Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


40th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2014

Event Details

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Poster Session #100
AUT Saturday PM
Saturday, May 24, 2014
5:00 PM–7:00 PM
W375a-d (McCormick Place Convention Center)
119. The Use of Shaping to Teach a Play Skill
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KATIE WISKOW (Texas Tech University), Jeanne M. Donaldson (Texas Tech University), Steven Hudkins (Kennedy Krieger Institute), SungWoo Kahng (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Teaching functional play skills is important because it provides opportunities for social interactions and communication, which are common deficits displayed by children with autism. Several studies have identified procedures that were effective to increase functional play skills; however, the target response was typically comprised of topographically similar, discrete responses (e.g., stacking Legos, completing a shape sorter). Therefore, research needs to be conducted to evaluate procedures to teach more complex play skills. Shaping is a well-established procedure used to teach new skills, but has not been directly applied to teaching a complex play skill. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate shaping as a means to teach a 13-year-old boy with autism to bowl. Each session consisted of 2 steps: setting up the pins and bowling. Following the initial acquisition of each step, successive approximations within each step were reinforced to more closely mirror functional bowling until the terminal goal was reached. Results showed that the shaping procedure was effective to teach independent bowling.
120. Generalization of Conversation and Play Skills in Two Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Aneta Czerwonka (Behaviour Institute), Joel P. Hundert (Behaviour Institute and McMaster University), ERIN TROUBRIDGE (Behaviour Institute)
Abstract: Numerous research studies have focused on interventions to improve social skills in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, however few studies have investigated interventions targeting generalization across different social skills. The present study investigated whether conversation skills and play skills form one response class and if so, would training in one skill generalize to spontaneous improvements in the other skill. Participants received training in three different conditions: conversation skills; play skills; and a combination of both conversation and play skills. A single-subject, reversal design was used to evaluate the effect of the training in each condition on the frequency of interactive conversation and interactive play across two children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Results indicated that play training improved interactive play, conversation training improved interactive conversation and the combination condition of both play and conversation training improved both interactive play and interactive conversation. Since generalization across the two social skills failed to occur in the independent training conditions, the implication is that conversation skills and play skills cannot be confirmed members of the same response class. These results have implications with respect to future social skills interventions for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

A Preliminary Investigation Comparing the Preference Values of Digital and Non-Digital Items for Children With Autism Using Standard Behavior Analytic Preference Assessment Strategies

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANA BIBAY (IME MAIA - Paris, France), Neal N. Fleisig (Professional Crisis Management, Inc.)

Research confirms that the effects of choice making on various parameters of behavior such as engagement, affect, and problem behavior (Cole & Levinson, 2002; Vaughn & Horner, 1997). Stimulus preference assessment methods frequently assist behavior analysts in identifying a variety of stimulus that can serve as potential reinforcers used in adaptive or education training programs (Daily III, Wells, Swanger-Gagne, Carr, Kunz and Taylor, 2009). DeLeon and Iwata (1996) indicate that a Multiple Stimulus without replacement (MSWO) preference assessment can accomplish it in an efficient manner. The study was completed to investigate the preference values of digital and non-digital items for children with Autism using standard behavioral analytic strategies. Four school-age students with Autism participated in the study. All participants participated in a day program in Paris (France) where they received at least 20 hours of one to one intensive behavioral treatment. Informed consent from the students family was obtained. In this study, procedures were similar to those reported by DeLeon and Iwata (1996). The dependent measure consisted of a stimulus selection response, which the observer recorded when a student chose an item from the horizontal array of 8 items: 2 digital tablets and 6 age appropriate toys. Moreover, the study made possible to compare the two digital items (a Nabi and an Ipad tablets). In this study, choice refers to the act of selecting an item or activity from an array of options at a particular moment in time (Romaniuk & Miltenberger, 2001). The experimenter told the student that he/she would be able to choose activities during the break. Following each selection, the experimenter removed the chosen activity and rearranged the remaining activities, which reduce the possibility that selections might be made based on the position of the item. This procedure was followed until there was only one item on the table. Ten sessions were completed on separate days within 15 days. For each student, the median rank for each activity across the ten sessions was chosen as an indication of individual preference for that activity. In summary, this study supports the research of MSWO as an efficient way of identifying potential reinforcers and indicates that the selected Nabi tablet can be a high-preferred item for children with Autism, considering aspects of design, cost benefit and durability.

122. Teaching Hand Raising and Appropriate Vocalizations to Children With Autism Across Various Instructions
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER FELBER (Munroe Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center  ), Andrea Clements (Munroe Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Amber R. Paden (Munroe Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Children with autism typically display deficits in social interactions (e.g., attending, responding at appropriate times), often making group instruction difficult for these children (Dawson & Faja, 2008). Whereas most children learn to raise their hand and wait to be called on by modeling their peers, more direct measures are often necessary for children with autism to increase the likelihood these children are successful in integrated settings (Carnahan, Musti-Roa, & Bailey, 2009). In this study, we evaluated procedures to reduce inappropriate vocalizations (e.g., calling out) and increase appropriate hand raising and waiting behavior in two children during group instruction. Specifically, they were taught to raise their hand and wait to be called on when presented with an opportunity to request a preferred item (e.g., edible) using prompts and differential reinforcement. Zero levels of independent responding (e.g., raising hand) and high levels of inappropriate vocalizations (e.g., echolalia, speaking without raising hand/being called upon) were observed for both participants during baseline. The treatment procedures were effective at increasing the target behavior and decreasing inappropriate vocalizations. The next step will consist of evaluating procedures to best generalize this skill across various types of instructions and settings.
123. The Effects of Narrative Behaviors for Two Adults With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
WENCHU SUN (National Changhua University of Education)
Abstract: The research purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of narrative behavior for adults with autism. Two adults with autism in the pre-vocational shelter participated in this study. Both of them have limited verbal ability, however, they are lack of the ability to express what happened in their everyday life. A single-subject experimental design of multiple probes across subjects was used in this study. The independent variable introduced in this study was the 5W oral narrative teaching program, which was implemented to the subjects in order to help the subjects learn to oral narrative from his life experiences. The dependent variables of this research were percentage of oral narrative behaviors including 5W (i.e., who, when, where, doing what, and how you feel). Visual analysis was used to analyze the results of this study. Evaluation questionnaires and interviews of the teachers were used to collect the data for social validity. The results showed that the 5W teaching program in this study has great impact on the improvement of oral narrative behaviors for adults with autism. The results displayed that this 5W teaching programs enhanced, maintained and generalized the outcomes of oral narrative for adults with autism. Social validity data also favor the results. Teachers in the shelter all agreed and favored the outcome of the 5W narrative program.
124. Assessment of Challenging Behavior Maintained by Access to iPads for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
LAURA ROJESKI (The University of Texas at Austin), Mark O'Reilly (The University of Texas at Austin), Cindy Gevarter (The University of Texas), Nicolette Sammarco (The University of Texas at Austin), Heather Gonzales (The University of Texas at Austin), Deanna Longino (The University of Texas at Austin), Cara Davitt (The University of Texas), Michelle Lesser (The University of Texas)
Abstract: Challenging behavior is a significant problem among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Functional analyses (FA) are often used to determine the function of such behavior in order to develop appropriate interventions. The current study implemented FAs with children with ASD of elementary school age including an additional iPad condition in order to examine the levels of challenging behavior associated with accessing the iPad. The iPad condition was run identical to the tangible condition of a FA. This meant that children were given brief access to the iPad, and then the iPad was taken away. Contingent upon challenging behavior, the iPad was returned to the child. All FA conditions were five minutes in length, and each condition was repeated five times. Data showed that the iPad condition produced the highest levels of challenging behavior, even higher than the regular tangible condition for participants. These results indicated access to iPads can cause high levels of challenging behavior for children with ASD. This finding has numerous implications for parents, educators, and practitioners. Future research is warranted in addressing challenging behavior associated with access to iPads, and interventions geared toward the appropriate use of iPads for communication and learning purposes.
125. Modified Exposure Protocol for the Reduction of Repetitive Behavior in Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ELIZABETH MANSDORF (Kennedy Krieger), Elizabeth C. Pignatelli (Loyola University Maryland), Jay Saul (Just Kids Early Childhood Learning and Diagnostic and Treatment Center), Mitchell L. Schare (Hofstra University)
Abstract: There has been limited research on the treatment of repetitive behavior (i.e. compulsive, ritualistic, insistence on sameness) for individuals with autism (Bodfish, 2004; Davis, Kurtz, Gardner, & Carman, 2007; Malmberg, 2007; Turner, 1999). The current study aimed to implement an exposure protocol for the treatment of two school-interfering repetitive behaviors of six children, 3 to 5-years-old, diagnosed with autism. Participants were assessed using the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised and Questions about Behavioral Function. Treatment consisted of 10 minute sessions of response blocking and differential reinforcement of alternative behaviors at the participants' school. The duration participants were required to wait before gaining access to repetitive behavior systematically increased from 5 seconds to a terminal goal of 5 minutes. Visual inspections revealed increases in latency, and decreases in frequency during intervention and follow-up. SPC and paired-samples t-tests supported visual inspections, and ipsative z tests did not find statistically significant changes. Reliability data were collected for 20% of sessions (Mean agreement = 93.4%, range = 83.6% to 98.2%). Data indicated treatment gains maintained at one month follow-up. The current study provides support for the use of exposure therapy for the treatment of specific topographies of repetitive behavior in children with autism.
126. The Effectiveness of Graduated Exposure and Shaping in Reducing Fear and Avoidance of Using Public Restrooms
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KELLY WORKMAN (Professional)
Abstract: Children with autism commonly experience anxiety including fears and phobic responses to certain stimuli. Exposure and response prevention (i.e., escape extinction) is an efficacious treatment for phobias (Jennett & Hagipian, 2008). However, in an effort to avoid the feared stimulus when response prevention is implemented, many children with autism may engage in a higher rate of maladaptive behavior. Therefore, it may be beneficial to utilize other strategies in lieu of response prevention to reduce phobias in children with autism. A changing criterion design was utilized in the current study to evaluate the effectiveness of graduated exposure by shaping approach responses using positive reinforcement to reduce the fear of using public restrooms in a 7-year-old boy with autism. Intervention consisted of reinforcing approach responses in the absence of avoidant behavior when systematically exposed to an 11-step hierarchy. Results indicate that a shaping procedure without the use of response prevention was effective in reducing the participant’s fear and avoidance of using public restrooms. This suggests that shaping may be viable alternative to response prevention in treating phobias in children with autism.
127. Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior in the Treatment of Inappropriate Loud Vocalizations
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ZACHARY VARGO (Youngstown State University), Rocio Rosales (University of Massachusetts Lowell), Stephen Ray Flora (Youngstown State University)
Abstract: Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) involves the contingent use of reinforcement to decrease unwanted challenging behaviors. A program of differential reinforcement of other behavior in combination with a token economy and self-monitoring was used in the treatment of escape maintained inappropriate loud vocalizations for an adolescent with autism in a school setting. This behavioral intervention showed favorable results by reducing the frequency of loud inappropriate vocalizations and increasing the opportunity for the student to participate in academic tasks. Results of this case study present implications for the use of similar interventions in applied settings that serve individuals with special needs
128. Treatment of Self-Injurious Behavior Using a Schedule of Differential Punishment of High Rates of Behavior (DPH)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTOPHER MANENTE (Rutgers University), Suzanne Wichtel (Rutgers University), Fatoumata Saccoh (Rutgers University), Jenna Budge (Rutgers University), Megan Ambrosy (Rutgers University), Edina Bekesi (Rutgers University), Jennifer McCallum (Rutgers University), Robert LaRue (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey)
Abstract: The prevalence of problem behavior among individuals with autism is heightened relative to other populations (Holden & Gitlesen, 2004; Lowe, Allen, Jones, Brophy, Moore, & James, 2007). While advances in functional analysis methodology have resulted in an increased capacity to provide effective treatment for problem behavior via the use of reinforcement-based procedures, there continues to be a need for other behavioral strategies when this is not possible or is clinically contraindicated (Lerman & Vorndran, 2002). The purpose of the current investigation was to explore the effectiveness of differential punishment of high rates of behavior (Brulle & Repp, 1987), to treat severe self-injury within a 30 year-old man with autism in an applied setting. Preliminary results suggest that DPH can be an effective means of treatment in an applied setting, both in significantly reducing the frequency of severe self-injurious behavior and in reducing the number of exposures to an aversive stimulus that are needed in order to achieve this outcome. These results have broad implications for the treatment of severe maladaptive behavior in applied settings among learners with autism across the lifespan.

Evaluating Outcomes for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Following One Year of Centre-Based ABA Services

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HAYLEY VININSKY (Gold Learning Centre), Nathalie Garcin (Abe Gold Learning and Research Centre), Ali Dussault (ABIL-T ABA Programme), Alexandra Rothstein Small (Miriam Foundation)

Early intensive behavioural intervention has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing symptoms of autism, and increasing functional skills in children with autism spectrum disorders. This study will assess the effects of one year of centre-based ABA services for 20 children between the ages of 24 months and 6 years 11 months across different measures: childrens academics, behaviour, and adaptive skills, as well as parental stress. It is hypothesized that following one year of intervention, differences will be seen across the measures.

130. The Effects of a Cool vs. Not Cool Social Skills Group Interventionfor IndividualsWith Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SAMANTHA CERMAK (The Homestead), Elizabeth Schieber (Drake University), Callie Sharp (Florida State University), Kelsey Meyn (The Homestead), Evelyn Jo Horton (The Homestead), Maria G. Valdovinos (Drake University)
Abstract: One of the central characteristics that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may display is social interaction impairments. The present study examined the social validity of the Cool vs. Not Cool program that is designed to teach individuals with autism spectrum disorder appropriate social skills. Participants included two children diagnosed with autism. Procedures included group social skills instruction focused on teaching discrimination between cool and not cool behaviors. Results revealed variable responding for proximity to peers, increase in peer engagement for one participant, and a decrease in stereotypy for one participant, however this decrease did not maintain at follow up observation. Social validity results show that the intervention did not produce clinically significant improvement for the majority of social responsiveness items tested, and the modest improvements present for some of the items were not retained at the follow-up treatment. These data suggest that other variables may impact best outcome from a social skills intervention of this type including length of treatment, ensuring similarity of skills in a social group, or working on the social skills in an intensive 1:1 format instead of a group format. Limitations include only one observation at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and follow-up. This study lends insight into a comprehensive social skills intervention, an area that has a relatively small base of research; therefore contributing to the growing research and available information on the interventions to teach social skills to individuals with ASD.
131. Experimental Evaluation of a Parent-Training Protocol for Augmentative and Alternative Communication in Severe Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
OLIVER WENDT (Purdue University), Ning Hsu (Purdue University), Kara Simon (Purdue University), Katelyn Warner (Purdue University), Kayla Marie Dunbar (Purdue University)
Abstract: Parent involvement may maximize the effects of an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) intervention for children with severe autism. This research evaluated the effects of a parent-training protocol on developing functional communication skills and natural speech development. The protocol followed the instructional approach of the Picture Exchange Communication System modified for use on an iPad. A multiple-baseline design was conducted across four children between 5-7 years with a diagnosis of severe, non-verbal autism. Dependent measures were the numbers of correct requests and word approximations. Intervention phases targeted requesting for food items; generalization probes were taken for requesting different toys. The design concluded with a final maintenance phase. Materials included an iPad equipped with SPEAKall!, a sensory-friendly and free autism app. Inter-observer agreement for dependent measures and treatment implementation was established by re-scoring 40% of all sessions and yielded scores >80%. Children 1-3 mastered all five phases of the parent-implemented intervention, whereas child 4 only achieved phase 3. Acquisition rates varied across subjects. Results, with strong confidence, suggest that parents can implement AAC with sufficient fidelity. Treatment effects are most noticeable for requesting skills, but varied for speech development. Results underscore the value of joint parent-professional partnerships.
132. Effects of an iPad-based Picture Exchange Communication System for Young Adults With Severe Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NING HSU (Purdue University), Oliver Wendt (Purdue University), Lauren Cain (Purdue University), Alyssa Diehart (Purdue University), Kara Simon (Purdue University)
Abstract: A multiple baseline design research was conducted to investigate the effects of modified Picture Exchanged Communication System (PECS) protocol in increasing requesting skills. Three nonverbal individuals between 14-23 years with a diagnosis of severe autism were taught using iPad to request for preferred items. Results indicated increases in requesting behaviors for all three participants in intervention and maintenance phases. However, only one participant mastered all five phases of the modified PECS protocol, whereas participant 2 and 3 only mastered phase two and experienced difficulties with picture discrimination. Once participants master requesting, they are likely to generalize the skill to untrained items. Results for emerging speech differed. The intentional speech approximation of participant 1 slightly increased, but no gains were observed for participant 2 and 3. Based on the current findings, successful implementation of iPad-based PECS is achievable if implemented with high fidelity. Effects on speech development cannot necessarily be expected.
133. A Preliminary Investigation of Self-Management to Improve the Presentation of Clinical Cases
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARK P. GROSKREUTZ (Evergreen Center), Joseph M. Vedora (Evergreen Center)
Abstract: Many behavior analysts present information to other professionals on individuals for whom they provide assessment and intervention-related services as part of a review process (e.g., including discussion, revision, and changes to current interventions). The current study examined the use of a textual self-management intervention on the presentation of information during clinical case review meetings. Following the intervention, all participants increased the amount and completeness of the information presented. A discussion of self-management by behavior analysts and potential impacts on training and practice is presented.
134. Effects of the Quantity of Comparison Stimuli in a Match-to-Sample Procedure Used to Teach Geography Conditional Relations
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CRAIG H. DOMANSKI (The DATA Group), Kenneth F. Reeve (Caldwell College), Sharon A. Reeve (Caldwell College), Tina Sidener (Caldwell College), David M. Wilson (Georgian Court University)
Abstract: Match-to-sample procedures are widely used to teach conditional discriminations to individuals across varied skill levels. Because such conditional discriminations are often difficult for learners with autism, it may be necessary to modify teaching procedures to optimize learning. One area where more research is warranted is the impact of the number of stimuli that are presented to learners during match-to-sample procedures. However, little behavior-analytic research on this topic has been conducted. The purpose of the present study was to examine differences in accurate selections of pictures of geometric shapes (i.e., country outlines) when textual stimuli were presented as samples using either three or six comparison stimuli in an array. Both typically-developing children and children with autism participated in a multiple-probe design embedded within a multi-element design was used. Trials were conducted using a computer-based matching program. The condition comprising three comparisons stimuli resulted in more rapid skill acquisition for one of the three typically-developing participants, while there was no difference in skill acquisition for the other two typically-developing participants. One participant with a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder did not acquire the skill using the experimental procedures. However, two participants diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder acquired the skill more rapidly in the condition comprising three comparisons.
135. The Role of Joint Control in Teaching Listener Responding to Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KAITLIN GRACE CAUSIN (Carbone Clinic), Kristin M. Albert (Carbone Clinic), Vincent Joseph Carbone (Carbone Clinic), Emily Sweeney Kerwin (Carbone Clinic)
Abstract: This study evaluated the effectiveness of a teaching procedure derived from the analysis of joint control in increasing listener responses for three children with autism using a multiple probe design across participants. One nonvocal and two vocal children with autism were taught to select multiple pictures of items from a large array in the order in which they were requested (e.g., Give me the ball, cup, and spoon) using the joint control teaching procedure. The effect of these procedures on the emission of accurate selection responses to both trained stimuli increased following the implementation of the independent variable and untrained responses across novel stimulus sets also emerged. Implications for designing language training programs for children with autism based on an analysis of joint control are discussed.
136. An Assessment of Children’s Preference for Error Correction Procedures
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TRACI ELAINE RUPPERT (University of Oregon), Tiffany Kodak (University of Oregon), Tom Cariveau (University of Oregon), Patricia Zemantic (University of Oregon), Samantha Moberg (University of Oregon), Megan Ledoux (University of Oregon)
Abstract: Although prior studies have compared the efficacy of error correction procedures (e.g., McGhan & Lerman, 2013) with children with an autism spectrum disorder, there have been no studies that have evaluated participants’ preference for error correction procedures. The current investigation evaluated participant’s preference for two previously evaluated interventions within a concurrent-operants arrangement. Participants selected one of three intervention conditions: demonstration, multiple practice, or a control condition. Prior to each instructional session, the participants choose from among the treatment options by selecting one paper from an array of three colored papers associated with the intervention conditions. The results showed that both participants preferred the demonstration condition over the multiple practice and control conditions. These results highlight the need for additional researcher to evaluate preference for interventions that are effective instead of relying on a restricted set of intervention options that are assumed to be in the best interest of the consumer.
137. The Effects of Stimulus Presentation Mode on Rates of Acquisition of Receptive Identification by Function
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KRISTIN LAMOTHE (Beacon ABA Services), Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services)
Abstract: The rapid pace of technological advances is resulting in an increasing availability of computer-based devices and software applications that can be used in teaching programs for individuals with developmental disabilities. Much research has focused on the use of the iPad and its benefits as a communication platform for individuals with autism spectrum disorders. To date, there are few empirical studies which focus on the iPad in the context of academic skills. There is also little research to suggest that learning in an iPad based format occurs at a faster rate than when using common instructional practices (i.e., flashcards). In the current study an alternating treatment design was used to compare the effects of the two different stimulus presentation modes (iPad vs. flashcards) to teach receptive identification by function. The data indicate that the stimuli presented via the iPad were acquired more quickly than those presented via flashcards.
138. Crawling Pattern Movement Effects on Fine Motor Skills of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
Kristian L. Stewart (Missouri State University), Tona M. Hetzler (Missouri State University), DAVID WAYNE MITCHELL (Missouri State University), Carrie Melia (Missouri State University)
Abstract: Individuals who have been diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have been shown to display poor fine motor skills. This study assessed the effects of a crawling intervention (CI) on the fine motor skills of individuals with an ASD. Crawling is a type of quadrupedal gait that emphasizes cross lateralization, which allows for the stimulation of the mechanoreceptors within the hands and feet. This process causes reflexive core stabilization, facilitation between the shoulders and the pelvis in order to work together simultaneously, and has been shown to improve hand-eye coordination. Employing a multiple baseline (lag-group) design, 50 ASD individuals (age range 7 to 20 years; Mean IQ = 69; SD = 17) were assigned to a one-week or a two-week CI. Each individual was assessed 4 times (baseline, at week 1, week 2 and week 3) via three fine motor skill tasks from the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test (BOT 2). Overall, both the one and two-week CI had a positive effect (increased BOT2 scores) for two of the three BOT2 tasks; with the two-week CI having a larger effect. There were large individual differences; CI was more effective for younger ASD individuals and for those with higher IQs.
139. Effects of Video Modeling and Reinforcement on Asking About and Declining Foods With Allergens
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KAREN NAULT (Beacon ABA Services), John Claude Ward-Horner (Beacon ABA Services), Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services)
Abstract: The prevalence of food allergies has increased in recent years and can pose a health risk for young students, especially those with disabilities. The present study investigated the use of video modeling, prompting, and reinforcement for teaching two students with PDD-NOS to ask about and then decline to eat foods that are identified as containing known allergens (nut products). During instructional sessions, researchers presented a video model of the target performances (ask does this have nuts, then accept or decline the food item based on the response). Data were collected during sessions where the food items were present (allergens were simulated) in the participants immediate environment and recorded whether the participants asked if the food contained nuts and whether the participants would touch or eat snack items when informed that they contain nuts. A multiple baseline design was used to assess the efficacy of the training package across subjects and food items. The results indicate that both participants acquired the question asking, not touching and not eating responses. Results are discussed in terms of generalization of food safety skills to novel environments where food is freely available.
140. Increasing Compliance With Assisted and Independent Walking by Using Naturalistic Reinforcers in an Aanalog Versus Non-Analog Setting
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMBER GODSEY (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center  ), Caitlin Fulton (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center  ), Amanda Zangrillo (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center  ), Brian D. Greer (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center  )
Abstract: For some individuals development of independent walking does not occur naturally and may warrant additional intervention (Roane & Kelley, 2008). In this study, a changing criterion and multiple probe design was utilized to evaluate the effects of a differential reinforcement of alternative behaviors (DRA) procedure for increasing compliance with independent walking for a 3-year-old female with developmental disabilities. Highly preferred tangible items were identified for use as reinforcers using a multiple stimulus without replacement preference assessment (MSWO; DeLeon & Iwata, 1996) for compliance for both assisted and independent steps. The walking trials took place in a classroom setting for the first portion of the analysis. However, once the number of steps required for reinforcement increased, the number of independent and assisted steps decreased. Thus, a separate condition was initiated where sessions were conducted in the natural setting (e.g., hallways of the unit) in order to capture naturally occurring shifts in motivation and access to preferred people and items that were not available in the analog setting. Results indicated that when the participant was in a non-analog setting and natural reinforcers were used the childs compliance and the number of independent steps increased. Keywords: independent walking, non-analog settings, motivating operations
141. Use of Mobile Devices During Instructional Programming for Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of the Literature
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
FRAN VITALE (Michigan State University), Josh Plavnick (Michigan State University)
Abstract: The use of mobile devices (e.g., iPod, iPad, tablet PCs) as part of instructional programming for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is relatively new and growing in popularity. Although popular, several questions about the efficacy of including these devices in treatment programs for individuals with ASD should be addressed. Research is needed that clarifies devices used, the process for selecting devices, the applications (apps) used, the effectiveness of those apps, the consumers who use the devices, and the training required in using the devices. This poster reviews the autism intervention literature that has used mobile communication devices and related apps with individuals with ASD. In general, results of the review suggest that many individuals with ASD experience positive outcomes when mobile communication devices are used to teach communication, social interaction, academic, and adaptive skills. In addition, a wide variety of devices, apps, and intervention procedures have been used by teachers and therapists in the extant literature. We discuss the outcomes of the review within the context of implications for educators, therapists, and others providing services to individuals with ASD.
142. Acquisition of Analogues of Complex Verbal Behavior in Typically Developing Adults and Adults With ASD
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
MARIE LAURE JOËLLE NUCHADEE (French ABA), Vinca Riviere (University of Lille III)
Abstract: In 2008, Chase, Ellenwood and Madden used extensive instructions along with Matching to Sample and sequence procedures to establish behavior analogous to complex verbal behavior. However, Chase et al., did not investigate how people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) responded to the procedures they used. It seemed important to conduct the study with people from this population since language disorders are frequent in ASD and the transfer of stimulus control has been shown to be problematic in the absence of direct training in this population. Some studies have also shown the facilitative effects of instructions, but others have shown that they interfere with learning. Therefore, we set to investigate the impact of minimal instructions in a study that replicated Chase et al. within a typically developing (TD) population and the autistic population. The results obtained show that all participants succeeded in responding correctly to the stimuli according to their membership to their class. Furthermore, the participants with ASD took significantly less time to learn the target behaviors than the TD participants. Our results thus indicate that a procedure based on the virtual absence of verbal instructions, discrimination of visual stimuli and reinforcement contingencies favored individuals with ASD.
143. Establishing Stimulus Control of Motor Stereotypy in a Home Setting
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the use of a treatment package comprised of discrimination training and differential reinforcement with response cost to establish stimulus control of motor stereotypy for one preschooler diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder during and outside of treatment sessions. Stimulus control was established during treatment sessions by pairing an orange bracelet with a differential reinforcement and response cost contingency and a green bracelet with no programmed consequence for motor stereotypy. The study took place in the home of the participant and was implemented by the behavior therapist working with the participant. This study replicates and extends previous research on treating motor stereotypy and establishing stimulus control of interfering behavior in children with autism. A brief functional analysis was employed to confirm the hypothesized variables maintaining motor stereotypy. A multiple treatments design with an embedded changing-criterion was employed to evaluate experimental control of the treatment package. The results of this study demonstrated that motor stereotypy was most likely maintained by automatic reinforcement, and that the implementation of the treatment package resulted in decreased levels of motor stereotypy across changing criterions and increased session time. Data outside of treatment sessions also remained constant .
144. Combined Effects of Response Interruption and RIRD and Noncontingent Auditory Stimulation on Vocal Stereotypy in Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MAGALI DA COSTA-MERENDA (Agir et Vivre l'Autisme), Cherice R. Cardwell (Association Francaise Les Professionnels de l'Anal)
Abstract: We evaluated the effects of response interruption and redirection and non-contingent auditory stimulation on engagement in vocal stereotypy in a 6yr old boy with Autism Spectrum Disorder. The RIRD was implemented in the institute and at home. Data were collected in the two locations by using a partial interval recording during 30 minutes with intervals of 30 sec., two times a day at the I.M.E. and once per day at home. The treatment consisted of asking the child to imitate physical movements until 3 consecutive responses were achieved in the absence of vocal stereotypy. In conjunction with the RIRD, a non-contingent auditory stimulus was presented to the student during 15 minutes intervals, 3 times a day. RIRD produced an immediate decrease in vocal stereotypy whereas NCR showed no significant differences. In addition, the effects of each intervention were evaluated separately with a reversal design. The percentage of partial intervals of stereotypy, during baseline 2 and 3, were significantly lower than the baseline 1 level, indicating that RIRD was effective over time. Furthermore, differences were observed in the percentage of stereotypy in the “RIRD alone” condition however, no differences were observed during “NCR alone” condition. It is important to underline that a Ritaline treatment taken for attention issues 8 months after the beginning of the protocol also had an effect in reducing frequency of stereotypy.
145. Further Analysis of Sensory Extinction: Treatment of Automatically Maintained Disruptive Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Nicole Marchetto (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Nicole Lynn Hausman (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Amanda Goetzel (Kennedy Krieger Institute), REBECCA KATE DOGAN (Self-employed), SungWoo Kahng (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Automatic reinforcement refers to conditions in which behavior is maintained by operant mechanisms independent of the social environment. Behaviors sensitive to automatic reinforcement are among the most difficult to treat (Vollmer, 1994). The primary challenge is to occasion the discovery of unknown functional relations when our current hypotheses and assessments prove inadequate (Patel, Carr, Kim, Robles, & Eastridge, 2000). Developing effective, function-based treatments may require an extended series of assessments beyond standard functional analyses to determine the specific sensory stimuli that maintain the target behavior. Past research has employed antecedent assessments (Patel et al.), competing stimuli assessments (Goh, Iwata, & Kahng, 1995), and sensory extinction procedures (Rincover, 1978); however, few studies go beyond the traditional analogue analyses. The current study demonstrates a hypothesis-driven approach to the use of modified functional analyses incorporating sensory extinction manipulations, preference assessments, competing stimulus assessments, and an investigation of matched stimuli (Favell, McGimsey, & Schell, 1982; Piazza, Adelinis, Hanley, Goh, & Delia, 2000) to assess the disruptive behavior of one 7-year-old boy diagnosed with Autism. Findings are discussed in terms of treatment implications and a subsequent function-based treatment is evaluated.

Reinforcing Compliance in an Adult With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
REBECCA HOLDEN (Bancroft/ Rowan University), Allison Parker (Professional)

For adults with developmental disabilities, acquisition of vocational skills is one of the most important factors in successful transition into the community (Gerhardt & Lainer, 2010). Compliance is an important component to learning and participating in vocational tasks. Differential reinforcement has been supported as an effective treatment in the pediatric population for increasing adaptive behaviors, but research has not been extended to the adult population (Fischetti et al., 2012). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of differential reinforcement to increase compliance. The participant is a 26 year old male diagnosed with Autism in a transitional campus for adults with severe problem behavior. He currently has limited communication, minimal community access, lack of safety awareness, and is not attending vocational program. These challenges have lead to serious injury and a highly restrictive environment. Based upon the serious nature of current challenges and a history of unsuccessful interventions, a treatment to increase compliance was initiated. Sessions consisted of presentation of highly preferred edibles on an FR1 schedule contingent upon compliance. An ABAB design was used measuring percentage of compliance, and interobserver agreement was taken during 84% of sessions. Data demonstrates that treatment successfully increased the percentage of compliance.

147. An Analysis of Verbal Instruction Components and Corresponding Compliance in Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
WHITNEY MCROBBIE (State University of New York Plattsburgh  ), Andrea Martino (  State University of New York Plattsburgh/Research Foundation of SUNY), Alexander Fleming (State University of New York Plattsburgh  ), Kelsey Hanrahan (State University of New York Plattsburgh  ), Ashley Kucharski (State University of New York Plattsburgh  ), Alexandra Rodriguez (State University of New York Plattsburgh  ), Zachary Varin (State University of New York Plattsburgh), Patricia Egan (State University of New York Plattsburgh  )
Abstract: Noncompliance in children with autism is a common problem, particularly when instructions are not clear enough (Bryce & Jahromi, 2012). Behavior problems such as noncompliance lead to issues such as exclusion from community settings (Roberts, Mazzucchelli, Taylor, & Reid, 2003). We selected 4 children with autism and histories of noncompliance to participate. Three boys, ages 9, 9, and 10 and one 12-year-old girl participated in the study along with their one-to-one instructors. Instructors were 4 females, ages 20 through 28. Two of the instructors were School Psychology graduate students, one instructor was an undergraduate majoring in psychology and education, and one instructor was a practicing school psychologist. The study was conducted in the context of a group social skills program for children with autism. Trainees had previous experience in prompting and reinforcement strategies, but no specific training in antecedent control procedures. Using a checklist to assess the presence of ten antecedent variables, we observed instruction-giving responses for each trainee over the course of 12 weeks to determine which of the variables were present. The results showed that when instructions included most of the antecedent variables, child compliance was high; and when instructions included fewer of those variables, child compliance was lower. For one participant, Andy, an intervention was provided that immediately improved his compliance. The intervention involved giving his instructor a copy of the checklist and providing checklist performance data and specific verbal feedback at the end of every session. Interobserver agreement was conducted with each child/instructor pair for an average of 29% of observations (range 23-34%). Interobserver agreement percentages ranged from 63% to 100% with the following averages per child/instructor pair: Bill 90%, Andy 81%, Amanda 72%, and Larry 89%. These assessment and initial intervention data (with Andy) show promise for a very simple and effective staff training procedure. Future research should examine each antecedent variable with the goal of eliminating non-essential variables for a simpler training tool.
148. Self-Management of Disruptive Behavior by Three Students With Autism Using Covert Electronic Prompting
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Bobby Newman (Room to Grow), ASHLEY KROKOWSKI (Association for Metroarea Autistic Children), Allison Epstein (Association for Metroarea Autistic Children)
Abstract: Three students diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders engaged in behavior that was disruptive and distracting to other students in the classroom. The students were taught to self-manage their disruptive behavior, using a D.R.O. system and a covert electronic prompting system (a Motivaider). A multiple baseline across subjects design was used and demonstrated marked decreases in disruptive behavior across subjects.
149. The Effects of Using Response Interruption and Redirection on Vocal Stereotypy in Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
SAMANTHA M. SOLOW (Manhattan Childrens Center), Amy J. Davies Lackey (Manhattan Childrens Center), Marisa Savard (Manhattan Childrens Center), Karlee D. Miller (Manhattan Childrens Center), Nicole Herz (Manhattan Childrens Center), Melissa Liu (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: While stereotypic behavior may be observed in typically-developing children, it has been observed to occur at much higher rates in children diagnosed with autism and is one of the diagnostic criteria for the disorder. Stereotypy can interfere with a childs ability to attend to external stimuli and impede progress in many or all aspects of their daily life. Previous research has shown effectiveness with an intervention in which the stereotypic response is interrupted and redirected. The present study examined the effects of using this procedure with several students who were observed to emit high rates of stereotypic behaviors. A delayed multiple baseline design across participants was used. Participants included four males between the ages of five and 10 who had been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and were observed to emit vocal stereotypy. Data indicated the intervention resulted in a decrease in the target behavior of stereotypy for all four students.

The Effects of a Written Expression Strategy, POW+TREE on Escape-Motivated Behaviors on Three Students With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ERIN WILSON (Missouri State University), Jordan Politte (Missouri State University), Alexandra Beckman (Missouri State University), Linda G. Garrison-Kane (Missouri State University)

Teaching students with autism the necessary academic strategies that increase on-task behaviors, skill acquisitions, and completion of tasks are essential in assisting students to successfully participate in their least restrictive environments. (Harris, Graham, Mason, & Saddler 2002; Mason, Harris, & Graham 2011; Glaser & Brunstein 2007). A functional based assessment (FBA) was conducted on three students with autism who engaged in escape-motivated behavior during written expression activities. A written expression strategy, POW+TREE was employed to teach to the function of escape. POW+TREE, teaches the students to organize their writing thoughts by following the mnemonic of: Pick my ideas, Organize my notes, Write and say more, then the acronym of TREE was taught: Topic Sentence, Multiple Reasons, Explaining and Ending the writing piece (Harris, Graham & Mason, 2002). A self-monitoring strategy was also employed to assist with attention to task and asking for assistance when needed during the written expression assignments. An ABAB withdrawal design was employed with all three students. Participant One increased his on-task behavior from 41% to 82%; Participant Two increased his on-task behavior from 20% to 90%; and Participant Three increased his on-task behavior from 44% to 89%.

151. Internet Restriction During Functional Communication Training for the Reduction of Aggressive and Disruptive Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
WENDY KINKEL (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center  ), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Todd M. Owen (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Sean Peterson (University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Tablet computers continue to grow in popularity and are increasingly becoming a highly preferred activity in clinical and home settings. Unfortunately, unforeseen technology glitches can evoke problem behavior for some individuals. In the current study, a functional communication training procedure that manipulated internet usage via a remote access program was implemented in order to reduce the aggressive and disruptive behavior of a 19 year old male diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder and intermittent explosive disorder. Two conditions were established to replicate typical internet disruptions. In the first condition, the therapist was able to quickly reestablish the internet connection, while reestablishing the internet connection was delayed in the second condition. In either condition, the participant was provided access to the tablet and a sign was used to indicate whether function communication responses (FCR) would be reinforced. Aggressive and disruptive behavior were reduced by 99% and the participant consistently emitted the FCR to request help when the internet stopped working.
152. No More Nose-picking: Teaching a Young Child to Self-manage
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
SEAN SAUNDERS (University of Nevada, Reno), Jennifer A. Bonow (Independent Consultant), Patrick M. Ghezzi (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Many children engage in some form of nose picking at one point or another, and while most children’s nose-picking habits are not severe, this behavior can be problematic in that it is unhygienic, can cause tissue damage, and is generally socially unacceptable. Unfortunately, nose-picking behavior can also prove difficult to eliminate or modify due to the non-socially mediated nature of reinforcement available for it. Self-management techniques, including self-monitoring and self-reinforcement, have proven effective in modifying a variety of behaviors in children, including behaviors maintained by automatic reinforcement. This study investigated the effects of a self-management package, including self-monitoring and self-reinforcement components, on the automatically maintained nose-picking behavior of a five-year old child diagnosed with autism. The child acquired the self-management behaviors and the intervention was effective at reducing the rate of nose-picking from an average of 7 per hour during baseline to less than 1 per hour in the final phase of the intervention. These data suggest that not only did this child learn to manage his own behavior, but that allowing children to have an active role in changing their behavior can be effective means of reducing undesirable behaviors such as nose-picking.
153. Effect of Visual Feedback for Oral Expression on a Student With Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HIROSHI SUGASAWARA (Tokiwa University), Hiromi Morita (Tokiwa University), Rie Simoyamada (Tokiwa University), Tuguo Koujiro (Tokiwa University)
Abstract: Students with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) often showed some difficulties about the oral expression. We can speak a meaningful expression, because our speech behaviors are modified by the feedback from the listener. However, students with ASD often had a problem for storage of spoken sentences. Therefore their oral expression might not be modified by the feedback from the listener. Experimenters thought that their speech could be modified by the feedback, when their oral expression visualized such as printed sentences. In this study, 6th grade student with ASD participated, who had difficulties to explain his experience, thinking, and emotion. Experimenters developed the feedback sheet that consisted of three prompts. Three prompts were "at first", "about the theme", and "conclusion". The student was required to tact about the theme as many as he could. In training phase, we introduced the feedback sheet as prompt. Then the student spoke the sentences about theme he chose. Experimenters wrote his spoken sentences with word processer, and shown it to him. Finally, the student spoke to the explanation with the sheet. Two observers scored his final explanation by the essay rating scale (Kobayashi & Rinnert, 1992). This rating consisted of holistic judgments on a 5-point scale. In previous research, 6th grade students showed 3-4 points on average in this scale (Takahashi, 2010). As results, a student showed 1.58 point on average in baseline phase. After intervention phase, a student showed 3.99 in probe phase. Moreover, the student maintained over 3 (change a listener 3.05; change themes; 4.41 and 3.12) in all generalization tests.
154. Using Normative Data From Typically Developing Children on the ABLLS-R to Guide Program Development for Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JAMES W. PARTINGTON (Behavior Analysts, Inc.), Autumn Bailey (Behavior Analysts, Inc.)
Abstract: Practitioners who work with children with autism (ASD) are often asked to compare the developmental levels of a child to those of typically developing children. The present research quantifies the nature of skill acquisition by typically developing children across 25 repertoires of the ABLLS-R. Data were collected by parents and professionals who have been trained in the administration of the ABLLS-R. Data are submitted at three-month intervals to track the specific changes in skills over the course of the children’s development. Preliminary data for this research project are presented for 53 children (30 females & 23 males) ranging in age from 6 months to 72 months. Data are averaged for children between those ages at 3-month intervals. The data demonstrate that the ABLLS-R is able to quantify significant and consistent changes in the development of the skills as children’s chronological age increases and demonstrate that typically developing children acquire most of the basic language and learning skills measured by the ABLLS-R by the time they are 3 to 4 years of age. These data can be used to identify specific delays in skills for children with autism at each age interval and identify developmentally appropriate treatment recommendations for those children.
155. Development of a Computerized Face Perception Training Program for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
Kyong-Mee Chung (Yonsei University), EUIHYUN KWAK (Yonsei University), Sang Chul Chong (Yonsei University), Jae-Won Yang (Yonsei University), Oakyoon Cha (Yonsei University)
Abstract: There is substantial evidence that persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are impaired in face recognition including abnormal attention to mouth and visual integration. This is a pilot study to develop a computerized face perception training program that modifies the attentional bias and improves the visual integration in face perception among individuals with ASD. In Study 1, two tasks, Attention & Integration tasks, were developed based on literature and administered to 2 individuals with ASD. For Attention task, participants were asked to recall the thumbnail presented on designated points in the background face. For Integration task, they were asked to judge overall emotion among facial crowds consisted of 3-9 faces expressing mixed emotions. For both tasks, ASD participants showed comparable performance to TD. The study 2 was conducted to adjust the level of difficulties in terms of stimulus presentation, presentation time & ratio and behavioral response. Significant individual differences were found among TD, indicating appropriate adjustment of task difficulty, though further tests using ASD is necessary. Further efforts will be followed to develop a couple more tasks to complete the training program via careful pretests in terms of range, interest, difficulty and practicality. Implications and limitations are discussed.
156. The Effects of Continuous and Discontinuous Data Collection on Clinical Decision Making
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
COLLEEN DEMELLO (Beacon Services of CT), Emily W. Harris (BEACON Services of Connecticut), Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services)
Abstract: There has been much debate regarding continuous and discontinuous data collection within providers of ABA based EIBI services to children diagnosed with autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Some researchers have suggested that only continuous data collection allows for the level of analysis required of ABA based interventions. Still others have argued that periodic assessment allows for more instruction and thus speeds progress while still allowing for adequate assessment of instructional outcomes. The current study sought to determine if the method of data collection being used would result in clinical decisions to change or modify programs being delayed or sped up (resulting in faster or slower progress toward learning objectives). Previously collected continuous data collection data were reviewed to evaluate the number of trials required to achieve targeted mastery criteria. These same data sets were then reviewed using the same mastery criteria, but with data that were culled from the continuous sample using a first five or last five trial sample. Results are presented in terms of how many trials were required to meet the mastery criteria under these data collection conditions. Results indicate that discontinuous data collection methods would have resulted in meeting Mastery criterion significantly earlier than continuous data collection.
157. The Effects of a Video-Modeling Package on the Correct Implementation of Discrete-Trial Teaching Components by Direct-Care Staff
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CYNTHIA E. PICHARDO (QSAC, Inc., Quality Services for the Autism Community  ), Shauna Gehshan (QSAC, Inc., Quality Services for the Autism Community), Ronald Lee (QSAC, Inc., Quality Services for the Autism Community)
Abstract: Behavioral-skills training (BST) approaches have been demonstrated to be highly-effective for increasing a variety of skills among direct-care staff personnel but can be resource intensive. As a result, alternative and supplemental methods to BST are needed. One possibility consists of the application of video-modeling technology to staff training. Recent studies have shown that video-modeling can be effective alone or as a component of staff-training procedures. The purpose of the present study was to replicate previous findings on the effects of video-modeling on the accurate implementation of discrete-trial teaching (DTT) components by direct-care staff members while instructing learners with autism. A multiple-probe-across staff members experimental-design was used. During baseline, four staff members received brief, generic instruction to conduct a discrete-trial teaching program with their student. No corrective feedback was provided. During intervention, each participant viewed a video clip of a DTT session performed errorlessly by a model prior to each probe session. Video-modeling alone resulted in a moderate increase in the accurate performance of DTT components by the participants. Additional features, such as captions and voice-over narration, were added to the video to increase it's effectiveness in improving the participant's performance of DTT components.
158. Validity and Reliability of the Korean version Autism Spectrum Disorder-Problem Behavior for Children
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
MINJOO LEE (Yonsei University), Hyunji Choi (Yonsei University ), Kyong-Mee Chung (Yonsei University)
Abstract: Autism Spectrum Disorder-Problem behavior for Children (ASD-PBC) is an instrument to measure behavior problems in children with ASD. It was developed as a part of ASD battery of measures that assesses ASD symptoms, comorbid psychopathology, and problem behaviors among children with ASD (Matson, Gonzalez, & Rivet, 2008). The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure and establish psychometric properties including reliability and validity of the Korean version of ASD-PBC. Participants were 319 mothers of children with ASD. Among children with ASD, 77.7% (n=248) were male and 22.3% (n=71) were female, and the mean age was 8.28 years (SD=3.85 years, range from 2 to 16). As a control group, 159 mothers of typically developing children participated in this study. Among TD children, 56% (n=89) were male and 44% (n=70) were female, and the mean age was 5.94 (SD=3.72, range from 2 to 16). The result of CFA indicates that Korean version of ASD-PBC fits reasonably in the 2-factor model, which includes external and internal problem behaviors. Also, internal consistencies of total items, external and internal problem behaviors were acceptable. However, test-retest reliability was relatively low. To examine discriminant validity, independent t-test of ASD and TD groups’ scores was conducted and significant differences were found. The Results showed good psychometrics properties of Korean version of ASD-PBC. J. L. Matson, M.L. Gonzalez, T.T. Rivet (2008). Reliability of the Autism Spectrum Disorder-Behavior Problems for Children (ASD-BPC). Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 2, 696–706.
159. Peer-Mediated Interventions for Secondary Students With Autism: Evaluation and Predictability
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
REBECCA A. SHALEV (Munroe Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center  ), Gregory L. Lyons (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Jennifer M. Asmus (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Erik Carter (Vanderbilt University ), Daniel Bolt (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
Abstract: Behavior analysts have an interest in the use of peer-mediated interventions (PMIs) to improve the inclusive education of students with severe disabilities. However, few investigations have examined the efficacy of PMIs on high school students with severe disabilities, and no studies have examined outcomes for students with autism. We used a randomized trial to compare the effectiveness of two types of PMIs (peer support and peer network) to treatment as usual (TAU; the paraprofessional model). Outcome variables were social and academic behaviors of high school students with autism (N = 56). Observational data were collected in general education classrooms and included peer interactions and academic engagement across three time points at baseline and postintervention. We used a two-level hierarchical linear model (HLM) to analyze the data. Results indicate that peer supports predicted higher rates of task responses (p = .007) and social initiations (p = .021) and peer networks predicted increases in no engagement (p = .048) and decreases in engagement in inconsistent activities (p = .049).
160. The Comparison of PECS With and Without Video Modeling to Increase Independent Communicative Intiations
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Serhat Yildirim (Assistant Professor), HATİCE DENİZ DEĞİRMENCİ (Anadolu University), Alper Kapan (Anadolu University), Iclal Adalioglu (Anadolu University)
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of picture exchange communication system (PECS) procedures with and without video modeling procedure in increasing independent communicative initiations in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Three male children with ASD participated in the study. IPad based video modeling was utilized in the study. An alternating treatments design was used to compare these procedures in the study. The study consisted of baseline, training, post training probe and maintenance probe sessions. Also, generalization of the acquired initiation level was tested across procedures. In each session, two trainers took place; as a communicative partner and a physical prompter. In order to collect these generalization data, mothers of participants attended as the communicative partner or physical prompter once in every three sessions. Social validity of the study was conducted by asking the opinions of the teachers. According to the data, it can be concluded that all participants learned to use the first phase of PECS and increased the number of independent communicative initiations; however, the participants rate of learning was quicker when using video modeling. The efficiency data will be analyzed and conclusions will be discussed in poster presentation.
161. Effectiveness of Home-Based Responsive Teaching Intervention (RT) on the Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Mothers
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
OZLEM TOPER KORKMAZ (Turkey), Ibrahim Hali Diken (
Anadolu University
Abstract: The purpose of this study was evaluating the effectiveness of home-based responsive teaching (RT) intervention on the preschool aged children's with autism spectrum disorders and their mothers' interactional behaviors. RT is a relationship-focused intervention (RFI) and it focuses on encouraging parents to engage in responsive interactions with their children in to the routines and activities of daily life. The participants of the study were seven mother-child with ASD dyads and sessions were conducted once a week for every dyads in the their home in to a one-to-one format. Sessions took nearly 10-12 weeks and every week interventionist presented approximatively two or three RT stateiges to the participants. The study was designed pre-experimental method because there was no control group only an experimental group. Quantitive datas were collected with a pre-test and post test format. And also this study was a mixed method because qualitative datas were collected from the mothers about the thoughts of home-based RT intervention and strategies. Therewithal the interventionist took field notes during the implementation. Results of this study was demostrated that the home based RT was effective on the children's with ASD and their mothers' interactional behaviors and also mothers' opinions of about the RT strategies and home-based RT intervention were postitive.
162. Reach Preschool Autism Program Assessment: Evaluation of Student Outcomes
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JUDITH SYLVA (California State University, San Bernardino), Gabriela Toledo (Riverside County Office of Education)
Abstract: The purpose of the Riverside County Office of Education (RCOE) Reach Preschool Autism Program Assessment is to identify (1) the types of outcomes participants in the program experienced and (2) implications for how the implementation and choice of programming components may be improved to enhance desirable outcomes. To address the first purpose of the program assessment, a total of 252 unique students were identified who participated in the Reach Preschool Autism Program in Riverside County, California between 2008 and 2012. Each of these students was eligible for special education supports and services under the category of Autism and was between the ages of 3 and 6 years. Students represented diverse backgrounds with regard to ethnicity, home language, and socio-economic status. Student placement was categorized upon exiting the program to determine placement outcomes. Two measures of student learning and behavioral outcomes were the Desired Results Developmental Profile-access (DRDP-access) which is a statewide assessment administered two times per year and the Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills, Revised (ABLLS-R, Partington, 2006; 2008; 2010) which is also a repeated measure updated at least 2 times per year. Student learning and behavioral outcomes assessed by these measures include, (a) social skills to enhance participation, (b) verbal and non-verbal communication skills, (c) increased engagement and motivation in task demands and learning environments, and (d) skills that underlie success in general education classrooms. Comparisons were made among standard scores for each of 10 indicators on the DRDP-access and the number of items in each Basic Skills category on the ABLLS-R in which the student performance demonstrated the mastery criterion to illustrate the range of growth over time for each measure. ABLLS-R data were available for about 20% of the students who participated in the program between 2008 and 2012. Results indicate that all participants demonstrated growth in the key outcome areas identified on both of the learning and behavioral outcome measures. Each category of outcomes experienced by participants will be discussed in light of the program components of the Reach Preschool Autism Program as well as implications for determining programming and professional development priorities to support socially valid outcomes.
163. Increasing Prompted and Unprompted Vocalizations in Adolescents With Autism Using a Progressive Reading Procedure
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KATIE DICOLA (Youngstown State University), Stephen Ray Flora (Youngstown State University)
Abstract: Some children with autism may speak so infrequently and softly that their verbal behaviors are essentially nonfunctional putting them at a disadvantage. Therefore methods to increase vocalizations are needed. A progressive reading procedure was used to increase prompted and unprompted vocalization in two teenage girls with autism. In the progressive reading procedure the instructor began by reading an entire page of a book. The student was required to read only the final word of the page (i.e. Ill read the page, and you read the last word,). Once 78% of the vocalizations were spontaneous, the criterion was increased (final sentence, final paragraph of each page, alternating paragraphs, alternating pages). If the student didnt read the word/sentence independently, prompts were provided in a least to most hierarchy. Reinforcement was provided on a FR1 schedule when the criterion was reading the last word. Once the criterion was increased to the last sentence, an intermittent schedule of reinforcement (VR3) was used. Books were varied to prevent satiation. Both prompted and unprompted vocalizations increased dramatically.
164. The Effects of First- and Second-Order Conditioning Procedures to Establish Coins as Reinforcers for Learners with Autism.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KARRIE LINDEMAN (QSAC), Shauna Gehshan (QSAC), Ronald Lee (QSAC)
Abstract: Despite the popularity of token reinforcement procedures, there have been few studies that have operationalized the procedures by which a neutral stimulus (i.e., the token) comes to function as a reinforcer (e.g., Ardoin et al., 2004). In the present study, a multiple-baseline-across-participants design was used to evaluate the effects a first-order pairing procedure to establish a penny as a conditioned reinforcer with two participants with autism. In the next phase of the study, the effects of a second-order pairing procedure on establishing a nickel and a dime as conditioned reinforcers were investigated. Data were collected on the percentage of trials that each coin was selected during paired stimulus preference assessments (Fisher et al., 1992). Additionally, the reinforcing properties of each coin were evaluated using a progressive-ratio-schedule procedure (Roane et al., 2008). The results showed that first-order pairing was effective at establishing reinforcing properties to the penny. Furthermore, the second-order pairing procedure used in this study was effective at establishing differential preference and reinforcing properties for the nickel and dime. The results are discussed in terms the clinical utility of first- and second-order conditioning procedures for conditioning differential reinforcer values.
165. Further Evaluation of Blocked-Trials to Teach Intraverbal Conditional Discriminations: Effects of Criterion-Level Probes
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER HAGGAR (University of North Texas), Einar T. Ingvarsson (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Individuals with autism often have deficient intraverbal repertoires. Previous research has found success in using a blocked trials procedure to facilitate discrimination training (e.g., Saunders and Spradlin, 1990). A previous study (unpublished) from our laboratory extended this procedure to intraverbal training. The current study continued this line of research by exploring the outcomes of probing the criterion performance more frequently. Three children with autism, ages 7-13, participated. Eight question pairs were taught. One question was presented repeatedly until a specified number of consecutive correct responses occurred, then the other question from the pair was presented. Contingent on specific mastery criteria, the trial blocks were faded into smaller blocks until the questions were presented in quasi-random order. Between each step, a criterion probe was conducted to determine if further steps were necessary. The procedure has been successful for two of the three participants (data collection with the third participant continues). Criterion probe performance showed that not all teaching steps were needed every time. The procedure may have facilitated acquisition over time, because the number of trials to mastery generally decreased over successive targets. Overall interobserver agreement was 99% and treatment integrity 98-99%.
166. Establishing Approval and Disapproval as Learned Reinforcers and Aversive Conditions
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KELLY KOHLER (Western Michigan University), Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Approval does not function as a powerful reinforcer for many children with autism, making it difficult to reinforce appropriate behavior in a functional and consistent manner. Additionally, disapproval does not punish the behavior of many children with autism, probably the reason maladaptive behavior is so prevalent with these children. By establishing approval statements as discriminative stimuli, we expect them to also become learned reinforcers. We will also establish disapproval statements as s-deltas, expecting them to become learned aversive stimuli. If the approval statements become effective learned reinforcers, we will work to establish other approval statements and gestures as learned reinforcers. We will also use these statements functionally throughout the child’s day to train and maintain appropriate behaviors and decrease inappropriate behaviors.
167. Continuous Task Presentation Eliminates Noncompliant Behavior in Young Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Ainsley B. Lewon (University of Nevada, Reno), SARA L. STRATZ (University of Nevada, Reno), Lauren Jones (University of Nevada, Reno), Patrick M. Ghezzi (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Noncompliance and other related escape-maintained behaviors are commonly observed in young children with autism, and can interfere with the acquisition of new skills at home, in the community, and at school. Traditional approaches to the reduction of noncompliant behaviors, such as the use of high-probability response sequences, escape extinction, and differential reinforcement procedures, were not effective for three young children diagnosed with autism who engaged in noncompliance at high frequencies and/or for significant durations of time during treatment sessions. As such, a procedure, continuous task presentation (CTP), was developed in which the instruction that evoked noncompliant behaviors was repeated continuously in the absence of physical prompting until the child complied with the initial response independently. Across all participants diagnosed with autism, the CTP procedure decreased both the frequency and duration of non-compliance episodes to very low or zero levels. Several months of follow up data show that the CTP procedure maintained very low- to zero- levels of non-compliance in all participants. The details of the CTP procedure, participant data, and implications for future research will be provided.

Evaluating the Effectiveness of DRO, DRA, and the Combination of Both Procedures to Decrease Aggression in Students With ASD

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ALEX ZAVLUNOVA (Institute for Basic Research), J. Helen Yoo (Institute for Basic Research), Jenny E. Tuzikow (Institute for Basic Research), Niall James Toner (Institute for Basic Research), Nicole Pearson (Institute for Basic Research), Maya Madzharova (Institute for Basic Research)

Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) are commonly used procedures for reducing aggressive behaviors in individuals with autism (Repp & Deitz, 1974;Borrero, J.C., Vollmer, T.R., & Wright, C.S., 2002). Although both procedures have been shown to be effective when used separately, there is a paucity of research that examined their effectiveness in combination. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of DRO and DRA separately and in combination in reducing aggression in students with autism. Aggression during pre and post treatment was examined in eight students. Percent change in aggression suggests that the DRO alone was most effective in reducing aggression. The results also show that there was little difference in percent change of aggression between DRA alone and the combination of DRA and DRO as treatment. Based on the results of the present study, consideration for future research is also discussed.




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