|From Naming Through Learning Through Observation; Educational Procedures and Tactics to Induce Higher Order Verbal Capabilities
|Saturday, May 29, 2010
|1:00 PM–2:20 PM
|Area: VRB/EDC; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
|Chair: Nirvana Pistoljevic (The Fred S Keller School and Teachers College, Columbia University)
|CE Instructor: Alison Moors, M.A.
|Abstract: We will present the most recent research related to protocols for advancing children’s verbal behavior development. The findings presented here demonstrate effective tactics that have been implemented with students ranging from pre-listener through reader and writer levels of verbal behavior. The papers includes results from the implementation of protocols to induce naming with objects from environment with 2- and 3-year olds, naming and observational learning with preschoolers through multiple exemplar instructional game, observational learning through coral responding with first graders, and reading and comprehension for elementary and middle school students.
|Baby Naming: The Effects of Multiple Exemplar Instruction with Three-Dimensional Stimuli on the Emergence of Naming in 2- and 3-year-old Children
|Nirvana Pistoljevic (The Fred S Keller School and Teachers College, Columbia University), ANANYA GOSWAMI (Teachers College, Columbia University)
|Abstract: The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of multiple exemplar instruction on the emergence of naming for three students ranging in age from 2-3 years old. Using a delayed multiple probe design, under the pre-experimental phase, all 3 participants were tested for naming using the following procedure. The dependent variable in this study was emergence of full naming with three-dimensional and two-dimensional stimuli. All the naming probes were conducted following the mastery of match to sample responses with the target stimuli. Then, students responses to unconsequated probes for pure and intraverbal tacts to the same stimuli, were measured. The independent variable was the mastery of novel sets of three-dimensional stimuli while matching, pointing, tacting and intraverbal tacting responses were rapidly rotated. The results of the study showed that the participants acquired full naming with three-dimensional objects form the environment, while naming with two-dimensional pictures did not emerge for all participants.
|A Procedure to Simultaneously Induce Naming, Observational Learning, and Increase Spontaneous Vocal Verbal Behavior in Group Instructional Settings
|Nirvana Pistoljevic (The Fred S Keller School and Teachers College, Columbia University), MARA KATRA OBLAK (Teachers College, Columbia University)
|Abstract: The purpose of this study was to test the effects of a peer-yoked contingency game on the acquisition of observational learning, naming, and numbers of vocal verbal operants emitted by preschool students diagnosed with and without disabilities. Six 3- to 5-year-olds, 5 males and 1 female, who attended an integrated classroom, participated in the study. Through a delayed multiple probe design across yoked pairs, we sought to demonstrate the effects of a combination of multiple exemplar instruction and peer-yoked contingency game on the acquisition of missing verbal capabilities: observational learning, naming, and increase in emission of vocal verbal operants during non-structured activities. The results demonstrate the peer-yoked game board with a multiple exemplar instruction component was effective at inducing observational learning and naming capabilities, and in increasing numbers of vocal verbal operants emitted in noninstructional setting in all 6 participants.
|The Emergence of Observational Learning Through the Use of Choral Responding During Small Group Phonemic Instruction
|R. Douglas Greer (Teachers College, Columbia University), JANET C. SOLORZANO-CORREIA (Teachers College, Columbia University)
|Abstract: I tested the effects of choral responding across vocal and written responses on the participant’s level of textually responding, rate of textually responding and the emergence of observational learning. Ten participants from the same classroom were chosen because they lacked the textual and written responses to phonemes as well as the observational learning capability. The study took place in a first grade accelerated independent learner classroom consisting of fourteen students ages five through six, four of whom had special education diagnoses. The study utilized a time-lagged multiple probe across participants design. One dependent variable was correct responses on probe sessions for learn units delivered to a peer. The first dependent variable tested if the participants had the observational learning capability in repertoire. A second dependent variable was the participants reading level and reading rate, as measured by the Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA). The independent variable was choral responding to phonemes across vocal and written responses. Reading instruction consisted of phoneme identification, blending phonemes into words, segmenting phonemes, and shared reading. The results of the study showed that choral responding was an effective intervention to increase level of textually responding as well as rate. In addition, observational learning emerged for the participants as a result of the choral responding intervention.
|An Investigation of the Relationship Between Reading and Tact Acquisition for Elementary and Middle School Students
|Jennifer Longano (Teachers College, Columbia University), LISA GOLD (Teachers College, Columbia University)
|Abstract: The purpose of this study was to test the effects of reading on tact and vocabulary acquisition. In Experiment 1, three elementary students participated, which included two 7-year old females and a 7-year old male. All the participants were selected based on their reading and reading comprehension abilities, which ranged from average to high average. Participant A, B, and C were all in a regular education second grade classroom. The study took place in a separate location from their classroom. The design of the study was a time lagged multiple probe design. The dependent variable was tact acquisition probes. Probes were conducted prior to and after each participant read a contrived story that incorporated a written description of the pictures used during the probe conditions. No pictures were used in conjunction with the story. The results showed that all three participants acquired novel tacts and vocabulary following the reading of the contrived stories. In Experiment 2, two sixth-grade male students participated. Both students were in a classroom that implemented the used a comprehensive application of behavior analysis to schooling (CABAS) model. The design of the study was a time lagged multiple probe design. The dependent variable was tact acquisition probes and the independent variable was the reading condition. Results showed the potential relationship between reading and tact acquisition.