Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


36th Annual Convention; San Antonio, TX; 2010

Event Details

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Poster Session #95
BPH Poster Session 1
Saturday, May 29, 2010
6:00 PM–7:30 PM
Exhibit Hall A (CC)
58. Correlation Between Delay Discounting and Smoking Abstinence in Treatment-Seeking Smokers Enrolled in an Internet-Based Contingency Management Intervention
Area: BPH; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CRYSTAL L. FAIX (University of Florida), Bethany R. Raiff (National Development Research Institutes), Marissa Turturici (University of Florida), Jesse Dallery (University of Florida)
Abstract: Delay discounting (DD) has recently been shown to predict relapse to smoking in post-partum women (Yoon et al., 2007) and with non-treatment seeking smokers in a laboratory model of contingency management (CM; Dallery & Raiff, 2007). The current study explored the relationship between baseline DD and smoking abstinence with two groups of treatment seeking smokers. A contingent group (n = 27) earned monetary vouchers contingent on smoking abstinence, verified using web-camera recorded carbon monoxide samples submitted over a secure and encrypted website . A noncontingent group (n = 25) earned vouchers independent of smoking abstinence. Participants in the contingent group had a greater percentage of days abstinent (mean = 47% versus 27%) and a greater number of maximum days abstinent (mean = 8 versus 3 days) than participants in the noncontingent group, respectively. For the contingent, but not the noncontingent, group there was a significant correlation between the percentage of days abstinent and baseline DD (r = -0.39). Delay discounting may predict smoking abstinence when the treatment consists of delivering monetary vouchers contingent on smoking abstinence.
59. Social Validity Assessment of an Internet-Based Contingency Management Intervention for Cigarette Smoking
Area: BPH; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MARISSA TURTURICI (University of Florida), Bethany R. Raiff (National Development Research Institutes), Crystal L. Faix (University of Florida), Jesse Dallery (University of Florida)
Abstract: Contingency management (CM) interventions are effective at increasing smoking abstinence by making consequences, such as vouchers exchangeable for goods and services, contingent on breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels indicative of abstinence. To make CM interventions more clinically practical, we developed an Internet-based CM intervention. The current study assessed the social validity of the intervention. Participants (n = 25) submitted web-camera recorded CO samples over a secure, encrypted website to verify smoking abstinence. At the end of the intervention participants were asked to rate the program, using a 100mm visual analog scale (higher scores were more favorable), on a number of dimensions. Participants reported that the Internet-based CM intervention was easy to use and convenient (mean = 91 and 86, respectively), they enjoyed earning vouchers (mean = 84), and they found the intervention to be effective (mean = 79). Eighty-four percent of participants said they would use the intervention again if they needed help quitting in the future. Participants also reported that they would spend an average of $115.00 to get access to the treatment. The results suggest that Internet-based CM interventions are socially acceptable to potential consumers.
60. An Internet-Based Group Contingency Management Program to Promote Smoking Cessation
Area: BPH; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
STEVEN E. MEREDITH (University of Florida), Jesse Dallery (University of Florida)
Abstract: Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in the US. Due to the limited efficacy of current treatment options, more intensive interventions are needed to promote abstinence. Research suggests group contingencies may improve treatment. To our knowledge, the current study is the first to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of an Internet-based group contingency management program to promote smoking cessation. Participants were three female smokers. Smoking status was verified via the Internet with twice daily carbon monoxide (CO) monitoring. Following baseline, participants were exposed to 4-day Shaping and 10-day Treatment conditions in which vouchers were delivered contingent on smoking reduction (Shaping) and abstinence (Treatment) of all group members. (Data were not collected for one participant due to a rare CO monitor malfunction.) An online peer support forum was available to participants throughout the study; thus, researchers had unprecedented access to collateral social behavior. Over the course of the study, participants made 29 posts on the forum. Fifty-five percent were rated as positive, 45% as neutral, and 0% as negative (IOA =97%). Participants rated the treatment very highly on a treatment acceptability questionnaire. A multiple baseline study is currently underway to evaluate preliminary efficacy of this program.
61. Project BOAST: Work and Money Management Skills for Women in Drug Treatment
Area: BPH; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MARY LOUISE E. KERWIN (Rowan University), Lauren A. Lee (Rowan University), Fallon O'Connell (Seabrook House), Stephen A. Marks (Elizabethtown College)
Abstract: Women with substance use disorders experience multiple sources of stress that threaten their ability to sustain abstinence following successful completion of drug treatment. Project BOAST: Behavioral Office-based Achievement and Success Training uses behavioral skills training to provide a structure for women in a residential drug treatment program to maintain abstinence by teaching and strengthening critical life skills required for successful employment (e.g., data entry, professional demeanor) and a responsible lifestyle (e.g., social skills, managing finances). Residents work 5 hours/week in a simulated employment setting where they receive base pay as well as pay for productivity and exhibiting job-related skills, such as maintaining task focus and library mode noise. The pay is deposited into the resident’s checking account. Each resident uses this “money” to pay bills and buy goods and privileges from an onsite store in the context of a simulated economy. Results with 50 women demonstrate that they learned job-skills, work-skills, and money management skills.
62. A Behavioral Economic Analysis of Operant Ethanol Self-Administration in Alcohol-Preferring (P) and Non-Preferring (NP) Rats
Area: BPH; Domain: Experimental Analysis
BRANDON LAHART (The College of New Jersey), Daniel McFadden (The College of New Jersey), Ralph Spiga (Institute for Behavior Resources, Inc.), Jessica Perkel (The College of New Jersey), Ashley Silakoski (The College of New Jersey), Amanda Lister (The College of New Jersey), Margaret P. Martinetti (The College of New Jersey)
Abstract: Behavioral economic analyses have been useful for examining drug self-administration in human and animal models. The current study used the exponential demand equation (Hursh & Silberberg, 2008) to assess the “essential value” of ethanol and sucrose in rats selected for high or low alcohol consumption (P and NP rats, respectively). After lever-press training for 10% ethanol and 1% sucrose reinforcers on concurrent FR4 schedules, the FR value, or price, of each reinforcer was increased to 8, 16, and 32 while the price of the alternative reinforcer was held constant at FR4. In two control conditions, the price of each reinforcer was increased with water concurrently available on an FR4 schedule. We observed that the availability of low-cost sucrose reduced consumption of ethanol for P rats. Moreover, the exponential demand analyses revealed that for P rats, ethanol was a less “essential” reinforcer when sucrose was concurrently available than when water was available. In contrast, the availability of sucrose had no effect on demand for ethanol in NP rats. These results suggest that the availability of low-cost alternative reinforcers can reduce demand for ethanol in organisms selected for high alcohol intake.
63. The Behavioral Economics of Alcohol Consumption in College Students: The Role of Academic Constraints
Area: BPH; Domain: Experimental Analysis
Nicole Gentile (University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey), Chelsea Reichert (The College of New Jersey), MARGARET P. MARTINETTI (The College of New Jersey)
Abstract: Behavioral economic analyses recently have been extended to the study of alcohol drinking among college students. The current study used a hypothetical alcohol purchase task (APT) (Murphy & MacKillop, 2006) to assess the effect of an academic constraint (next-day class time) on demand for alcohol among 164 college students. Participants were asked to read a description of a drinking scenario and then answer several questions asking how many standard drinks they would consume at prices ranging from $0 (free) to $10. The participants were randomly assigned to one of three “academic constraint” groups, for whom the scenario included a next-day class that differed by scheduled time (8:30am, 10:00am, or 12:30pm), or a control group (no mention of next-day class). Exponential demand analyses (Hursh & Silberberg, 2008) revealed that all three of the academic constraint groups reported lower numbers of drinks and lower “essential values” compared to the control group. However, the demand curves for the three constraint groups did not differ. These results suggest that academic variables may affect demand for alcohol among college students, but further research is necessary to determine whether other academic variables such as class size and level may interact with class time to affect demand.
64. Low Dose Haloperidol Impairs Acquisition of New Sequences During Incremental Repeated Acquisition
Area: BPH; Domain: Experimental Analysis
KRISTEN AMANDA SPENCER (Auburn University), M. Christopher Newland (Auburn University)
Abstract: An Incremental repeated acquisition procedure was used to train rats to perform a 4-response sequence using either a backward (7 animals) or forward incrementing chain (7 animals). Behavior was challenged with a chronic low dose of haloperidol, a dopamine antagonist and “typical” antipsychotic. Haloperidol doses of 0.05 to 0.15 mg/kg (twice a day for 15 days) were chosen to bracket dopamine receptor occupancies at clinically relevant doses. At 0.05 mg/kg, response rate was relatively unaffected while acquisition of new sequences was subtly impaired. At 0.15 mg/kg response rate was lowered and acquisition of new sequences were substantially impaired. These results indicated that at low doses (0.05 mg/kg here) haloperidol exerts a specific affect on acquisition of sequences (behavior) as opposed to a general reduction in responding and performance on all measures. No substantial group differences were observed.
65. Flumazenil Reversed the Associative Tolerance to the Anxiolytic Effect of Diazepam
Area: BPH; Domain: Experimental Analysis
Abstract: Tolerance to a drug is a decrease in the effects following several drug administrations with a fixed dose. The pharmacological tolerance focused on the effects of drug exposure on neuronal structures. However, non pharmacological variables play an important role on tolerance. Associative tolerance theories explain the development of tolerance in function of the stimulus association, where the administration of one drug is associated with a specific context; therefore the context signs the drug. Context refers to aspects of the environment that play an important role in the degree of conditioning to different situations or stimuli. The development of tolerance to anxiolytic effects of benzodiazepines has been evaluated in the elevated plus-maze (EPM), where the total proportion of exploration in the open arms results in an anxiety measure. Also, it is reported that tolerance development could be reverted by flumazenil. The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the associative tolerance to the anxiolytic effect of diazepam (D), and if this effect could be antagonized by flumazenil (F). The subjects (Ss) were male Wistar rats, assigned to 6 independent groups: 3 groups received one trial in which the context Laboratory (L) was associated with the administration of D (1mg/kg), F (5 mg/kg) of or saline (S), in an equivalent volume (ml/kg). Two groups received 20 trials of the association of D in different contexts, one group in the context L and other in the Colony room (C). Another group received administration of S in the context L. Two groups were evaluated on the day 21 with D+F or saline, in the same context of drug administration; another group DB+F was tested in one different context. All the administrations were ip, 30 min before the exposition to the EPM. Present results demonstrate the anxiolytic effect of diazepam, and the flumazenil showed no effect by itself. Also, it is shown the reversion of associative tolerance to anxiolytic effect of diazepam for flumazenil administration in a dependent context. This study demonstrates the importance of context in the development of tolerance, supporting results of other associative tolerance theories.
66. Drug Effects on Olfactory Span in Rats
Area: BPH; Domain: Experimental Analysis
MELISSA DEAL (University of North Carolina, Wilmington), L. Brooke Poerstal (University of North Carolina, Wilmington), Elizabeth Toop (University of North Carolina, Wilmington), Magda Semrau (University of North Carolina, Wilmington), Mark Galizio (University of North Carolina, Wilmington)
Abstract: Dudchenko, Wood, and Eichenbaum (2000) developed a task to measure “memory” capacity in rodents. Their olfactory incrementing nonmatch-to-sample (INMS) procedure is designed to be analogous to the digit span task in humans. The present study evaluated a variation of the Dudchenko et al. (2000) procedure as a baseline for behavioral pharmacology in rats. Rats were placed in a large arena with 18 stimulus locations. In the initial trial of each session, one stimulus cup marked with a distinct olfactory stimulus was present and responding to it was reinforced. Each subsequent trial added a new olfactory stimulus and responding to the new stimulus was always reinforced (non-matching). Each session included 24 trials of the INMS task as well as a performance control task involving a simple olfactory discrimination to control for any non-mnemonic drug effects. Once responding met stability criteria, subjects were given twice weekly i.p. injections of the non-competitive NMDAr antagonist, dizocilpine or the opioid agonist, morphine prior to the testing session. Both drugs produced significant impairments on span, longest run, and accuracy at the highest doses, but differentially affected the INMS and performance control tasks.
67. Some Effects of Ambient Temperature on Reinforcing Efficacy and Schedule Performance of Methamphetamine and Ketamine in the Rat
Area: BPH; Domain: Experimental Analysis
RACHEL FODI (University of Pittsburgh), Stephanie Ogilbee (Allegheny College), Rodney D. Clark (Allegheny College)
Abstract: Rats were trained in a standard conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure with (+) Methamphetamine (3.0 mg/kg). One side of the chamber was paired with a temperature of 75oF and the other side was correlated with a cool temperature of 50oF. While the data were not statistically significant (p>.05) rats spent slightly more time in the warmer side than the cooler side. These data marginally support previous finding that the reinforcing properties of psychomotor stimulants may be enhanced if they were taken in warmer environments.
68. Quantitative Description of Alcohol Intake in Rats
Area: BPH; Domain: Experimental Analysis
Alejandra Rosas-Nuñez (FES Iztacala UNAM), Edith Juarez-Maldonado (FES Iztacla UNAM), Benjamin Melchor-Hipolito (FES Iztacala UNAM), Gabriel Martinez-Cortes (FES Iztacala UNAM), Gustavo Meza-Reynoso (FES Iztacala UNAM), Guadalupe Ortega-Saavedra (FES Iztacala UNAM), J C PEDRO ARRIAGA-RAMIREZ (FES Iztacala UNAM)
Abstract: A quantitative description of alcohol intake in rats is described. A group of seven Long Evans rats was run in a positive automaintenance schedule. In this schedule the mean intertribal interval was 60 s with subintervals in a range between 45 and 75 s, and trial duration was 5 s. At the end of each trial a 45 mg food pellet was delivered. In this procedure a sipper was introduced as a conditioned stimulus and was withdrawn after 5 s. The solution that rats drank was 6% alcohol, and .16% saccharine. Sessions were run for 19 days. Rats consumption increased as sessions progressed. The quantitative analysis that was used was a regression analysis. This analysis showed a significant linear trend and a significant positive slope. A significant linear trend shows that alcohol solution intake increases proportionately. A significant slope shows that this increase is reliable and also the increase in consumption for every unit that the independent variable changes. This procedure and analysis are useful as a baseline to study the effects of different drugs on alcohol consumption.
69. Behavioral Effects of an Anticholinergic Drug on Serial Recall in Long Evans Rats
Area: BPH; Domain: Experimental Analysis
Guadalupe Ortega-Saavedra (FES Iztacala UNAM), Benjamin Melchor-Hipolito (FES Iztacala UNAM), Edith Juarez-Maldonado (FES Iztacla UNAM), Sara E. Cruz-Morales (FES Iztacala UNAM), J C PEDRO ARRIAGA-RAMIREZ (FES Iztacala UNAM)
Abstract: Studies in social transmission of food preference have shown reliable serial position functions in Long Evans rats. Functions may show primacy or recency depending of different parameter values. In these studies, a demonstrator rat that has consumed flavored food will increase preference for that flavor in naïve observer rats. Studies in behavioral pharmacology have shown that cholinergic antagonists may produce deficits in acquisition and recall in different tasks. In this study Atropine (15 mg/ 2ml/ kg, ip), a cholinergic antagonist, was administrated to observer rats (n=12) after interacting with a list of three demonstrators that had eaten one of three different flavored foods. This group was compared with a control group that was injected with isotonic saline (2 ml/kg, ip). A preference and recall test, for 20 min, was given to subjects 24 hr after demonstration. Repeated measures ANOVA showed no difference between the groups. The results showed that the dose of Atropine changed the pattern of recall reducing the amount of responding to the first item in the list. The administration of drugs after demonstration, and testing for preference 24 hr after drug administration resulted in a useful technique to evaluate the effects of drugs on list recall.



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