|Enhancing Word Reading in Post-Secondary Students With Intellectual Disability|
|Tuesday, May 31, 2016|
|3:00 PM–3:50 PM |
|Grand Ballroom CD North, Hyatt Regency, Gold East|
|Area: DDA/EDC; Domain: Applied Research|
|Chair: Christopher Skinner (The University of Tennessee)|
Post-secondary education programs for students with intellectual disabilities are designed to enhance academic and social emotional development. The three studies presented evaluate the application of flashcard interaction in post-secondary education student with intellectual disability. First an alternating treatments design was used to evaluate and compare the effects of two flashcard interventions on sight-word acquisition. Results showed that both interventions were effective, but the intervention with words printed in standard font results in greater learning than an identical intervention with words printed in non-standard font. Next, a multiple-baseline across word list design was used to evaluate a computer-based sight-word reading program that was modified to allow the participant to self-determine both response intervals and intertrial intervals. Results showed the student quickly learned to operate the program and it caused immediate increases in sight-word reading. Finally, an alternating treatment design was used to evaluate and compare computer-based flashcard interventions where the computer paced the student through 1-s or 5-s response intervals (no self-determination) and a similar intervention where the student self-determined each response interval. Additionally, researchers collect student preference data. Together these results show that (a) post-secondary education students with ID can acquire words via computer-based flashcard interventions; (b) learning may be hindered when flashcard print is modified in a manner that makes it more difficult to read; and (c) modifying interventions to allow students to self-determine computer-based response intervals can enhance learning, while also providing occasioning high rates of self-determination.
|Keyword(s): intellectual disability, post-secondary education, self-determination, sight-word reading|
The Effects of Perceptual Dysfluency on Sight-Word Acquisition Rates in a Post-Secondary Student With Intellectual Disabilities
|Kala Taylor (The University of Tennessee), CHRISTOPHER SKINNER (The Univesity of Tennessee), Dennis Ciancio (The University of Tennessee), Samantha Turnbull (The University of Tennessee), Jonah Ruddy (The University of Tennessee), Thomas Beeson (The University of Tennessee)|
Flashcard procedures can enhance sight-word reading in students with disabilities. Some have suggested that reducing response effort (e.g., cognitive load) by simplifying learning materials enhances learning. Others have found evidence that increasing response effort during learning activities can improve later recall. An alternating treatments design was used to evaluate and compare two flashcard reading interventions on sight-word learning in a post-secondary student with intellectual disability. Dolch 4th-grade sight-word flashcards were present in fluent (14-point Arial) font and disfluent (14-point Juice ITC font reduced to 70% transparency) font. During assessments the participant was given 3 s to read each word and words were considered acquired when read correctly across two consecutive assessments. Acquired words were replaced with new words. Findings indicated that both interventions enhanced sight word acquisition, but the fluent flashcards resulted in greater acquisition (i.e., 23 words acquired in 11 sessions) than the disfluent flashcards (14 words acquired in 11 sessions) and the untreated words (1 word acquired in 11 sessions). Visual analysis of the time series graph shows that the number of words acquired under both conditions growing larger as the study progressed. Discussion focuses on enhancing sight-word reading in students with post-secondary education and limitations associated with attempting to enhance sight-word learning by enhancing time and effort required to read words.
|Evaluating a Computer Flashcard Reading Intervention With Self-Determined Response Intervals in a Post-Secondary Student With Intellectual Disabilities|
|SAMANTHA TURNBULL (The University of Tennessee), Kala Taylor (The University of Tennessee), Merilee McCurdy (The University of Tennessee), Christopher Skinner (The Univesity of Tennessee), Dennis Ciancio (The University of Tennessee), Thomas Beeson (The University of Tennessee)|
|Abstract: Post-secondary education programs for students with intellectual disabilities are designed to enhance academic and social emotional development. Perhaps because of limited opportunities to choose, students with intellectual disability often have weak self-determination skills. Thus, with the current study researchers modified a computer-based flashcard intervention to occasion high-rates of self-determination. Specifically, researchers altered each response interval and each inter-trial intervals from fixed or computer generated to student determined. Using a multiple-baseline across-task design researchers evaluated the effects of this modified computer-based flashcard intervention on sight-word reading acquisition in a post-secondary education student with disabilities. The student was able to quickly learn to control response intervals and the procedure enhanced sight-word reading. Although data suggests that the student maintained less than half of words acquired follow a 48-day no treatment phase, a brief re-learning phase allowed the student to quickly re-learn most of the words that were not maintained. Directions for future research, including investigating possible benefits associated with allowing students with disabilities to self-determine response intervals, are discussed.|
Evaluating and Comparing Computer Flashcard Reading Intervention: Self-Determine Response Intervals Versus Fast and Slow Computer Paced
|Kyle Ryan (The University of Tennessee), SHELBY GIBBONS (The University of Tennessee
), Kala Taylor (The University of Tennessee), Thomas Beeson (The University of Tennessee), Samantha Turnbull (The University of Tennessee), Christopher Skinner (The Univesity of Tennessee), Dennis Ciancio (The University of Tennessee)|
Researchers have found that computer-based flashcard interventions enhance sight-word reading in students with disabilities. When comparing interventions researchers have found some evidence that providing briefer response intervals (i.e., time for the student to respond to the computer-generated word) resulted in great learning rates; however, for at least one student, longer response intervals resulted in greater learning. In addition to idiosyncratic differences across students, researchers have suggested that the length of the response intervals should vary depending on word characteristics. To address this concern, researchers modified a computer-based flashcard program to allow students to self-determine response intervals for each flashcard learning trial. During the current study an alternating treatment design was used to evaluate and compare sight-word learning across three different interventions. Rapid computer-paced instruction provided 1 s response intervals for each learning trail. Slow computer-paced instruction provided 5 s response intervals for each learning trail. Self-determined response intervals allow the student to control or self-determine each response interval. Discussion will focus on learning and learning rates, student preference, and the need for future research on the impact of occasioning high rates of self-determination in students with intellectual disability.