight-word acquisition. This study compared two different prompting procedures—progressive prompt delay (PPD) and regressive prompt delay (RPD)—for improving sight-word reading in two second-grade students. Both procedures have a delay between the presentation of the reading word and a modeling prompt. For PPD, the presentation interval is progressively lengthened across instructional trials. For RPD, the presentation interval is progressively shortened across instructional trials with instructions to the student to say the word more quickly than the instructor. A parallel-treatments design was used to compare the effects of both conditions. The results indicated that RPD was as effective as PPD in improving sight-word reading. A simultaneous-treatments design element was then used to evaluate student preference for treatment. The students were asked to select the method (RPD or PPD) for instruction prior to further instructional trials. The results indicate that student choice of method varied idiosyncratically, with one student preferring RPD and the other preferring PPD. This study contributes a novel prompting method (RPD) that may add a motivational component lacking in existing prompting methods and illustrates how choice can be added as a design element to instructional intervention studies.
54. A Computer-Based Multiplication Fact Fluency Intervention for High School Students with Emotional Disturbance
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
WALLACE LARKIN (University of Cincinnati), Renee Hawkins (University of Cincinnati), Emily Flowers (University of Cincinnati)
Abstract: The investigation of effective academic interventions for students with emotional disturbance is critical because students with emotional disturbance are at an increased risk for academic failure. The risk for academic failure is particularly apparent in mathematics. In response to this, a computer-based online multiplication fact fluency program, along with a performance-based interdependent group contingency was implemented for five high school math classes with students with emotional disturbance. The students participated in the program three days a week, and were assessed using curriculum based measures weekly in order to monitor each classrooms progress in this data-based intervention. A multiple baseline across classrooms design was used to evaluate the results of the intervention. Significant gains in student performance on math fact fluency probes were seen for all participating classes, and four of the five participating classes increased an instructional level by the end of the intervention. The implications for researchers and practitioners from the intervention include the effective use of a technology-based academic intervention, as well as the successful addition of performance-based group rewards as a means of motivating students with emotional and behavioral disorders to both participate in the intervention procedures and improve performance on multiplication fact fluency assessments.
55. A Comparison of Two Different Teaching Methodologies in Learning Vocabulary Words-Computer and Flashcards
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
JILL HUNT (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Michelle Harrington (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center)
Abstract: In this study, we will compare the results of subjects using flashcards to learn the definitions of a series of vocabulary words and using a computer program to learn the same definitions. Both subjects will complete timings, and data will be plotted on a standard celeration chart. The subject who uses flashcards will use the see/say learning channel, while the subject who uses the computer program will use the see/type learning channel. We will look at words known before completing the timings and words known after completing the timings and generalization to other learning channels. We will also look at benefits of both methods of learning the vocabulary words.
56. The Effects Of Self-Monitoring On Academic Behaviors Of Tenth Grade Students With Learning Disabilities
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
ANDREA HOWARD (University of Cincinnati), Melanie Schneider (University of Cincinnati)
Abstract: Increasing pre-academic and academic behaviors are primary concerns for teachers at the high school level. Implementing self-monitoring interventions can reduce teacher efforts that take away from instructional time while introducing and reinforcing a desirable keystone behavior for students. In the presented case, three fifteen- to sixteen-year-old students with learning disabilities in a high school resource room were referred for additional intervention. In order to decrease rates of tardiness, increase rates of homework completion, and increase rates of homework accuracy, a self-monitoring intervention was implemented within a small group framework. Students shared daily self-monitoring sheets with two graduate students leading the weekly group and received reinforcement contingent upon reaching collaboratively set goals. Results of implementation showed that, on average, student tardiness decreased from baseline to intervention phases, while both homework completion and accuracy increased as a result of the self-monitoring intervention. Data are presented both through individual data paths and as group averages. Outcomes of this case add to the current body of research supporting self-monitoring as an effective intervention for students with a range of ability levels and behavior concerns.
57. The Effects of Multiple Exemplar Training on Emergent Literacy Skills
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
BLAKE HANSEN (Brigham Young University), Mallory Roberts (Brigham Young University)
Abstract: With increasing emphasis being placed on reading achievement, the need for effective interventions that promote is increasing. Print-concept knowledge (PCK) refers to a class of observable behaviors that children typically learn through interaction with books and print before entering school. The behaviors that comprise PCK include identification of the organization of a book and words (e.g., title and cover), and discrimination between words on a page and pictures. These skills are typically learned without explicit training through exposure to multiple exemplars in literacy-rich environments during early childhood. Research has demonstrated that these skills are precursors to reading that predict reading outcomes. With these issues present, an intervention was designed to teach these skills to children with intellectual disabilities. The intervention provided explicit instruction in a discrete-trial teaching format that included training multiple exemplars (e.g., different children’s books that had different functions such as narrative and expository text). Results demonstrated that participants increased the class of behaviors that developmental research refers to as “print awareness.” The results suggest that behavior analytic approaches to teaching can inform contemporary literacy research.
58. Decreasing the Off-Task Behaviors of Reluctant Adolescent Readers During Sustained Silent Reading Through Book Interest and Ability Matching
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
NATALIE ALLEN-WILLIAMS (Weber State University), Kristin L. Nelson (Weber State University), Clay Rasmussen (Weber State University), Melina Alexander (Weber State University), April Ricks (Jefferson Academy)
Abstract: Sustained Silent Reading (SSR) is a practice that continues to be used in classrooms everywhere despite a lack of evidence to support its use. The intent of SSR is to give students practice reading and to increase their appreciation of literature and enjoyment of reading. Despite the popularity of SSR, research has shown that the practice may only be appropriate for the independent medium- to high-ability readers who enjoy reading (Davis, 1988; Walker, 2000). Teachers are often required by their administration to implement SSR into their daily routine. Recent researchers have suggested modified versions of SSR to better address the needs of struggling readers. A multiple-baseline design across students was used to answer the question about the impact of book matching on off-task behavior during the SSR period. In this design, the intervention of book matching was gradually introduced to the participants. Once a participants baseline off-task behavior was consistent and contrary to the desired direction, he received the matched book. The remaining target students received their books once the level of off-task behavior of the first participant decreased. Baseline data collection continued to be collected for the other participants as each individual received their matched books. This study was conducted over 4 weeks with six junior high students displaying high levels disengagement during SSR. The dependent variable was off-task behavior; the independent variable was matching books to students interests and reading levels. The dependent variable was defined to include any of the following: out-of-seat, talking aloud or other vocalizations, making non-language noises, touching another student, writing, having the book closed, having eyes closed or looking away from the book. The independent variable was a systematic, multi-step process to assure that the students were reading books that were of interest to them. Across the course of the study, five of the six students average off-task behavior decreased as a result of the book matching, confirming the suspicion that matching students with books to read according to interest and ability may positively affect their time on task during SSR. In this study, students average off-task behavior at baseline was 49.8%. After the book matching intervention, it was 31.2%. Although the group averages are somewhat marginal the individual students' off-task behavior for five of the six is more compelling.
59. Increasing Math Skills in Primary School Students With the Use of Flashcards Known as SAFMEDS (Say All Fast Minute Everyday Shuffled)
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
STACEY HUNTER (Bangor University), J. Carl Hughes (Bangor University), John Parkinson (Bangor University), Michael Beverley (Bangor University)
Abstract: Maths is such an important skill for a person to acquire and is used in numerous jobs and in everyday life (Mulero, Segura & Sepulcre, 2013). The Welsh assembly released the figures for math achievement at GCSE level for 2011/12 and stated only 57% of students in Wales achieved a grade A*-C. It is important that primary school students grasp the basics of maths (OFSTED, 2011), without the underpinning knowledge of maths it will be extremely difficult for students to answer more complex math equations (White, 2010). Therefore this study aimed at improving maths skills in primary school students aged 6-11. This study incorporated precision teaching into the schools maths lesson on a class wide basis using flash cards known as SAFMEDS (Say All fast minute everyday shuffled). The data showed that students in the experimental group showed a statistically significant improvement pre to post and showed retention of the knowledge learnt in the one month follow up and showed statistically significantly higher improvement scores when compared to a control group. The overall conclusion of this study shows that with the integration of SAFMEDS into a busy classroom setting can have a positive impact on students maths skills.
60. The Addition of a Sounding-Out Step to Cover-Copy-Compare for Spelling
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
HEIDI FISHER (Central Michigan University), Benjamin Kennert (Central Michigan University), Teryn Bruni (Central Michigan University ), Seraphim Mork (Central Michigan University)
Abstract: Learning to spell in English is difficult because of inconsistencies in correspondences between letters and the sounds they represent. Traditional spelling instruction is often time consuming. Fortunately, there are a few evidence-based efficient spelling interventions. One such strategy is cover-copy-compare (CCC) which involves quick and repeated trials. In CCC students are given a piece of paper with the spelling words on one half the page and blank lines on the other half. The students are prompted to look at a spelling word, cover it and attempt to spell it on the blank line, and to uncover the word and compare it to what they spelled. These steps are repeated if an error is made. The use of CCC for spelling instruction has not involved explicit instruction in teaching students the relationship between the sounds in the words and the letters in the words. One previous study examined the benefit of adding a step to the typical CCC procedure which involved prompting the participants to sound out the target word before covering and attempting to spell the word. This step explicitly prompts the participant to attend to the relationship between the sounds in the word and the letters in the word. Although this study found that the addition of the sounding-out step improved spelling more than the typical CCC procedure, methodological flaws limit interpretation of the results. The present study sought to further assess the relative value of CCC plus sounding-out compared to CCC alone. Using a multiple baseline across subjects design, five second and third grade students were guided through first the CCC then the CCC plus sounding-out procedures in daily sessions for four to five weeks. Spelling was improved using both spelling interventions, and the spelling improvement was similar when the CCC or CCC plus sounding-out procedure was used.
61. Using Brief Experimental Analysis to Identify Reading Decoding Interventions
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
MICHELLE HINZMAN (Keystone Area Education Agency), Barbara A. Pline (Keystone Area Education Agency), Chamoni J. DeLong (Keystone Area Education Agency), Pamela A. Fields (Keystone Area Education Agency), Doug A. Penno (Keystone Area Education Agency)
Abstract: This study explored how brief experimental analysis (BEA) procedures could be utilized to identify reading decoding interventions for three students (a second grader and two third graders) who struggled to decode words accurately. This study was conducted in four phases. During Phase 1, student data was reviewed to ensure that selected students read with low accuracy (less than 95% accuracy) and had not responded favorably to previous intervention efforts. During Phase 2, diagnostic assessment was conducted to determine students accuracy when reading word lists consisting of different word types (e.g., CVC words, consonant digraphs, consonant blends, CVCe words). During Phase 3, after identifying the word type(s) to target for instruction, BEA was conducted (Figures 1-3) to determine an intervention for each student. The following evidence-based decoding interventions were implemented as BEA conditions: Elkonin sound boxes, Glass Analysis method, making words, and word sorts. Finally, during Phase 4, BEA-identified interventions were implemented until a pre-determined mastery criterion was met by each student. Intervention effectiveness was monitored during each instructional session with a 1-minute single-skill word list probe designed to match the instructional target (e.g., CVC words, consonant digraphs, consonant blends). This study will be completed with final student data collected February 2014.
62. The Effects of Manipulating Problem Completion Rates on Assignment Choice and Preference Consistency
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
KILEY J BLISS (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Gary L. Cates (Illinois State University), Kerry Pecho (Illinois State University), Jessica Fisher (Illinois State University)

Matching law predicts an organism, given two choices, will engage in behavior resulting in higher rates of reinforcement (Herrnstein, 1961; 1970). Matching law has been extended to academic assignment choice. The mathematics interspersing procedure provides students additional opportunities to respond to academic stimuli (i.e., math problems) within an assignment by programming additional brief problems among longer target problems. The more problems completed on assignments with interspersing, the more likely students are to choose such assignments relative to an assignment without interspersing (e.g., Cates & Dalenberg, 2005). The discrete task completion hypothesis poses that students learn a history of contacting reinforcement for completing assignments, and additional brief problems within assignments serve as conditioned reinforcement (Skinner, 2002). Some students (i.e., non-choosers), however, choose assignments without interspersing relative to assignments with interspersing, presumably due to insufficient opportunities to contact conditioned reinforcement. This investigation sought to determine whether manipulating schedules of interspersing within assignments could influence non-choosers assignment choice. One hundred fifty participants responded to three paired assignments, one with and one without interspersing, and chose between assignments. Results showed increasing conditioned reinforcement within assignments caused non-choosers choice to change. Participant choice for assignments with interspersing, overall, increased as relative problem completion rates increased.

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