Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


40th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2014

Event Details

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Poster Session #468
Monday, May 26, 2014
7:00 PM–9:00 PM
W375a-d (McCormick Place Convention Center)
1. Skills Generalization In Family And Significant Others Of Drug Dependent Individuals
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
LYDIA BARRAGAN (National Autonomous University of Mexico)
Abstract: Skills Generalization In Family And Significant Others Of Drug Dependent Individuals Barragán, T.L., Flores, A. A., Pérez M. N., Morales, Ch. S. National Autonomous University of Mexico. Family functioning is one of the main factors associated with retention in substance use and episodes of overdose. Problems are reciprocal: the consumer is affected by the environment and the family by consumption. The intervention to family / person close consolidates durability and endurance of abstinence, environments with cohesion, expressiveness and independence result in less time on treatment for the consumer. This research was designed and delivered to 19 participants in an intervention group with the components: Functional analysis of user’s consumption, emotional control, problem solving, communication, interpersonal relations improve. Results show reduction in depression (17.6 to 8.82), anxiety (17.45 to 7.72), increase in support provided to consumers (57.97 to 70.06), personal satisfaction (6.96 to 8.25), and satisfaction with the consumer coexistence (6.33 to 7.79). The ocurrence record is used to identify the generalization skills in settings that could precipitate consumption. The application of learned behaviors favored a family environment that reinforced support and communication with the consumer and enabling a family atmosphere that would compete with consumer’s friends environment.
2. Task Analyses With Patients With Acquired Brain Injuries: Accident Prevention Skills Training
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
MARISOL REYNOSO (Fresno State), Amanda N. Adams (Central California Autism Center)
Abstract: Symptoms experienced after sustaining a brain injury affect many areas of daily living and require the retraining of basic essential skills needed for reintegration into independent community living. Behavior analysis is among the many approaches used in treatment for brain injury, which include cognitive therapy, speech and language therapy, physical therapy, occupational therapy, neurobehavioral therapy, and vocational rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to train patients that have sustained a brain injury to utilize a task analysis to identify and eliminate potential hazards in a home environment. A multiple baseline across settings design was used and included a baseline measure, a training phase, a task analysis phase, a generalization probe, and a fade plan. Generalization of the accident prevention skills training was evaluated as well as the potential for task analyses to serve as aids for individuals with brain injuries with consequent memory impairments.
3. Behavioral Systems Analysis of Barriers to Veterans Accessing Needed Medical and Mental Health Care
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
JOSEPH R. SCOTTI (WHOLE Veterans, PLLC), Nuttha Udhayanang (WHOLE Veterans, PLLC), Vanessa Jacoby (West Virginia University), Claudia Neely (Indiana University of Pennsylvania)
Abstract: The number of veterans requiring care for medical and mental health issues increased dramatically with the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan; however, fewer than 40% of veterans ever seek care through Veteran Affairs (VA) facilities. We conducted a state-wide survey of 1,300 West Virginia veterans of all eras (WWII to present) to examine the barriers (e.g., travel, costs, time) and stigma (e.g., “others will not understand,” “will be seen as weak”) related to seeking care through VA and community-based facilities. Across ages (18-97), nearly 50% of the veterans met criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder and/or depression (PTSD/DEP); 38% of those with PTSD/DEP were at significant risk for suicide. Veterans without PTSD/DEP reported fewer barriers and less stigma related to seeking medical and mental health care than those with PTSD/DEP. Those with PTSD/DEP who were at high risk of suicide reported more barriers and stigma related to mental health care than those at low risk of suicide. Reporting more barriers and stigma was associated with a lower frequency of accessing care in both community and VA facilities. We provide a behavioral systems analysis of the contexts and contingencies associated with accessing care and how those barriers and stigmas may be reduced.
4. The Impact of Human-Animal Interactions on Psychological Well-Being and Social Behavior of College Students
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
JOSEPH R. SCOTTI (WHOLE Veterans, PLLC), Nuttha Udhayanang (WHOLE Veterans, PLLC), Claudia Neely (Indiana University of Pennsylvania)
Abstract: There is increasing interest in the role pets may play in the lives of persons with disabilities and mental health problems. Although studies report positive effects on the physical and mental health of people who interact with animals, the majority of studies are anecdotal and qualitative, use poor research designs, and have small sample sizes. We conducted a survey of 900 college students with measures of pet ownership, relationships and interactions with pets, trauma history, measures of posttraumatic stress and depression, and social behavior (giving/receiving assistance). Students reported the periods of their lives during which they had a pet (primarily dogs): childhood, adolescence, or adulthood. Despite no significant difference in the number of traumatic events students experienced by the number of life periods they had a pet, those who had a pet during two or three of these life periods (compared to only one period) had lower scores on posttraumatic stress and depression, and were less likely to meet criteria for a depression diagnosis (40% vs. 60%). Those who owned pets longer had higher scores on bonding with animals. A behavioral model of how longer pet ownership and human-animal bonding may reduce the impact of traumatic events will be presented.
5. The Effectiveness of a College-Level Self-Management Course on a Target Behavior and General Regulatory Behaviors
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
JIHYEON SEO (Yonsei University), Kyong-Mee Chung (Yonsei University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a college-level self-management (SM) course on improving a target behavior as well as other regulatory behaviors which are unrelated with a target behavior. Among 173 undergraduate students who took a SM course, those who completed all surveys and submitted a final report were included. A total of 93 college students were finally selected, whose target behavior was exercise (n=42), dietary habits (n=30), or study (n=21). The SM course required students to modify their target behavior by using behavioral skills. To evaluate the effectiveness of SM course, participants completed the computerized delay-discounting task and self-report questionnaires at the beginning and end of the course. The results showed that participants in all three groups reported decreases in impulsivity, more regular eating habits, and improved study habits and time management after the course. However, increases in caffeine consumption were also significant in all groups. Although exercise group spent significantly more time on physical activity with decreased alcohol consumption, their junk food consumption increased as well. In conclusion, a SM course seems to be effective in improving a target behavior and general regulatory behaviors in other spheres. Implications and limitations are also discussed.
6. Investigation of Mental Health of Smartphone Addiction Group
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
HYUNJI CHOI (Yonsei University ), Kyong-Mee Chung (Yonsei University), Uichin Lee (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), Junehwa Song (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology)
Abstract: Smartphone overuse becomes social issues, but its impact on mental health has not been well studied. In this research, 104 undergraduate students were recruited from 2 universities and their smartphone usage and psychological status were investigated using several self-report questionnaires and discounting test. Participants were divided into 2 groups either by actual usage (overuse vs. average use) or smartphone addiction scale (high scored vs. low scored). The high scored group showed significantly higher level of stress, impulsivity, internalizing problems, externalizing problems and total problems and lower self-esteem. However, their level of impulsivity measured by a delay discounting test was not different from average users. On the contrary, overuse group showed significantly higher level of AUC(Area under the Curve) value, indicating higher level of impulsivity. No other significant difference was found in self-questionnaire.
7. An Evaluation of Escape and Attention Extinction With and Without Noncontingent Reinforcement in the Treatment of Pediatric Feeding Disorders
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
SCUDDY FONTENELLE (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Suzanne M. Milnes (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Jennifer M. Kozisek (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Cathleen C. Piazza (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)

Clinicians commonly use positive reinforcement in conjunction with escape extinction in the treatment of pediatric feeding disorders. Some evidence suggests escape extinction is equally effective with or without positive reinforcement at increasing food acceptance. However, the addition of positive reinforcement to escape extinction may result in lower levels of inappropriate behavior and negative vocalizations for some children (Piazza, Patel, Gulotta, Sevin, & Layer, 2003; Reed et al., 2004). Reed and colleagues demonstrated that the addition of noncontingent reinforcement (NCR), specifically, resulted in lower levels of inappropriate behavior for some children during initial treatment sessions. The purpose of the current investigation was to replicate and extend Reed et al.s findings. We used combination multielement and reversal designs to evaluate and compare the effects of escape and attention extinction to escape and attention extinction with NCR as treatment for 4 children diagnosed with a feeding disorder. Dependent measures included acceptance, inappropriate behavior, and negative vocalizations. The addition of NCR to escape and attention extinction positively impacted levels of acceptance for 1 child, inappropriate behavior for 3 children, and negative vocalizations for 2 children. A discussion will focus on avenues for future research.

8. Propensity to Work Among Detoxified Opioid-Dependent Adults
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
BRANDON RING (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Sigurdur Oli Sigurdsson (Florida Institute of Technology), Anthony DeFulio (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Kenneth Silverman (Johns Hopkins University)
Abstract: Unemployment is common in heroin-dependent adults; however the reasons for their unemployment are not fully understood. This study assessed the propensity of detoxified opioid-dependent adults to work when given the opportunity. Participants were given the opportunity to work in a therapeutic workplace, a model employment program for unemployment and drug addiction. Participants (N=113) were enrolled in one of three clinical trials that evaluated the effectiveness of the therapeutic workplace in promoting adherence to the opioid antagonist naltrexone. Participants were invited to work in the therapeutic workplace for 6 months, offered naltrexone and randomly assigned to a Prescription or Contingency group. Prescription participants could work whether or not they took naltrexone. Contingency participants had to take scheduled doses of naltrexone to gain access to paid work. Participants worked significantly more in the therapeutic workplace (66.93 % of days) than they reported working before (3.89 % of days) or six months after discharge (26.11 % of days). Participants also reported working more after than before therapeutic workplace participation, regardless of group assignment. Participants who reported usually working in the three years prior study participation were more likely to have a job following discharge from the therapeutic workplace. These data suggest that unemployed opioid-dependent adults will work when given the opportunity.
9. Using Contingency Management Intervention to Decrease Spending Behavior in College Students
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
HAILEY HINKLE (University of Central Oklahoma), Scott Singleton (University of Central Oklahoma)
Abstract: Contingency management intervention is often used in cohorts with drug abuse. Previous research has discovered that using a contingency management intervention could decrease smoking behavior. However, there is not much research looking at contingency management intervention and other addictive behaviors like gambling, excess eating, or overspending. The following study uses a positive contingency management intervention to decrease a college student’s excess spending. Excess spending is defined as expenditures minus living cost. It would not include rent, bills, groceries, or gas Things that were included as excess spending were fast food, clothing, small unessential purchases, and luxury items. The study focuses on if the client could not only decrease the excess spending habit, but do so over a continuous length of time. The positive contingency management intervention shows an individual first how to decrease an addictive behavior. Then the contingency management intervention provides them with more reinforcement that is contingent on lower rates of behavior. These principles have worked efficiently with drug abuse and should be expanded to other areas of addictive behavior. This research provides support in favor of a contingency management intervention decreasing the addictive behavior of excess spending.
10. Coping Strategies For Smoking Cessation in People Who do Not Attend Treatment
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER LIRA MANDUJANO (Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Daniela Moreno Gutierrez (Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo), Sara E. Cruz-Morales (FES Iztacala National Autonomous University of Mexico)
Abstract: International literature has pointed out that the coping strategies that have smokers at the time in which decide to quit smoking are crucial to maintain abstinence over time. Therefore the objective of this study was to compare the coping strategies used by people who do not attend a treatment and are interested in quitting. Participants: 20 smokers aged 18 to 40 years. Procedure: Four sessions were conducted from the beginning of withdrawal, in each session the level of carbon monoxide was obtained in each of the participants with Smokerlyzer piCO +. In session 1 the initial interview was applied, the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence and a brochure with information about the consequences of cigarette smoking and smoking cessation strategies was given. In session 2 (24 hours of initiation of abstinence) the brochure and self-report were reviewed, in session3 (7 days of abstinence) and session 4 (at 14 days of abstinence) the self-report of each day were reviewed. The results showed the strategies that were used more often and in which the participant resisted smoking were behavioral strategies, specifically maintained they occupied and out / avoid the situation, and the coping strategies that were used and the smoker presented falls were cognitive strategies: thoughts to keep quit.
11. Who's the Boss?
Area: CBM; Domain: Theory
MARC D'ANTIN (Brohavior), Mark Malady (Brohavior; HSI/WARC), Ryan Lee O'Donnell (Brohavior)
Abstract: The development of self-management programs is a powerful behavior analytic tool that has great potential for integrating ABA into peoples lives. People with minor life-concerns that wouldnt seek professional help are liable to buy a self-help book based on pseudoscience. Providing an ABA and thus science-based alternative should be a goal of anyone wanting to expand the impact ABA. The practice of self-management is often still heavily reliant on folk lore from other behavior analysts. The field as a whole needs to invest more time in exploring this powerful technology. In this poster I will present data that will compare whether a simple self-management program in and of itself is sufficient to create the necessary and desired behavior change, or whether adding a contingency to achieving behavior goals results in more consistent and/or faster goal reaching. The study uses a multi target multi-element design to compare behavior change in a number of different subjects and using distinct self-selected goals for each subject. Results and avenues for potential future research will be discussed.
12. Raising Practices Associated to Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Children Aggressive Behavior
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
SILVIA MORALES CHAINé (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Lydia Barragan (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Cesar Augusto Carrascoza Venegas (FES Iztacala, UNAM)

The raising practices predict the childrens problem behavior. Children antisocial behavior is related to the early adolescents criminal behavior or use of drugs. The goal of the paper was to describe the raising practices related to the oppositional defiant disorder and to aggressive behavior throughout a descriptive study. We assess 300 participants, on a non random sample, of 34 years old average, from 18 states of Mexico, selected from public health institutions, that voluntary assist to participate at the positive raising program because the occurrence of behavioral problems of their children between 2 and 12 years old. All throughout using self-reports and an observational system of de parents behavior at the interactional simulated situations. The results showed that percentage of children with oppositional defiant disorder were greater than the aggressive ones. The parents reports and behavior: alpha commands, rules establishment, problems solve, and positive social interaction, were the raising practices that reliably predicted a report of less oppositional defiant and aggressive behavior for children.

13. Eating Problems in Persons with Dementia: Behavioral Interventions
Area: CBM; Domain: Theory
ZHICHUN ZHOU (University of Rochester), David Donnelly (University of Rochester)
Abstract: In the past few years, research on dementia has made a major shiftfrom concentrating exclusively on the cognitive function of persons with dementia to the effects of dementia on their behaviors. One of the prominent behavioral changes is in eating behavior. Depending on the stage of dementia, patients may experience excessive food intake, decreased food intake, altered food choice, pica and/or declined capacity in eating, many of which require more feeding assistance. The causality of these changes in eating behavior ranges from the continuation of neurodegeneration with the progression of dementia, the regression of oral-motor skills to factors that are environmentally-induced (e.g., unfamiliar settings, different preparations of food, medications, dental problems, and insufficient caregiving). The present paper reviewed the literature on the assessment of eating behavior and the behavioral interventions that have been applied effectively in reducing the occurrence of these changes in eating behavior. Recommendations for further areas of investigation are included.
14. Improved Serum Phosphorus Through Self-Monitoring of Hemodialysis Diet and Therapist Feedback
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
ALFRED ROYAL TUMINELLO JR. (McNeese State University), Lee Allen Leger (Mcneese State University)
Abstract: Elevated serum phosphorus levels pose a serious mortality risk for hemodialysis patients and maintaining appropriate levels is a challenge, requiring patients to minimize dietary consumption of high-phosphorus foods. This intervention involved using a self-monitoring program, with and without verbal feedback from a therapist, to reduce phosphorus consumption in a 49 year old male diagnosed with chronic kidney disease and intellectual disability. An ABCB design was utilized to evaluate this intervention. The patient’s serum phosphorus levels in condition A were collected for baseline comparison. In condition B, the patient recorded daily consumption in journals and attended weekly 1 hour meetings with a therapist that reviewed the journals and provided feedback. Condition C included only the patient engaging in self-monitoring. Serum phosphorus levels remained inside the targeted range (3.5-5.5 mg/dl) for 87% of the intervention conditions, as compared to only 17% of the baseline condition. Serum phosphorus levels elevated 22% during condition C and decreased 9% upon returning to the second B condition. Results suggest that self-monitoring interventions alone may not provide clinically beneficial outcomes; this is relevant due to self-monitoring being commonly recommended by health professionals. Although the intervention was successful, it involved only a single participant, further investigation is required.
15. Evaluation of a Social Skills Training in Type II Diabetes Clients
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
ANTONIA RENTERIA (Fes Iztacala Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Maria Lourdes Rodriguez Campuzano (Fes Iztacala Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Viridiana Rivera Samano (Fes Iztacala Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Carlos Nava Quiroz (Fes Iztacala Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico), Norma Yolanda Rodriguez Soriano (Fes Iztacala Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico)

Diabetes is a chronic world wide disease with high morbidity, mortality and major public health problem. Treatments are based primarily on a change of diet. The radical change in modern lifestyle contributes to poor adherence to treatment, mainly to the diet, so it is important to understand this phenomenon in all its complexity. Improve dietary adherence in diabetic clients with a social skills training based on psychological health model developed by Ribes (1990), this workshop was designed The main aim of this study was to evaluate strategy employed in this workshop for such skills. The design was longitudinal pretest-posttest, the independent variable was the social skills training and dependent one was the client's behavioral social skills. A voluntary sample of 100 patients aged between 34 and 86 years old, 82% women. In the first phase, in order to assess client's social skillls, an adaptation of the original version of Caballo (2005) EMES-M survey was applied. In phase two, as a kind of diabetes club, modeling techniques, role playing and behavioral rehearsal of social skills were emplyed, this phase lasted approximately three two-hours sessions. In phase three, again survey was applied. A statistically significant difference between pre and post, indicating a positive effect of EHS was found. The need for more studies to provide information on the role of the factors involved in the prevention of diabetic morbidity is appreciated

16. Misophonia - An Aversive Conditioned Reflex to Soft Sounds
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
THOMAS H. DOZIER (Misophonia Treatment Institute)
Abstract: Misophonia is a little known condition that affects many people. The onset of misophonia is typically in the preteens, but the age varies greatly. It appears to be a conditioned reflex to soft sounds such as chewing or breathing. A semi-random survey indicated that about 15% of the population has misophonia-like reflex responses to at least one soft sound. Misophonia is characterized by strong negative emotions of anger or rage, but not fear. 30% of individuals report that they only have an emotional reaction to the sound (no physical reaction). Overt operant behavior also occurs after the conditioned response. Misophonia is reported to get worse with exposure therapies. A counterconditioning treatment has been developed that is effective for clients with discriminated trigger sounds. During treatment the emotional response and physical response to the conditioned stimulus are independent. All clients report that the conditioned physical response is the constriction of various muscle groups or other physical reflex, which is unique to each client. The characteristic emotional response and typical operant behavior do not occur during treatment.
17. You Count: Mobile Technology for Personalized Data Collection and Graphing
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
Travis Luke (Refaction Applications), David Luke (Refactions Application), MOLLI LUKE (Refactions Applications)
Abstract: This poster describes a free iPhone application (You Count-- developed with the aim of improving people's lives through personalized data collection and graphing. You Count is flexible to allow for personalized tracking of important measures, such as behaviors, events and symptoms. It was developed through an interdisciplinary collaboration to combine innovations in mobile technology with empirical research showing positive behavior change as a result of tracking and graphing behavior (e.g., Blick & Test, 1987; Boyle & Hughes, 1994; Carr & Punzo, 1993). The application has several key features such as easy capture of data, immediate graphing and a database that can include notes. There is a dashboard of line graphs as well as a larger, zoom-able graph. The data is privately stored on the device but may be downloaded or shared. The aim of this poster is to describe You Count and enhance it through feedback from other researchers and behavioral experts. It will provide an opportunity to encourage use and development of You Count as a simple and effective technology to use in treatments settings (e.g., clinics, school, organizations), research and personal data collection and graphing (e.g., weight management, symptoms).
18. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder May Lie in the Eyes of the Beholder
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Ana Marina Reyes Sandoval (National University of Mexico), LAURA ACUNA (National University of Mexico)
Abstract: An observer may label some aspect of behavior as either normal or abnormal depending on his/her own conditioning history. Although such history necessarily varies among individuals, some commonalities may be expected among members of different socio-demographic categories. This investigation aimed at determining the propensity of elementary-school teachers (N=691) of different gender, age and social class to label as either normal or abnormal the “frequent” emission of behaviors characteristic of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In accordance to the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), the term “frequent” was left undefined. Results showed that about half of the teacher sample regarded as normal for their children to “frequently” enact behavior that would suggest a psychiatric ADHD diagnosis. Teachers most inclined to label frequent-characteristic ADHD behavior as abnormal were women, aged under 42 years, and belonging to the middle-class. These results were taken to suggest that “frequent”-characteristic ADHD-behavior may or may not be considered abnormal by different observers, that presumably differ in conditioning histories prescribed by their membership to different socio-demographic categories.
19. Contingency Contracting to Increase Home-based Physical Therapy Exercise Adherence
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
Sefakor K. Adzanku (Central Washington University), Elizabeth M. Street (Central Washington University), WENDY A. WILLIAMS (Central Washington University), Stephanie Stein (Central Washington University)
Abstract: Non-adherence to medical regimens is a common problem that cuts across a range of medical treatments. Physical therapy constitutes an integral part of the rehabilitation process for many disorders and injuries. Between 60% and 80% of patients do not adhere to prescribed home-based physical therapy exercises. The current pilot investigation assessed the efficacy of signed contingency contracts and reminder telephone calls to increase compliance with prescribed exercise programs. A multiple-baseline-across-participants experimental design included concurrent baselines and staggered treatment onsets. Two patients, recruited from a physical therapy clinic, agreed in writing to monitor and report their daily exercise adherence during baseline and treatment phases. Treatment consisted of signed contingency contracts and daily reminder telephone calls. Overall, both participants showed noteworthy improvements in their exercise compliance during treatment. Both participants showed an overall average increase in exercise compliance of 30% or more across all exercises. Adherence rates for exercises that were to be done once a day rose to 100%. The current findings suggest that simple behavioral interventions like contingency contracting may represent cost effective additions to physical therapy management policies that can increase home-based physical therapy exercise for some patients.
20. A Review of Treatments for Sleep Interfering Behavior of Young Children
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
SANDY JIN (Eastern Connecticut State University), Gregory P. Hanley (Western New England University)
Abstract: Sleep problems among children are prevalent, persistent, and negatively impact the well-being of the child and their family. In this paper, we review the efficacy and social acceptability of treatments for problem behavior occurring when children are bid good night, such as crying, calling out, excessive requests, leaving the bedroom, playing in bed, stereotypy, or aggression. We refer to these behaviors that occur following the bid goodnight and prior to sleep onset as sleep interfering behavior (SLIB). Interventions for SLIB are reviewed and categorized according to how the presumed reinforcers for SLIB are managed (i.e., extinction, noncontingent reinforcement, or differential reinforcement) and which, if any, additional changes occur in the environment prior to the bid good night (i.e., manipulations of discriminative stimuli or establishing operations for SLIB or the target of behavioral quietude). The relative advantages and disadvantages of the different treatments and the adequacy of the research are reviewed along with suggestions for important future research.
21. A Modified Functional Behavior Assessment for Sedentary Behavior and a Functionally-Based Physical Activity Intervention Program
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
SHIRI AYVAZO (David Yellin Academic College), Elian Aljadeff-Abergel (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) is designed to identify main functions of challenging behaviors. This project sought to extend FBA to sedentary living among normal adults. Sedentary living is a highly concerning public-health epidemic. Despite the importance of physical activity (PA) for healthy lifestyle and the alarming rates of obesity, more than 60% of adults worldwide are inactive. Assessment of Physical Activity (FBA-PA) can aid in revealing conditions maintaining avoidance from PA toward a suitable PA training program. The purpose of this project was to conduct a modified FBA of avoidance from PA of a 23 years-old overweight sedentary female; and to design a functionally-appropriate PA training program. The FBA-PA included low and high-intensity exercise tasks, with and without social attention provided. Heart rate and frequency of negative behaviors towards PA was measured. The subsequent PA training program was 29-sessions long. PA variables measured were: number of steps, sit-ups, biceps curls, triceps extensions, squats and leg curls. The FBA-PA resulted in more displays of negative verbal and non-verbal behaviors during the high-intensity tasks suggesting a possible function of escape from physical demands. The PA program resulted in a stable increase in all PA variables including maintenance of engagement in PA.
22. CANCELLED: An Evaluation of Deferred Time-out to Treat Attention-Maintained Noncompliance
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER S. KAZMERSKI (East Carolina University), Jessica Buzenski (East Carolina University ), Ryan Ford (East Carolina University )

To increase compliant behavior in children who were unresponsive to traditional time-out (TO) procedures, improve parent-child interaction, and increase parental satisfaction, deferred time-out (DTO) strategies have been implemented in clinical settings (Warzak & Floress, 2009). Original studies describe DTO as a process initiated following a parent TO training procedure for children who were resistant to traditional forms of TO. Results indicated that the DTO strategy significantly reduces TO latency without the need for put-backs or other physical means to gain time-out compliance. In addition to being more time consuming and less effective, these physical strategies are less favorable to caregivers than a solution such as DTO (Kazdin, 1980). Current participants include children between two and seven, who display attention-maintained noncompliance and other minor disruptive behavior. A multiple baseline across participants with a primary dependent variable of response latency for time-out and secondary dependent variables of disruptive behavior (noncompliance, aggression and inappropriate vocalizations) was used. Social validity data will also be reported. The current paper replicates and extends the results of previous evaluations by determining the functional applications of DTO and adding to the standard behavioral strategy of TO.

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