|Go Big [Data] or Go Home: Using Behavioral Science for Policy-Level Issues
|Monday, May 30, 2016
|2:00 PM–2:50 PM
|Vevey 1 & 2, Swissotel
|Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
|Chair: Gideon Naude (University of Kansas)
|Discussant: Patrick C. Friman (Boys Town)
|CE Instructor: Jessica Juanico, M.A.
|Abstract: Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is the wing of behavioral science that explicitly addresses issues of societal importance. While ABA has featured much success in applying within-subject methodology to vulnerable populations, its application to large-scale and/or population-level issues remains relatively under-investigated. One major barrier to large-scale application of ABA is data collection. However, recent advances in “big data” and related technologies have rendered data more accessible (often publicly and for free) and readily cleansed for analysis. Such datasets can subsequently be analyzed using time-series, cross-sectional, and/or naturalistic baseline approaches to remain conceptually systematic with the analytic dimension of ABA. This symposium showcases two exemplary approaches to examining big data within ABA. Both presentations in this symposium will describe how population-level data can be collected and analyzed while maintaining conformance to the dimensions of ABA. Each presentation concludes with a discussion on how large-scale and population-level analyses such as these can inform public policy. These initial forays into big data complement the existing literature on community-level ABA. Implications for translating such population-level research to practice will be discussed.
|Keyword(s): policy evaluation, public health, skin cancer, vehicular collisions
An Evaluation of the Effects of State Legislation on Motor Vehicle Collisions of Young Drivers
|JESSICA JUANICO (University of Kansas), Claudia L. Dozier (The University of Kansas), Rachel Jess (University of Kansas), Derek D. Reed (The University of Kansas), Rachel Jackson (University of Houston - Clear Lake), Katherine Griffith (University of Kansas)
Motor vehicle collisions are the leading cause of death for young drivers ages 15-20. Young drivers are more likely to engage in risky behavior such as speeding. Studies have shown that young drivers are two to three times more likely to send a text while driving (NCSL, 2015). In 2012, more than half of the young drivers who were involved in fatal collisions failed to wear a seat belt (GHSA, 2014). All states have passed graduated driver's licensing legislation (e.g., 30 hours supervised driving) in an attempt to reduce the number of young drivers involved in collisions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of graduated driver's licensing, seat belt, and cell phone legislation on young driver collisions across states using single-subject design methodology. Additionally, this study evaluated the effects of safety features of cars (e.g., airbags) and technology advances (e.g., iPhone) on the number of collisions. Results thus far have demonstrated that seat belt legislation and texting bans have been associated with decreases in collisions. The majority of car safety advances have been associated with decreases in fatal collisions, whereas the introduction of texting was associated with an increase in total collisions.
|Current Trends in Ultra-Violet Indoor Tanning: Using Behavioral Economics to Explore Policy-Level Interventions
|AMEL BECIREVIC (University of Kansas), Cassidy Goodman (University of Kansas), William Gormley (University of Kansas), Devin Orlando (University of Kansas), Shelby Slater (University of Kansas), Derek D. Reed (University of Kansas)
|Abstract: A decade ago, the ultra-violet indoor tanning industry was estimated to be a $5,000,000 industry. Despite the well documented risks associated with indoor tanning, it is estimated that about 30 million Americans tan each year. Of these users, 70% are Caucasian females between 16 and 29. Recent studies have reported that tanning salons and their advertisements have and are continuing to become more prevalent in areas close to high schools and college/university campuses. The current study investigated temporal patterns of online searches for tanning services, and explored the proximity of tanning salons in relation to the five largest high schools in the seven states with no indoor tanning restrictions for minors. Results obtained from Google Trends suggest overall increased searches for tanning salons and reveal cyclical patterns of searches based on the time of year. Results regarding travel distance and travel time from high schools to tanning salons are interpreted via the behavioral economic demand framework. For example, of the five largest high schools (in terms of student population) in Kansas, the average travel time from the high schools to the tanning salons ranges between 7.5 min to 13.5 min. Policy level implications are further discussed.