Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

  • AAB: Applied Animal Behavior

    AUT: Autism

    CBM: Clinical/Family/Behavioral Medicine

    CSE: Community Interventions, Social and Ethical Issues

    DDA: Developmental Disabilities

    DEV: Behavioral Development

    EAB: Experimental Analysis of Behavior

    EDC: Education

    OBM: Organizational Behavior Management

    PRA: Practice

    TBA: Teaching Behavior Analysis

    TPC: Theoretical, Philosophical, and Conceptual Issues

    VRB: Verbal Behavior


Ninth Annual Autism Conference; Las Vegas, NV; 2015

Event Details

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Poster Session #11
Poster Session #2
Saturday, January 24, 2015
6:00 PM–8:00 PM
Marquis Ballroom
1. Evaluating the Use of Two Seating Arrangements on Skill Acquisition
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMBER R. PADEN (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Heather Doll (Munroe Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Nitasha Dickes (Eden II Programs), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Jessica Niemeier (Munroe- Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Previous research has shown that several variables, such as the seating arrangement, influence skill acquisition for typically developing children during discrete-trial training. Van Houten and Rolider (1989) demonstrated that a knee-to-knee seating arrangement increased children’s accuracy with correct responding to flashcards. The purpose of the current study was to extend the findings of Van Houten and Rolider by evaluating the effects of two seating arrangements, table seating and knee-to-knee seating, on the accuracy of responding during discrete-trial teaching in five children with autism. Two children had no exposure to either arrangement, while three had some exposure to one arrangement. During the knee-to-knee arrangement, both the therapist and child sat with knees touching and no table or distractors were present. In the table seating arrangement, the therapist sat adjacent to the child at a table. Following low levels of correct responding during baseline, the two seating arrangements were implemented using a combination multiple-baseline/alternating-treatment design to compare skill acquisition. Reinforcement was provided on a fixed-ratio 1 (FR1) schedule for correct responding in each teaching arrangement. Results showed that there was a larger and more rapid increase in correct responding with the table seating arrangement relative to the knee-to-knee condition for two participants with previous exposure to the table arrangement. For the children with no previous exposure, results were mixed.
2. Evaluation and Treatment Planning for Pica Reduction in a Clinical Setting
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANALISE A. HERRERA-MINTEER (Play Connections Autism Intervention Center), Corrigan Speicher (Play Connections Autism Intervention Center)
Abstract: This study followed the evaluation and treatment of pica for one participant. The participant, a 7-year old female with autism, displayed high rates of aberrant mouthing, stealing of food, and ingestion of non-food items such as bark chips, leaves, and paper. Our evaluation and treatment consisted of the following steps: (a) parental interview and gathering of anecdotal information, (b) medical evaluation to rule out potential nutritional deficiencies and other medical conditions, (c) functional analysis based on the methodology of Piazza, et al. (2008), (d) stimulus preference assessment based on the methodology of Piazza, et al. (2008), and (e) treatment based on the results of the functional analysis. This poster describes each of our steps in detail and contains information about the data systems used to make decisions throughout the treatment planning.

An Application of a Lag Contingency to Reduce Perseveration on Circumscribed Interests During Sustained Conversation

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Tracy L. Lepper (Texas Christian University), Bailey Devine (Texas Christian University), ANNA I. PETURSDOTTIR (Texas Christian University)

Some individuals with autism tend to perseverate on circumscribed interests (CIs) in conversation, which may interfere with peer relations (Nadig, Lee, Singh, Bosshart, & Ozonoff, 2010). We evaluated the effects of a lag contingency on the prevalence of CI-related and CI-unrelated talk with two adolescents diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who readily sustained conversation with others, but perseverated on CIs. A functional analysis suggested that the participants verbal behavior was sensitive to a conversation-partners attention as a consequence. In baseline, the conversation partner provided attention at the end of each 10-s interval in which the participant directed conversation at the partner. In the Lag 1 condition, the conversation partner provided attention only at the end of intervals in which there was a change in topics from the previous interval (all CIs were counted as one topic), and in the Lag 2 condition, attention was provided only at the end of intervals in which the topic differed from the two previous intervals. Lag 1 produced increases in the percentage of intervals that included CI-unrelated talk for both participants. For one participant, Lag 1 also produced substantial decreases in CI-related talk, but Lag 2 did not produce further behavior change For the other participant, Lag 1 did not decrease CI-related talk substantially, but Lag 2 did. Although the lag contingencies successfully altered the prevalence of CI-related and unrelated talk, further research is needed to identify appropriate treatment goals with respect to variability and content.

4. Teacher Training Program on Acquisition of Behavioral Intervention Skills in Japan
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ATSUKO MATSUZAKI (Department of Psychology, Keio University), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Keio University)
Abstract: Many studies showed the effects of performance feedback on acquisition of behavioral intervention strategies for children with developmental delays. The authors have examined the effects of a training program to improve trainees fidelity regarding ABA-based intervention for special education teachers, therapists working at support agencies, and clinical psychologists. The program consisted of didactic lecture, role-playing, on-the-job training, and video feedback. As the results, the trainees acquired, generalized, and maintained behavioral intervention skills. Also children improved communication skills after receiving the fidelity-confirmed intervention. However, providing the training program to the teachers who work at public nursery school is difficult because of economic costs, time constraints, and geographical restrictions. Therefore the authors developed a brief training program which could be applied to community settings. The program consisted of 12-hr didactic lecture and 30-min OJT. Eleven teachers employed at public nursery schools participated as the trainees. The results demonstrated that all teachers acquired intervention skills which were evaluated with 20-item fidelity list, and 10 teachers improved their knowledge. Implications in relation to the efficacy and feasibility of each training procedure will be provided.
5. Using Behavioral Momentum Theory to Evaluate the Effects of Discriminability and Alternative Reinforcement on Noncontingent Reinforcement and Resurgence During Extinction
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
VALDEEP SAINI (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute), Wayne W. Fisher (University of Nebraska Medical Center's Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) is a widely researched and empirically supported treatment for problem behavior. However, conceptual and quantitative derivations of behavioral momentum theory (BMT), along with empirical findings, suggest that certain aspects of the treatment may promote treatment relapse in some circumstances. These aspects and circumstances warrant further investigation. In Study 1, we evaluated the effects of increasing the discriminability of noncontingent reinforcer deliveries during NCR and during a subsequent extinction (EXT) challenge. In Study 2, we evaluated the relative effects of NCR delivered with and without EXT on the rapidity of reductions in the target response and on levels of resurgence during a subsequent EXT challenge. Results of Study 1 suggest that increasing the discriminability of noncontingent reinforcer deliveries can increase the effectiveness of NCR yet also increase resurgence during a subsequent EXT challenge. Results of Study 2 suggest that levels of resurgence are larger when NCR is superimposed on ongoing reinforcement for the target response (i.e., NCR without EXT) than when contingent reinforcement is discontinued concomitant with the introduction of NCR (i.e., NCR with EXT). Potential refinements of NCR based on these findings are discussed in relation to conceptual and quantitative aspects of behavioral momentum theory.
6. Effects of Quality of Attention and Liquid Preference on Liquid Consumption
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BROOKE M. HOLLAND (The University of Iowa), David P. Wacker (The University of Iowa), Linda J. Cooper-Brown (The University of Iowa), Ashley Willms (The University of Iowa), Alyssa N. Suess (The University of Iowa)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of high and low quality attention on white and chocolate milk consumption. Additionally, we evaluated preference for white and chocolate milk under each condition (i.e., high and low quality attention). The participant, Carrie, was a 5-year-old female diagnosed with feeding difficulties, gastroesophageal reflux disease, developmental delays, and chromosomal abnormality. Interobserver agreement was assessed across 35% of sessions and averaged 92%. Low quality attention was defined as infrequent eye contact, no physical contact, no physical orientation towards Carrie, and encouragement in a flat or monotone vocal intonation. High quality attention was defined as frequent eye contact, physical contact or close proximity, physical orientation towards Carrie, enthusiastic encouragement, and enthusiastic and specific praise. The results of the study demonstrated that high quality attention increased consumption of both white and chocolate milk, but with more consistent effects for chocolate milk (see Figure 1).
7. Narrative Intervention for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DAPHNE HARTZHEIM (Utah State University), Sandra Gillam (Utah State University), Ronald Gillam (Utah State University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate if a manualized narrative intervention program (SKILL - Supporting Knowledge in Language and Literacy) would improve story telling skills of school-aged children with high functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Children with ASD have a difficulty with social interactions. Many social interactions consists of personal narratives between children. The program is designed to improve the narrative skills and therefore improve social interaction with peers. It is divided into three different phases and each child moves along the program at its own pace. Moving to the next phase requires the child to pass phase exit testing. Within each phase the child is taught different skills that make up a good narratives. All of them are incorporated into actual narratives. A concurrent multiple-baseline, across participants design was used. Each child made gains at a different pace. The intervention was discontinued at the end of phase three. All children demonstrated gains in narrative, and knowledge of mental/causal language.
8. Virtual Reality, Social Competence, and Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review of Development, Assessment, and Intervention
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
DEBRA A. PRYKANOWSKI (University of Florida), Nicholas Gage (University of Florida), Jose Martinez (University of Florida)
Abstract: Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have difficulties engaging in social communication and appropriate behaviors. Advances in technology have provided researchers the opportunity to explore alternative forms of assessment and intervention for increasing social competence skills for individuals with ASD. To assess the current state of those advances, we conducted a systematic review of the peer-reviewed empirical studies utilizing forms of virtual reality environments (VRE) technology to address social competence issues in individuals with ASD. Results yielded a total of 20 studies across three VRE themes: (a) the development of a VRE, (b) the use of VRE as a social skills intervention, and (c) the use of VRE to assess a specific social competence skill (e.g. emotion recognition). Findings indicate that research using VRE to address social competence deficits is still developing and at this time there is not enough empirical evidence to support the broad use of VRE as an assessment or intervention for individuals with ASD until highly controlled experiments are conducted.
9. The Effects of Response Interruption and Redirection on Vocal Stereotypy
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ELIZABETH GENTILE (APEX Behavioral Consulting, LLC), Stefanie Fillers (Apex Behavioral Consulting)
Abstract: Response interruption and redirection (RIRD) is an evidence-based procedure used to decrease several maladaptive behaviors. RIRD is implemented by interrupting the targeted behavior and redirecting to an appropriate behavior (Ahearn et al. (2008). Ahearn et al. (2007) reduced vocal stereotypic behavior for 4 children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder using RIRD. The purpose of the current study was to replicate the procedures by Ahearn et al. to decrease the vocal stereotypy in an applied home setting for an eight year old boy diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Pervasive Development Disorder- not otherwise specified. The effects of the procedure were evaluated using an ABAB withdrawl design. The results indicate that RIRD significantly reduced rates of vocal stereotypy from baseline levels. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed. IOA was collected in 3/11 sessions, totaling 27% of sessions and resulting in 100% agreement.

Neurobehavioral Components of Asperger's Syndrome

Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research

Autism is a neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by impaired social and executive functions. In working with individuals who have ASD, it is important to understand the neural networks and underlying cognitive impairments associated with the disorder. Asperger's Syndrome (AS),in particular, is characterized by severe and chronic impairments in social interactions, as well as restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors, interests, and activities. Current neurobehavioral research suggests that brain abnormalities are the cause of Asperger's Syndrome, and advanced brain imaging techniques have revealed structural and functional differences in specific brain regions of these individuals. The ability to construct a theory of mind which involves mentalizing about oneself and others is deficient in AS. This deficiency is associated with the posterior brain regions involved in representational thinking, as well as prefrontal brain regions involved in application and execution of theory of mind. The purpose of this poster was to review recent neuroscience literature on the neurobehavioral components of Asperger's Syndrome. Collectively, results from experimental neuropsychology studies suggest that Asperger's Syndrome is characterized by larger than normal hippocampal and amygdala volumes, as well as a significantly smaller anterior cingulate cortex. It appears that AS is also characterized by deficiencies in the mirror neuron systems.

11. Teaching to the Function of Attention and Escape During Math Assignments
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LINDA G. GARRISON-KANE (Missouri State University), Gina E. Brahm (Missouri State University), Elizabeth A. Donaldson (Missouri State University), Michael Goeringer (Missouri State University)
Abstract: A Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) was implemented in a third grade classroom to help assess a 9 year old male, diagnosed with autism, who displayed off task behaviors 71.8% of the time during math instruction. Based on the triangulation of data of indirect and direct assessments, classroom observations, and an experimental analysis, a hypothesis was formulated discussing the student’s off task behavior. The hypothesized function was determined to be a dual function of escape from tasks and teacher attention. A single subject ABAB design was used to implement a multi-component intervention package. This package included: a token economy to reinforce on task behaviors at the end of every minute, an activity schedule used for self-monitoring, and the Concrete-Representational-Abstract (CRA) math strategy in order to teach to the student’s math deficit in basic addition. The intervention package increased the student’s on-task behavior by 61.4%.

The Use of CW-FIT in an Elementary Resource Room for Students With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ERIN WILSON (Missouri State University), Megan A. Boyle (Missouri State University), Stephanie L Persaud (Missouri State University), David Goodwin (Missouri State University), Linda G. Garrison-Kane (Missouri State University)

The use of Classwide Function-based Intervention Teams (CW-FIT), a behavioral classroom management program (Kamps & Wills, 2011) was implemented in an elementary resource room to increase the on-task behaviors of students diagnosed with autism. A single-subject, ABAB withdrawal design (Kennedy, 2005) was used to assess the components of CW-FIT, the effect of teacher praise statements and the students? academic progress during small group reading. The targeted students included two male students diagnosed with autism and one male student diagnosed with emotional disturbance. The students? on-task behaviors increased across all three participants to an average of 89.5%, 81%, and 86.% and the frequency of teacher praise statements increased to an average of 11 praise statements per small group session during intervention phases.

13. Comparison Between Visual Scene Displays and Exchange-Based Communication in Augmentative and Alternative Communication for Children With ASD
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KRISTI MORIN (Texas A&M University), Jennifer Ganz (Texas A&M University), Ee Rea Hong (Texas A&M University), Whitney Gilliland (Texas A&M University), Nicole Svenkerud (Texas A&M University)
Abstract: Visual scene displays (VSDs) are a novel type of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) that has recently been investigated as an alternative to traditional, grid-based systems. However, most of the limited research on VSDs has focused on typically-developing populations. In addition, a limited range of communicative functions has been explored (i.e., requests). This study sought to expand on the existing literature on VSDs by investigating the differential impact that VSDs versus traditional, grid-based systems have on the number of spontaneous comments and correct answers to questions made by two male, preschool children with autism who exhibited different levels of functional speech. The participants in the current study were exposed to two conditionsa VSD condition and an exchange-based communication (EBC) conditionin an alternating treatment design. The results indicated that VSDs may be more appropriate for children who display echoic and matching-to-sample skills prior to being exposed to a VSD.

A Preliminary Investigation of the Autism Social Skills Profile in a Field Based Setting

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MACKENZIE SIDWELL (Mississippi State University), Molly Butts (Mississippi State University), Sarah Mullins (Mississippi State University), Daniel L Gadke (Mississippi State University), Kasee Stratton (Mississippi State University)

Despite the availability of several well known and established measures of social skill behavior, including the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-2; Constantino & Gruber, 2012) and the Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS; Elliott & Gresham, 2008), there remains limited data on similar measures, which may be more affordable and readily available to practitioners, such as the Autism Social Skills Profile (ASSP; Bellini, 2006). The current study is a preliminary investigation into the clinic utility of the ASSP. Although additional data are currently being collected, data were collected during a four-week social skills clinic. The sample included five participants ranging in age from 8-13 years old, each with a diagnosis of an Autism Spectrum or related disorder. The primary purpose of the study is to explore additional methods to more effectively measure social skills outcomes in school and clinic based settings. The researchers seek to provide evidence that the ASSP, which is a more easily accessible and affordable measure, provides valuable and observably validated outcome data. Pre- and post-ASSP data were compared to time-series observed social skills data across four weeks. These data will also be compared to pre- and post- SRS-2 data. References Bellini, S. (2006). The Autism Social Skills Profile, Shawnee Mission, KS: Autism Asperger Publishing Company. Constantino J., & Gruber, C.P. (2012). The social responsiveness scale, second edition (SRS-2) manual. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services. Gresham, F.M., & Elliott, S. N. (2008). Social Skills Improvement System: Rating Scales. Bloomington, MN: Pearson Assessments.


Service Trajectory During Life Transitions: Perception of Families With a Child With ASD

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MELINA RIVARD (University of Quebec at Montreal), Marie Millau (University of Québec at Montréal (UQAM)), Dona Roy (University of Québec at Montréal (UQAM))

Families of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience a high level of distress, parental stress, and various challenges during the service trajectory of their children (Rivard, Terroux, Parent-Boursier & Mercier, 2014; Ombudsman 2009). These challenges occur in the access and use of health care and educational services, especially during life-transitions events. Although these events are documented, little information is available on the perceived satisfaction of families regarding service trajectory. The aim of this study is to evaluate the perceived satisfaction of 200 families regarding the trajectory services received during different life-transition events of their children. This poster illustrates the results of the first objective of the study: determining the life-transition events most challenging throughout the service trajectory where needs are required according to families of children with ASD. In order to highlight the most difficult transitions, and to highlight the needs of the clientele, a qualitative analysis will be completed on the results of two focus groups of 8 to 10 parents of children with ADS living in the Montreal area.

16. A Preliminary Investigation of Effective Reading Interventions for a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
REEVA MORTON (Mississippi State University), Daniel L Gadke (Mississippi State University), Carlen Henington (Mississippi State University), Kasee Stratton (Mississippi State University)
Abstract: There is a plethora of research on the most effective and efficient reading interventions (Mercer, Campbell, Miller, Mercer, & Lane, 2000; Welsch, 2007). Three such interventions are repeated reading, paired reading, and listening passage preview (Begeny, Krouse, Ross, & Mitchell, 2009). However, there is limited research that targets how effective these evidence based academic interventions provide gains to the autism spectrum disorder population (e.g., Reseiner, Lancaster, McMullin, & Ho, 2014). The primary purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation on how paired reading, repeated reading, and listening passage preview work with individuals with ASD. First, a Brief Experimental Analysis (BEA) was conducted to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of the three interventions. The BEA indicated that two of the interventions were similar in both efficiency and effectiveness. Second, an alternating treatment design was implemented to monitor and compare the two interventions across time. Intervention procedures also included a minor manipulation to minimize distractibility in the child. Overall, the current data suggests that repeated reading was a more effective intervention.
17. An Analysis of Time Delay Procedures Using the Acquisition of Sight Word Fluency
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
REEVA MORTON (Mississippi State University), Daniel L Gadke (Mississippi State University), Carlen Henington (Mississippi State University), Kasee Stratton (Mississippi State University)
Abstract: There are many prompting procedures used for individuals with autism (Handen, & Zane, 1987). Research suggests that, similar in application, progressive prompt delay and constant prompt delay, are independently effective teaching procedures (Walker, 2008). Progressive prompt delay is when the time delay between the prompt and the stimulus increases (Walker, 2008). Constant prompt delay time procedure is when the delay interval is held constant throughout the intervention (Walker, 2008). Although there is research on time delay procedures, few articles have compared time delay procedures, progressive prompt delay and constant prompt delay to one another and to individuals on varying places on the spectrum (Ault, Gast, & Wolery, 1988). This study used two prompting procedures, progressive prompt delay and constant prompt delay, to measure the number of sight words to two boys with autism spectrum disorder. An alternating treatment design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the instructional strategies. Effectiveness was measured in percent of words correct. Results suggested that both prompting procedures demonstrated improvement. Although, there were little difference in the prompting procedures individually they both resulted in gains for increasing sight word fluency. Blocking procedures were used for data analysis. Implications for future research are discussed.
20. Understanding Relationships Between Child Behavior, Provider Demographics, and Fidelity of Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TIFFANY WANG (University of California, San Diego), Jessica Suhrheinrich (University of California, San Diego), Neilson Chan (University of California, San Diego), Hyon Soo Lee (University of California, San Diego), Scott Roesch (San Diego State University), Aubyn Stahmer (University of California, San Diego)
Abstract: The relationship between fidelity of implementation (FI) of evidence-based practices and child outcomes has become a critical issue for community-based service providers. Identification of the provider behaviors related to best outcomes may allow for simplification of interventions and adapted FI assessment tools that are more easily incorporated into community practice. There is a need to evaluate relationships between provider characteristics, FI and child behavior/outcomes. Video recordings of 296 Pivotal Response Training (PRT) sessions were systematically coded for provider and child behavior. Demographics were collected for participating providers (n=49) and children with autism (n=41). Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to analyze behavioral data. Results indicate significant relationships between provider education level and implementation of specific PRT components. Provider use of specific components was related to child behavior. Gaining attention before providing a cue, using clear cues, incorporating preferred materials, following the childs lead and targeting maintenance skills were all associated with increased child participation and responsiveness. Presentation of acquisition tasks was negatively associated with participation and positively associated with the childs failure to respond. This analysis provides a preliminary investigation of how FI and provider characteristics may affect child outcomes in service settings.
21. An Analysis of Idiosyncratic Persistence Responding Across Two Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Adam Brewer (Texas Tech University), Laura Melton Grubb (Texas Tech University), DAVID M. RICHMAN (Texas Tech University), Layla Abby (Texas Tech University)
Abstract: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized in part by perseverative responses. The theoretical framework offered by a behavioral momentum paradigm may provide insights into ways to increase or decrease response persistence. The current study was conducted in a classroom-like setting with two individuals with ASD and mild cognitive impairment. One participant exhibited severe symptoms of ASD whereas the other showed mild symptoms; both were matched on levels of adaptive behavior. The rate of response persistence in the presence of disruptors was evaluated via a multi-element plus reversal experimental design. Completing math problems was reinforced according to either a rich or lean reinforcement context. During the disruptor test conditions, either an alternative task or a highly preferred activity was presented. Response rates for the participant with severe ASD symptom were not disrupted regardless of type of reinforcement context or disruptor. Responding for the participant with mild symptom severity was disrupted only by the alternative task. Consistent with predictions made by behavioral momentum, responding was more disrupted during the leaner contextwhich suggests that the reinforcement context affects response persistence. Individual differences in response persistence were associated with ASD symptom severity for the two participants in this study.

Manipulating Response Effort for the Treatment of Pica Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
GREGORY R. MANCIL (Louisiana Tech University)

Pica is a life-threatening behavior displayed by many individuals with developmental disabilities. This study was a systematic replication of the Piazza et al. (2002) study. In the current study, a functional analysis was done to demonstrate that the pica for allfour participants was maintained by automatic reinforcement. Following functional analyses of pica, response-effort manipulations were conducted in which the effort to obtain pica or alternative items was varied systematically similar to the Piazza study. However, the following limitations were addressed: 1) This study was conducted in the natural environment for each participant; 2) We equated the level of effort for the low effort conditions for the participants. Levels of pica were reduced relative to baseline when alternative items were available regardless of the effort required to obtain the pica related or alternative items. When effort to obtain alternative items were increased, pica increased in the low effort condition. In addition, increasing response effort for pica reduced pica behavior as compared to baseline. Also, pica was highest during low effort conditions when no alternative items were available. In conclusion, by keeping response effort levels for alternative items below that for pica items, results indicate clinically significant decreases in pica behavior.


Analysis of Instructional Activities On the Acquisition of Social Skills For Children With ASD

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HALLIE SMITH (Mississippi State University ), MacKenzie Denise Sidwell (Mississippi State University ), Molly Butts (Mississippi State University ), Sarah Mullins (Mississippi State University ), Amity Lancaster (Mississippi State University ), Daniel L Gadke (Mississippi State University), Kasee Stratton (Mississippi State University), Carlen Henington (Mississippi State University)

Given the social skill deficit associated with children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), it is no surprise there is no shortage of literature on various interventions targeting the skills. The current study analyzed the impact of various instructional activities used during a 4-week social skills group on the acquisition of social skills. An alternating treatment design was implemented across three social skills group with children ranging in age from 5 to 14 years old diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum or related disorder. Intervention aimed to increase the occurrence of several developmentally appropriate social skills. Intervention took place in a group setting for four hours a week, over four consecutive weeks. Students were separated into three social skills groups based on age. Social skill instruction was divided into four different methods of delivery: lesson, play, craft, and a team-based activity. A combined frequency count of target appropriate social behaviors was collected for each child across all three of the social skills groups. Data will be analyzed across behaviors, age groups, and type of intervention delivery method. Results and implications will be discussed.


The Comparison of the Effectiveness of Two Teaching Packages in Teaching Chinese to Autistic Children

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HANG WU (University of Kansas)

This study compared the effectiveness of two teaching packages, one included forward chaining techniques, the other one included backward chaining techniques to teach children with autism under A-B-C-B-C design. Four teachers taught four preschool autistic children individually. During the baseline, teachers taught students to speak Chinese sentences in their own way without training. After training, teachers chose the teaching package to teach for ten sessions, and switch to another package to teach for ten sessions, then switch to the previous package, and switch to another package lastly. The results showed that all children improved their performance after the teachers got training. Different children acquired differently under different teaching packages.


Using Normative Data From Typically Developing Children on the ABLLS-R to Guide Program Development for Children With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JAMES W. PARTINGTON (Partington Behavior Analysts), Autumn Bailey (Partington Behavior Analysts)

Practitioners who work with children with autism (ASD) are often asked to compare the developmental levels of a child to those of typically developing children. The present research quantifies the nature of skill acquisition by typically developing children across 25 repertoires of the ABLLS-R. Data were collected by parents and professionals who have been trained in the administration of the ABLLS-R. Data are submitted at three-month intervals to track the specific changes in skills over the course of the children's development. Preliminary data for this research project are presented for 53 children (30 females & 23 males) ranging in age from 6 months to 72 months. Data are averaged for children between those ages at 3-month intervals. The data demonstrate that the ABLLS-R is able to quantify significant and consistent changes in the development of the skills as children's chronological age increases and demonstrate that typically developing children acquire most of the basic language and learning skills measured by the ABLLS-R by the time they are 3 to 4 years of age. These data can be used to identify specific delays in skills for children with autism at each age interval and identify developmentally appropriate treatment recommendations for those children.

27. Use of Tablet-Based Visual Schedules for Individuals With Autism or Other Developmental Disabilities: A Literature Review
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
JESSICA LOVE (University of Nevada, Las Vegas), Leslie Bittick (Clark County School District), Peggy Whitby (University of Nevada, Las Vegas)
Abstract: Although paper-based visual schedules have been identified as evidence based practices for individuals with autism by the National Autism Committee (NAC) in the National Standards Report (NSR, 2009) and the National Professional Development Center on Autism (NPDC, 2014) a limited research base exists in the literature on use of tablet-based visual schedules to teach complex skills or routine transitions to individuals with autism or developmental disabilities. This review was conducted to (1) identify single-subject research that has examined high-visual schedules delivered via a tablet device and (2) identify limitations in the existing research to be addressed in future studies. The following databases were used: Academic Search Premier, EBSCO, ERIC, Google Scholar, Education Full Text, Psyc Info, Middle Search Plus, Professional Development Collection, and PsycArticles. Studies which met inclusion criteria were analyzed according to quality indicators by Horner (2007) and Gerstein and Edyburn's (2007) criteria for single subject design and special education technology research. Results are graphed according to number of studies meeting each quality indicator and discussed in the context of previous review findings on low-tech visual schedules. Directions for future research to address limitations in existing literature on high-tech visual schedules will also be discussed.

Examining the Effects of Video Modeling and Prompts to Teach Activities of Daily Living Skills to Young Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NINA ALDI (The International Institute for Behavioral Development and Education Designers), Kimberly L. Rehak (IIBD/St. Joe's University/Arcadia University/Lehig), Brian Long (St. Joseph's university), Alexandra Crigler (Arcadia University ), Kelly McElrath (St. Joseph's University)

,Participants included two male adolescents 18 years of age, diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Participants were selected based upon age, diagnosis and the need to improve their activities of daily living skills. Participant observations were conducted in the home setting. Observations took place in the natural environment where the tasks would be performed. Baseline and maintenance phases occurred in the participants home environment. Three tasks were identified for each young adult through a collaborative process involving their parents. These tasks included skills that the young adults were not able to perform independently. Participantone continued to need prompts with vacuuming, cleaning and cooking. For participant two, the tasks identified were taking out the trash, opening the car door safely and cleaning up after a meal. The participants were selected with parent consent to participate in this study to increase their independence with their activities of daily living skills. All videos were created using the Apple iPod®. Three videos for each participant were created based on the targeted tasks. These videos were created from a "first-person" perspective. Through the eyes of the participants, the videos portrayed the arms and hands of the model performing the task (Bellini & Akullian, 2007). The entire task was filmed with a verbal description of each step as it was being performed. This study follows Kellems and Morningstar's (2012) multiple probe design across behaviors. For each participant, one task was acquired before the next task was introduced. When the young adult reached the criterion level on the first targeted behavior, the intervention was then introduced to the second target behavior while the third remained in baseline with data probes (p. 158). The dependent variable was the percentage of steps performed correctly (using a task analysis). The task analysis recorded each step that was performed correctly or incorrectly during each session (Kellems and Morningstar, 2012). This study replicated similar methods by Kellems and Morningstar (2012) in which baseline data were collected from all participants. The intervention was introduced for the first task once a stable baseline was established

29. Evaluating the Efficacy of and Children's Preference for Less Common Dimensions of Positive Reinforcement
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAURA A HANRATTY (Western New England University), Gregory P. Hanley (Western New England University)
Abstract: Previous research has shown that immediacy, quality, and magnitude are parameters that influence the efficacy of reinforcement procedures. Variation, predictability, choice, and reliability are parameters that have not been thoroughly studied, but may prove to be relevant aspects of reinforcement procedures. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of and child preference for these different parameters of reinforcement procedures. Efficacy of reinforcement conditions was assessed using a multielement design in which participants were exposed to each reinforcement condition, as well as an extinction condition. Tasks that were completed included tracing and writing letters, and completing grammar and math worksheets. Preference for parameters was assessed in a concurrent chains arrangement. Interobserver agreement was 99.8% across 45% of sessions. Sustained or large differences in the relative effectiveness of these parameters was not detected with any participant. By contrast, preliminary preference results showed that most participants preferred varied to constant reinforcer delivery, predictability to unpredictability, the opportunity to choose to no-choice conditions, and reliable to unreliable reinforcer delivery. Implications for designing reinforcement-based programs are discussed.

Evaluating a Social Skills Group Based on Satisfaction Ratings by Participants

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery

Much of the current literature on social skills groups focuses on social skills curriculum, measuring percentage of social skills emitted, structuring social skills groups, and evaluating parent satisfaction. Social skills curriculum such as UCLAs PEER Program targets parent training and social skills development in adolescents diagnosed with autism (Laugenson, et al. 2012). Leaf et al. (2009) discusses the structuring of social skills groups and parent satisfaction. However, there is minimal literature out there regarding client satisfaction of social skills groups. This study focuses on one social skills group of participants, aged 13-17. Each participant was interviewed regarding their satisfaction level of the social skills group including satisfaction of activities presented, locations of the social skills group, how they felt about their fellow peers/participants in the group, and whether or not they would ask their parent/guardian to sign them up for the next social skills group which occurs in 6-week increments. Data from the satisfaction survey were used to structure future social skills groups to create a more motivating environment for participants and to work on retaining their attendance at future social skills groups.


The Developmental Process of Severe Behavior Disorder in the Long Term

Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
MASAHIKO INOUE (Tottori University), Yoichi Gomi (Independent Administrative Institution National Center for Presons with Severe Intellectual Disabilities, Japan)

This study investigated the developmental process of Severe Behavior Disorder (SBD) in the long term by analyzing changing condition of SBD of 47 people with intellectual disabilities. In Japan, individuals with SBD were defined using an administrative definition (Japan Ministry of Health and Welfare 1992) but now are using defined a psychiatric diagnose. The individual with SBD is required to have many support systems such as home help, residential care and medical care tohandle their severe behavioral problems which include severe self-injury, aggression, destruction, etc. We investigated retrospectively rated by their parents (a) Japanese form of SBD Rating Scale, which measures severity of behavior disorders on a 55-point scale, and (b) conditions of SBD at each stage of life from early childhood to adulthood. Results showed that the peak total score of SBD rating scale was at a period of adolescence when each subject attended junior high school or high school for special needs. Additionally, as a result of the analysis of each type of behavior disorder, the time of appearance and transition of seriousness were different among each subject. Especially, the issues with food, excretion, sleep pattern, hyperactivity and obsessive behavior tended to rise up to the surface before 3-years old, thus the appearance of these types of behavior disorders in early childhood can be predictive factors of more serious SBD in future. The need for preventive approach for children with a high risk of SBD, and intensive care for SBD in early adolescent by a multi-disciplinary team were suggested.

34. Capacity Building for ASD Services in the Underserved Developing Country of Georgia-Sakartvelo in Eastern Europe
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ANA BARKAIA (Children of Georgia), Trevor F. Stokes (James Madison University)
Abstract: In the post-soviet developing country of Georgia-Sakartvelo, economic and social reform must be accompanied by the improvement in services for children and families. Building capacity for behavior analysis professionals to provide skilled services for children with ASD and their families is a critical need in this development. One organization working to meet this need is Children of Georgia, a non-governmental organization established to support the psychological well-being, social adaptation and development of children by providing families and professionals with advice and skill development opportunities. We will describe how CoG, as part of projects to facilitate social inclusion of special needs children, developed their service for children with autism and their families. Initially, in 2010, a professor from James Madison University (Stokes) came to Georgia and started working on intervention cases with CoG staff and consulted on cases. In addition he conducted trainings on this topic for CoG staff and other community therapists. In the subsequent five years, treatment leaders were trained in treatment and supervision skills, and these leaders became the supervisors for new therapists. From 2010 to 2014 number of ASD therapists increased fivefold and children receiving ABA treatment within this organization increased tenfold in this early intervention program.
35. The Impact of the Competent Learner Model on Adaptive Behavior, Language Development, Autism Symptoms, and Parental Stress of the Students With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DANA CIHELKOVA, PH.D. (Northern Arizona University), Daniel E. Hursh (West Virginia University), Reagan P. Curtis (West Virgina University)
Abstract: Literature indicates that there is a fundamental lack of comprehensive program evaluations of the treatments for Autism. I employed the Dynamic Evaluation Model that was designed for evaluation of complex phenomena. Dynamic Evaluation Model is five dimensional evaluation system to (a) effectively evaluate Autism interventions, (b) uncover Autism symptoms dynamics, and (c) identify what child with what symptoms characteristics will benefit the most from what currently available treatments. I evaluated the Competent Learner Model, which is a complex behavioral intervention for children with Autism. Results suggest that the Competent Learner Model is effective in developing in School Community, Play and Leisure, Coping, Social Interaction, Autism Index, Expressive Communication, and Auditory Comprehension in children with Autism.

Using Smartphone-Based Behavior Imaging for Functional Behavior Assessments in School Settings: A Consultation Model

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Dana Zavatkay ( Emory University, Marcus Autism Center), RONALD OBERLEITNER (Behavior Imaging Solutions)

Behavioral practitioners consulting with schools are often called upon to complete functional behavior assessments (FBA) and to develop behavioral intervention plans based on these assessments. Traditionally, comprehensive FBAs are completed through the gathering of information in-vivo, predominately through interviews and direct observations within the school setting. This endeavor is often expensive and time-intensive; more so if the visits to the school setting require travel to distant locales. If the behaviors targeted for intervention occur only infrequently, the amount of observation required to conduct such assessments and the associated expense is further increased. This project will examine the utility of using Behavior Imaging(R) video recording via smartphone and remote for data collection by teachers- along with secure, web based viewing capabilities by practitioners. Behavior analysts will complete 8 FBAs utilizing this technology. The student participants will be ages 4-21 years, with autism or a similar developmental disability, who are exhibiting problem behavior in the school setting and are referred for a behavioral assessment. Data gathered during the FBA to form functional hypotheses will be shared in addition to the data regarding time (i.e., cost) savings associated with completing FBAs via video recording and review as compared to traditional, in-vivo methods.


Teaching A Child With ASD and Hyperlexia to Tact Colors Using Textual Prompts

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DAVID BICARD (Behavior Analysts of Central Alabama)

Hyperlexia is a condition characterized by high levels of word-reading skills but global delays in verbal behavior. Approximatly 5-10% of the children diagnosed with ASD engage in hyperlexic behaviors. The present study investigated the use of textual prompts (color words) to teach a child with ASD and hyperlexia to tact colors. Probes were conducted for tacting color words and colors, then color words were written in the corresponding color construction paper while untrained colors where probed. The color words were systematically faded until the participant was responding to the colored construction paper alone. New colors were added sequentially in a multiple baseline across colors. The results showed that the participant learned all nine colors trained and tacting maintained when training was ended.


Functional Behavior Assessment in the Autism Literature: Best Practices?

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
DAVID DONNELLY (University of Rochester), Bonnie Rubenstein (University of Rochester), Zhichun Zhou (University of Rochester), Julie LaRosa (University of Rochester), Lee Kehoe (University of Rochester)

Functional behavior assessments (FBAs) are well established components of treatment in early intervention, school age, and adult services for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). By systematically determining the function of an individual with ASDs behavior, a treatment incorporating this knowledge has a significantly better likelihood of being effective. The FBA process has been incorporated into numerous state and organizational regulations and policies as an essential component of effective treatment. For most in the field, a primary source for information presenting best practices in the U. S. is the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA). In actual implementation of FBAs in schools and agencies serving children and adults with ASD, those implementing FBAs and utilizing the results in developing programming often rely on other sources of information. The quality of that information, then, becomes an important determinant of the effectiveness of the resulting programming. If the sources cited do not represent best practices, the FBA process may be less than optimal. The subsequent results, if unsuccessful, may be inaccurately attributed to limitations of FBAs and/or ABA as a treatment approach. We investigated journal sources other than JABA for the past five years to determine if information regarding best practices in conducting and utilizing FBAs for those with ASD are being published in that journal. We also conducted a descriptive analysis of the sources cited in these articles. Suggestions regarding additional areas for future research are also presented.

39. Defining and Improving the Efficiency of a Functional Analysis of Problem Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JOSHUA JESSEL (Western New England University), Gregory P. Hanley (Western New England University), Mahshid Ghaemmaghami (Western New England University)
Abstract: The speed with which a functional analysis provides a convincing demonstration of the variables influencing problem behavior may be termed efficiency. Hanley, Jin, Vanselow, & Hanratty (2014) recently described an efficient functional analysis format, perhaps best characterized as an interview-informed synthesized contingency analysis (IISCA) that only required between 20 and 25 min to complete. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed results of 10 IISCAs. The first test sessions of each analysis were reanalyzed to determine the extent to which functional relations between problem behavior and the suspected reinforcement contingency was evident in these 5 min samples. More specifically, rates of problem behavior during reinforcer-absent and reinforcer-present periods of the initial test sessions were visually inspected to determine if a functional relation was evident; these within-session analyses were then compared to respective rates during the repeated test and control sessions from the full analyses. Results of 8 of 10 within-session analyses corresponded with those of the full functional analyses, and the within-session analyses were at least 80% more efficient than the full analyses. These data show that successful functional analyses of severe problem behavior may be obtained in only 5 min.
40. Efficacy and Generality of a Parent Training Model Using Behavioral Skills Training, Individualized Examples, and Feedback
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MAHSHID GHAEMMAGHAMI (Western New England University), Gregory P. Hanley (Western New England University), Joshua Jessel (Western New England University)
Abstract: Hanley, Jin, Vanselow, and Haratty (2014) described an effective and comprehensive functional assessment and treatment process for the severe problem behavior of three children with autism. Although the authors presented child behavior data following caregiver training and implementation of treatment in the participants homes, neither a detailed description nor an evaluation of the parent training model were included. Following replication of the Hanley et al. assessment and treatment process with a single child, the efficacy and generality of a parent training program was evaluated in this study with the childs parents and his younger sibling. This study includes a detailed description of the parental behaviors targeted to promote the integral implementation of the comprehensive and function-based treatment, a detailed description of the Behavior Skills Training (BST) program used to promote the important parental behaviors, and an evaluation of the direct effects of the training on parent interactions with the older child and the general effects on parent interactions with the younger child. A multiple probe design across caregiver-child combinations demonstrated direct and general effects of the BST program on parental treatment integrity.

Literature on the Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention for Autism Provides a Framework for Extending Behavioral Intervention to Other Low-Incidence Disability Populations

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ROBIN KUHN (ACCL All Children Can Learn), Jessica Leslie Broome (ACCL All Children Can Learn)

The effectiveness of early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) with children with autism (ASD) is well documented, however there is a paucity of literature demonstrating the benefits of EIBI with children with other diagnoses, particularly other developmental and intellectual disabilities. This poster presents the case study of a young girl with Rett Syndrome (RS), whose ongoing behavioral treatment has been heavily informed by EIBI research conducted with children with ASD. Throughout the past five years, a comprehensive treatment package has addressed improving the girl's communication, learning-to-learn, play, independent daily living, and fine motor skills, and decreasing her challenging behavior. A selection of treatment results are presented, accompanied by an analysis of the benefits and difficulties of extending procedures designed for implementation with children with ASD to a child with RS. Emphasis is placed on the further development of a framework for the ethical extension of EIBI research and practice conducted with children with ASD to other low-incidence disability populations in an effort to increase the number of individuals benefitting from the abundance of research demonstrating the effectiveness of EIBI for children with ASD.

42. Comparison of Probe Procedures in the Assessment of Chained Tasks
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SALLY B SHEPLEY (The University of Georgia), Jennifer Lenz Alexander (University of Georgia), Kevin Ayres (University of Georgia), Katie Smith (University of Georgia)
Abstract: This study used an adapted alternating treatments design to compare the effects of repeated exposure of assessment procedures for chained tasks. Specifically, the researcher compared single opportunity probe (SOP), multiple opportunity probe (MOP), and, a preliminary procedure, the natural opportunity probe (NOP). The effects were first evaluated with 12 college student participants (CSP) and then replicated with 12 secondary student participants (SSP) with developmental disabilities. For the CSP ascending data were evident with MOP, zero-celerating for SOP, and variations in responding for NOP. The SSP generally responded with 0% correct across all probe procedures, with some responding in MOP and minimal responding in NOP. Implications of these findings suggest that both MOP and SOP present with testing threats and researchers should perhaps abandon these procedures for alternative choices. If MOP are to be used it is suggested that a minimum of five data collections occur prior to intervention. If SOP are to be used it is recommended that conclusions about the potency of the intervention are interpreted conservatively.

Child Preference for Pre-Session Pairing and Alternative Therapeutic Conditions

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Ashley Lugo (Munroe Meyer Institute), PAIGE MCARDLE (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Melissa L. King (University of Nebraska Medical Center), John Lamphere (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Andrew Petty (University of Nebraska at Omaha)

Pre-session pairing is procedure referenced by professional literature on the Verbal Behavior Approach to build rapport and increase compliance of children with autism. (e.g., Sundberg & Partington, 1998; Barbera & Rasmussen, 2007; McGreevy, 2009). The procedure involves the therapist delivering (i.e., pairing) free access to preferred items or activities with the sight or presence of the therapist. There is limited empirical evidence establishing specific pre-session pairing procedures as well as a scarcity of data demonstrating the effects on child behavior. The purpose of this case study was to assess participant preference for therapeutic conditions occurring immediately prior to discrete trial teaching (DTT). To evaluate the effects of antecedent manipulation of therapeutic conditions on preference for conditions, a concurrent chain protocol was used. The participant was presented with a link to three conditions: pre-session pairing with a therapist prior to DTT, free play alone prior to DTT, and DTT only. Secondary measures such as compliance and problem behavior were also measured. Baseline data showed variable rates of compliance during DTT. Data on allocation of responding to conditions and compliance with mastered instructions will be presented. Implications for future research will be discussed.


Teaching Autoclitics via Equivalence Class Formation

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CLAUDIA NOGUEIRA (UFPA - Federal University of Pará), Eugênia Leão Santos (UFPA - Federal University of Pará), Katarina Dias (UFPA - Federal University of Pará), Romariz Barros (UFPA - Federal University of Pará)

Every noun in Portuguese language is either masculine or feminine, therefore every word referring to that noun (e.g., adjective or pronoun) has to be coordinated with its gender. This can present a considerable challenge for children with autism. In this study, we tested the use of class-specific consequences during a categorization training to produce emergent, gender-related autoclitic verbal behavior and equivalence class formation. A Brazilian child with autism and limited verbal repertoire received categorization training through a table-task. The definite articles "O" and "A" (Group A), which specify feminine and masculine words in Portuguese, were attached to a small box and presented as conditional stimuli. The participant was taught to sort indefinite articles (Group B) and figures of common nouns (Groups C, D, E, and F) into the boxes with the correspondent article (Class 1 and 2). The AB, AC, AD, AE, and AF relations were trained. Tests documented the emergence of the BC and BD arbitrary conditional relations, verbal repertoire of tact and mand with autoclitic. Simple discrimination test indicated the emergency of two functional classes. Results suggest that the technology of stimulus class formation can be incorporated into the verbal repertoire educational curriculum for children with autism.


Teaching Symbol Discrimination to a Child With ASD Using an iPad-Based Speech Generating Device With Embedded Video and Audio

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HANNAH WADDINGTON (Victoria University of Wellington), Amarie Carnett (Victoria University of Wellington), Jeffrey S. Sigafoos (Victoria University of Wellington)

Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have limited or absent speech and might therefore benefit from learning to use a speech-generating device (SGD). However, some children struggle to discriminate between multiple symbols in order to make a request. In this study an iPad-based SGD with embedded video and audio was used to teach discrimination to a child with ASD who had not previously demonstrated discrimination following standard instructional procedures. A teaching phase design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of symbols with embedded video and audio in combination with systematic instructional procedures for teaching discrimination. Results suggest that these procedures were effective in teaching the participant to discriminate between four symbols. This learning then generalised to two sets of four unfamiliar static symbols and a third set of 12 unfamiliar symbols. The results of this study suggest that the addition of video and audio to standard symbols on an SGD may facilitate discrimination for some children with ASD.


Who, What, and Where: A Contextual Approach to Teaching "Wh-" Questions to Children With ASD Using PEAK

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JACOB H. DAAR (Southern Illinois University ), Stephanie Negrelli (Southern Illinois University ), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)

Criticisms of the verbal behavior approach to language acquisition therapy have often centered on the narrow and non-generalized repertoires produced by such trainings. In particular, the difficulty with which children acquire more complex language skills, such as those necessary to respond to non-polar interrogative questions, i.e. "Wh" questions, is an indication that the common methods used to teach these skills does not adequately convey the necessary relational or contextual functions required to form generalized responding. The present paper will review deficits in the general verbal behavior therapy approach to teaching "Wh" questions, provide a conceptualization of responding to such questions from a contextual behavioral approach, and provide a paradigm for teaching generalized responding to interrogative questions that involves the application of contextually controlled equivalence classes of noun-word and community associations (a series of programs described in PEAK). Related treatment data gathered while working with children diagnosed with ASD will be presented. Implications for future research and limitations of this approach will be discussed.


Convergent Validity of the PEAK Direct Training and Generalization Modules

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JORDAN BELISLE (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University), Kyle Rowsey (Southern Illinois University Carbondale), Jacob H. Daar (Southern Illinois University )

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the PEAK Direct Training and Generalization modules. PEAK is an assessment and curriculum guide designed to evaluate language development in individuals with autism and other disabilities. The PEAK Direct Training assessment has been empirically supported as a valid and reliable assessment of the directly trained verbal repertoire of individuals with autism, and the PEAK Generalization module is designed to assess the emergence of a generalized verbal repertoire from directly trained skills. Seventy students from a Midwestern American school for individuals with autism participated in the study. The results of a Pearson correlation analysis suggested a strong correlation between the Direct Training and Generalization modules of the PEAK (r = .719, p < .001). In addition, visual analysis of this relationship suggest that a generalized verbal repertoire begins to emerge as directly trained skills are developed. The present study provides psychometric support for the PEAK Generalization assessment, as well as provides clinicians with recommendations for when to begin to incorporate the PEAK Generalization curriculum into their learner's educational programming.

49. Teaching Mands Related to Positive and Negative Reinforcement Using an iPad-Based Speech Generating Device to One Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAURA ROCHE (Victoria University of Wellington), Amarie Carnett (Victoria University of Wellington), Hannah Waddington (Victoria University of Wellington), Michelle Stevens (Victoria University of Wellington), Donna Achmadi (Victoria University, Wellington), Jeffrey S. Sigafoos (Victoria University of Wellington)
Abstract: Children who fail to develop an appreciable amount of speech, such that they are considered non-verbal, are candidates for Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC). The current literature in AAC intervention for non-verbal children tends to focus on mands involving requesting preferred items. The literature focusing on rejecting however is less extensive and warrants further consideration as rejecting a non-preferred item can allow a child greater control over their immediate environment, and can extend the complexity of their communicative repertoire. In the present study, a multiple baseline across responses was adopted to evaluate the concurrent instruction on two types of mands; requesting preferred items and rejecting non-preferred items. The participant was a 9 year old boy with ASD. He was taught using an iPad-based Speech Generating Device and his relevant vocal utterances were monitored. Systematic teaching procedures, including a least-to-most prompting hierarchy and a 10 s response time delay, were used to promote these communication skills. Results suggest that the teaching methods used within this study were effective in promoting correct SGD use and correct vocal utterances to request and reject the targeted items, extending the previous literature on teaching these two subclasses of the mand using AAC systems

The Effects of Teaching Manding for Help as a Conditional Discrimination

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MEGAN ASHLEY LEVESQUE (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Med), Nicole M. Rodriguez (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Jessica Niemeier (UNMC Munroe- Meyer Institute), Victoria Smith (UNMC Doctoral Student), Kari J. Adolf (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)

Ideally, mands for help should occur only (a) after the individual has attempted the task and (b) if that attempt was unsuccessful. Three children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder were taught this conditional discrimination under incapable and capable trials across multiple tasks. During incapable trials, materials were manipulated such that the child could not independently complete the response. During capable trials, materials were manipulated such that the child could independently complete the response. To prevent the mand for help from coming under faulty stimulus control, materials and instructions were matched across incapable and capable trials and teaching occurred under contrived motivating operations Data were collected on attempts to complete the task and mands for help. During baseline, the percentage of trials with attempts was high across both capable and incapable trials but mands for help did not occur in either condition. During teaching for incapable trials,, some undesirable generalization of the help response to capable trials occurred for two participants. Prolonged exposure to the teaching procedure was sufficient to establish correct responding under both conditions. These findings suggest, when training a help response, it is important to consider the antecedent conditions under which the response should occur.

51. Teaching Guessing, Metonymical Tacts, and Autoclitics: An Assessment of the PEAK Direct Training Curriculum
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RYAN C. SPEELMAN (Southern Illinois University), Autumn N. McKeel (Aurora University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University), Kyle Rowsey (Southern Illinois University Carbondale), Jacob H. Daar (Southern Illinois University )
Abstract: Over the past few decades, behavior analysts have successfully taught language skills to children with ASD by focusing on mands, tacts, intraverbals and echoics. However, these elementary verbal operants represent only a few of the concepts discussed by Skinner (1957) in his Analysis of Verbal Behavior. The present study sought to evaluate the potential of using the PEAK: Direct Training Module, a language assessment and training curriculum that includes complex Skinnerian verbal operants, to teach 3 children with ASD to use conjecture (tact guessing), metonymical tacts, and autoclitic modifications. A multiple-baseline across participants probe design was utilized to assess the efficacy discrete trial training targeting these skills. Within participant and between participant comparisons provide evidence that the training of these more complex verbal operants is not only possible, but effective in producing maintained mastery, even at a 1-month follow-up.
52. Evidenced-Based Pivotal Response Treatments: Generalizing to Developmental Concerns Beyond Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
STEPHANIE NORTHINGTON (NeuroBehavioral Associates), Christine Shelton (University of South Carolina Aiken)
Abstract: Background: Substantial evidence exists that early, intensive behavioral interventions (EIBI) for children with autism are effective. Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) demonstrates unmatched outcomes for children with autism (Koegel et al., 1999). However, non-autism developmental disorders also may impair children’s ability to functionally communicate (Fidler et al., 2006). ABA interventions are an effective treatment for communication and behavioral problems in individuals with Down syndrome, indicating that PRT also may be generalizable to other disorders (Feely & Jones, 2008). Objectives: To demonstrate the efficacy of PRT in improving the functional communication of children with autism and non-autism developmental concerns. Methods: Three children were followed for this study. Child-A is a 6-year-old boy with autism. Child-B is a 4-year-old boy with global developmental delay. Child-C is a 4-year-old girl with Down syndrome. Data were collected utilizing ten-minute video segments of weekly PRT sessions. Data were analyzed for the following treatment goals: 1) increase functional verbal utterances (decrease in scripting), 2) increase mean length of verbal utterances, and 3) increase number of spontaneous verbal utterances. Results: Statistically significant (p < 0.05) increases in the numbers of functional and spontaneous verbal utterances were seen across all three children, regardless of diagnosis. Although a trend towards significance in the increase in mean length of utterance exists for Child-B, it does not meet significance. Further data remain to be collected, and further significant trends may emerge. Conclusions: PRT is an effective method for achieving significant improvement in functional communication for children with autism and other developmental concerns.
53. Description of Supervision Models Used Within the Context of Community-Based EIBI Program
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANNIE PAQUET (Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres), Myriam Rousseau (CRDI Mauricie Centre-du-Québec Institut Universitaire), Carmen Dionne (Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières), Jacques Joly (Université de Sherbrooke), Melina Rivard (Université du Québec à Montréal)
Abstract: In Qubec, EIBI programs are offered by rehabilitation centers (RC) (MSSS, 2003). The Minister of Health and Social Services specified no specific treatment model or intervention practices when the EIBI implementation programs was recommended. In this context, the RCs chose a variety of programs and their components. To date, the available studies have identified some components that may influence the effects on childrens development, including the duration, the intensity and the quality of supervision (Davis & al., 2002; Makrygianni & Reed, 2010). Over a decade after the beginning of EIBI services in Qubec, it was necessary to have an evaluation of the quality of the implementation of those services and its effects. This communication focuses on supervision models used within the RCs EIBI services. Method: 15 RCs completed a questionnaire (translation and adaptation of Love & al., (2009) and adaptation of Gamache & al., (2010)). Written documents concerning clinical procedures used by each RC were collected and analyzed to describe multiple dimensions of comprehensive treatment models (CTM). Results: 18 program services were described (some RCs reported more than one EIBI model). Concerning the supervision, the length is similar from one center to another. However, the frequency of these supervisions varies from 2-3 times a week to once every 6 weeks. Sometimes, the supervision is continuous and integrated into the workday (1/18). For others, it is seen more as a working session with the child during which the supervisor acts as an observer, then gives feedback or uses modeling with the individual involved or the work team (10/18). Among the content covered: development and modification of the intervention plan, intervention techniques and strategies, relationships with partners and parents, child development, problematic situations, observational data, problem behaviors, generalization, group inclusion. Those results are part of the first phase of a research project regarding EIBI results offered by RCs in Qubec.
54. Significant Outcomes in Case Law in the United States: Autism and IDEA in 2013
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
DORIS L HILL (Auburn University Center for Disability Research and Service ), Jonte (JT) Taylor (Penn State University)
Abstract: The authors examined 85 cases decided in 2013 where the facts centered on violations of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) and the provision of a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) for students with autism spectrum disorder. Trends in prevailing party by geographic location, court circuit, gender and other specifics such as failure to exhaust administrative remedies are explored and compared to earlier research. Impact of changes in the DSM-V, and suggestions for educators who provide services for students with ASD are provided.

Maximizing ESY Services: Teaching Pre-Service Teachers to Assess Communication Skills and Implement Picture Exchange With Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Disabilities

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DORIS L HILL (Auburn University), Margaret M. Flores (Auburn University), Regina Fuller Kearley (Auburn University)

The authors supervised and trained pre-service teachers while conducting extended school year (ESY) services for pre-kindergarten and elementary students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental disabilities (DD). Each classroom was responsible for conducting communication assessments and developing interventions focused on increasing functional communication. One intervention, the picture exchange communication system (PECS) was taught to three pre-service teachers and staff who implemented PECS with four students who lacked functional communication skills. The teachers were trained, and then mentored as they implemented the appropriate level of PECS. A treatment fidelity checklist, adapted from Frost and Bondy (2002) was used during implementation to assess the pre-service teachers skills. Student progress through PECS was graphed using a single subject changing criterion design. Communication books were developed for the students to use in the home, school, and other settings.

56. Person Centered Planning in an Evidence Based System
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
JULIE KOTCHEVAR (State of Nevada), Michelle Canning (State of Nevada), Candice McDaniel (State of Nevada)
Abstract: Person centered planning has a long history as a philosophical approach to care planning which places the focus person in the center of the process and shapes the care plan around the individuals goals and needs (O’Brien & O’Brien, 2000). Evidence based practice, along with its heavily proscribed process that dictates service intensity and frequency, has emerged as a primary method for providing supportive services (Rahman & Applebaum, 2010). Recent regulatory changes related to the provision of care from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) have required the use of person centered planning within the same system historically structured around measured levels of care, medical necessity, and documented improvement (CMS, 2014). Yet, the two systems have an underlying philosophical difference that seems to be incompatible. This study seeks to understand how person centered planning is currently implemented within an evidence based system as a way to better understand how the systems interact and to identify potential barriers to the development of plans that support independence and self-determination for persons with disabilities.
57. Using Precision Teaching Within a Multi-Level System of Assessment to Improve Conversational Skills
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
NICOLLE SIMON (Academy for Precision Learning), Alison L. Lipshin (Academy for Precision Learning)
Abstract: In the education community at large, Precision Teaching (and its accompanying Standard Celeration Chart) is often described as a measurement system solely within academic-based skill acquisition. While PT is often applied to academics, it is also a powerful measurement tool for intervening with a variety of other repertoires- including the teaching of complicated social skills. Moreover, PT can be used within an overall multi-level system of assessment (Micro, Meta and Macro leveled analysis) to provide a more comprehensive depiction of student learning and increase student achievement in meaningful ways (Malmquist, 2004). This poster illustrates the use of progress monitoring on a Micro and Meta level using a Standard Celeration Chart to guide goal setting and data-based interventions for increasing the conversation skills of a junior-high aged student with autism. The resultant student performance is then evaluated on a Macro leveled criterion-based life skills assessment. This program took place in a private school in Seattle, WA whose main focus is the inclusion of students with Autism Spectrum Disorders into a general education classroom. The multi-level system of assessment included: the Assessment of Functional Living Skills (Macro), year-end in-house Treatment Plan goals (Meta), and daily practice of component conversation skills (Micro). Malmquist, S. (2004). Using a multi-level system of assessment to form instructional decisions and determine program effectiveness. In K. Johnson & L. Street (Eds.) The Morningside Model of Generative Instruction (pp. 52-93). Concord: MA: Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies.
58. What Are Culturally Competent EIBI Services?
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
SHAWN PATRICK QUIGLEY (Univ. of New Mexico Medical Group), Matthew T. Brodhead (Purdue University), Sean Field (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Projections of ethnic diversity within the United States suggest Whites of non-Hispanic origin will no longer be the majority population by 2050 (Passel and Cohn, 2008). Recognizing the ever increasing diversity of potential clients is important for current and future behavior analytic providers to ensure ethical service provision. The BACB Guidelines for Responsible Conduct (2010) state behavior analysts need to be aware of and provide culturally competent services. Given the large demand for behavior analytic based autism services, it is reasonable to evaluate the state of culturally informed behavior analytic training and service provision related to autism service delivery. The purpose of this paper is to review behavior analytic focused literature regarding being trained in and delivering culturally competent services. Recommendations for developing these skills will be provided.
59. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Problem Behavior Exhibited in the Community: A Case Study
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KARA AUDREY LACROIX (The Autism Community Therapists), Kevin J Schlichenmeyer (The Autism Community Therapists), Kimberly A Diggs (The Autism Community Therapists)
Abstract: Although functional analysis methodology is the most widely recommended pre-treatment assessment, the behavior analytic literature offers a paucity of functional analysis demonstrations in community settings. We extended research in this area by conducting a trial-based functional analysis in a community setting for screaming exhibited by a young girl diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Test conditions consisted of contingent access to walking to a particular location (e.g., Dunkin Donuts), whereas the control condition consisted of non-contingent access to walking to a particular location. Problem behavior occurred predominantly in test conditions relative to control conditions. Subsequently, a differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) procedure was implemented wherein pointing to a communication card produced access to the particular location while screaming was on extinction. The effects of the DRA procedure were replicated in a reversal design. During DRA conditions, screaming remained low and communication occurred consistently. A noteworthy feature of the analysis and treatment was its brevity, requiring 64 minutes and 55 seconds for completion. Inter-observer agreement data for the functional analysis were collected for 50 percent of trials and yielded 100 percent. Inter-observer agreement data for the treatment were collected for 32 percent of trials and yielded 89 percent.
60. The Robot That Helps Kids With Autism (TEC-O)
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
Abstract: TEC-O the robot is part of complete solution dedicated for designing, tracking and logging therapies for children with autism. This project consists of several solutions where TEC-O is a therapist tool for the rehabilitation of children with autism, specifically the mild-moderate autism. Its humanoid form factor gives to the children the chance of learning the social interaction, and distinguish the emotions and non-verbal language that humans use to communicate with their peers. TEC-O the robot has a built-in Personal Computer (PC), a camera, robust body, and is doted of arms, sensors, and a gestural face that makes TEC-O a complete robot that can be used in Human-Robot Interaction (HRI).TEC-O can perform five basic gestures like happy, angry, serious, surprised and sad. Also, a speaker system is provided to play the TEC-Os voice, which can be generated by the Microsoft Speech Synthesizer or by pre-recorded phrases. Its arms provide almost all the arm movement of a human arm, although it lacks of functional hands to manipulate stuffs. With its arms, TEC-O can say hello, point at, ask & give a hug, and can produce other mimic gestures. Its camera provides the ability to detect the face of the people and track it, so the robot can smile them whenever the people remains for some seconds in front of it. Also, its tactile sensors provide the ability of sensing the way and the frequency of the touch events.TEC-O has a Fuzzy logic system type 2 ( T2FLS). The T2FLS can produce the basic 5 facial gestures which denote an emotional status in the robot. Four emotions are produced by the T2FLS: serious, happy, angry and surprised; and a fifth emotion is produced by a simple binary selection.

Examining the Effects of Frequent Preference Assessment on Response Accuracy

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CRAIG WHITTEN (The Kennedy Krieger Institute), Ainsley Thompson (The Kennedy Krieger Institute), Iser Guillermo DeLeon (The Kennedy Krieger Institute), Mariana I. Castillo (The Kennedy Krieger Institute), Michelle A. Frank-Crawford (The Kennedy Krieger Institute), Marilyn D. Cataldo (The Kennedy Krieger Institute), Mandy M. Park (The Kennedy Krieger Institute), Abbey Carreau-Webster (The Kennedy Krieger Institute)

Several studies have demonstrated the utility of preference assessments and choice on adaptive responding in persons with intellectual disabilities, but few have used response accuracy as the dependent measure. This study examined the effects of three conditions on accuracy of academic task performance in four children diagnosed with autism and/or other intellectual disabilities. The conditions included praise, delivery of the top ranked item identified prior to the analysis (Initial SPA), and delivery of the top ranked item identified prior to daily work sessions (Daily MSWO). The top ranked item from the Daily MSWO sessions differed from that of the Initial SPA for three participants. For two of these participants, the cumulative number of accurate responses in the Daily MSWO condition exceeded that of the Initial SPA condition. For the third participant, modifications to the prompting sequence appeared to lead to an increase in response accuracy for all conditions. The cumulative number of accurate responses was equivalent in the Daily MSWO and Initial SPA conditions for the final participant for whom the top ranked item did not change. The results suggest that frequent assessments may sometimes facilitate accurate responding when preferences vary.


Using Virtual Environments as a Naturalistic Setting to Develop Social Skills and Relationships for Adolescents With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
JENNIFER GALLUP (University of Central Florida)

A deficit in social-skills affects social interactions that remain problematic through life for individuals with autism. Researchers demonstrate that individuals with autism want friendships, however, fail to recognize and interpret social cues (Iovannone, et al., 2003). About 50% individuals with autism never receive a phone call, get invited out, and are not invited to social gatherings (Shattuck, et. al., 2011). Under current circumstances, individuals with autism hold the third lowest matriculation rate to college (NCES, 2012). Challenges with independent living and matriculation are associated with social-skill and communication challenges (Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Burtenshaw, & Hobson, 2007). The NLTS-2 wave 5, report that 79.9% of individuals with autism live with parents, 54% graduate high school, and 15% go on to post-secondary education. In addition, they hold the lowest wage at $6.90/hr. when compared to an average of $7.44/hr. for 10 other disability categories. Virtual environments hold the potential to reform this perilous trend (Gallup, 2014 under review). Considering the advancements in virtual environments there is a unique opportunity to interact (Craft, 2012). This poster presents results from a pilot study identifying successful relationship development and social-skills acquisition through virtual environments, identifying how to use immersive environments to support communication.


Including Feasible Behavioral Interventions for Social-Communication Behaviors in Early Childhood Special Education Classrooms

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JUSTIN LANE (University of Kentucky ), Collin Shepley (Oconee County Schools), Jennifer Ledford (Vanderbilt University )

Multiple young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and related disabilities receive services in early childhood special education settings. Promoting socially significant behaviors, especially social-communication skills, in early childhood classrooms may require use of systematic behavioral interventions. Early childhood special education teachers may have limited or no training implementing behavioral interventions during typical classroom activities. This poster will present sample graphs of three behavioral interventions implemented in preschool classrooms during one-to-one play-based sessions or small group instructional arrangements. Interventions include (a) increasing spontaneous requests during play with a classroom teacher, (b) increasing sharing items in a dyadic arrangement during work times, and (c) teaching children to identify peer preferences in a dyadic arrangement. Each procedure involved adult prompts for target behaviors, with plans to promote generalization across persons, settings, or materials. Implications for Board Certified Behavior Analysts will include recommendations for (a) selecting social-communication targets for children with ASD in preschool classrooms, (b) training or including teachers and staff during interventions, and (c) designing interventions that are appropriate for classroom settings.

64. Teaching Language Skills to Individuals With Autism and Related Disorders Using Discrete Video Modeling
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Abstract: This study examined the use of an online video modeling system to teach language to children ages 3 to 6 with autism, developmental delay, language delay and Downs syndrome in five classrooms in Spokane, Washington. Researchers collected baseline data during standard preschool practice to record novel language usage over a two week period as well as conducted the probes at the beginning and end of three subsequent weeks during the treatment phase. The researchers varied the presentation of the videos as high, medium and low intensity with targets selected for the class and videos viewed upon arrival to the classroom and during academic centers. Using a general linear mixed-effects model, outstanding gains were seen across all verbal abilities and disability groups and the best outcomes were seen within the high intensity discrete video modeling classrooms. The research indicates that discrete video modeling delivered in a high intensity instructional manner can be the most effective discrete video modeling method to teach language skills.
65. Evaluation of Error Correction Strategies on Listener Responding with Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ASHLEY ACEVEDO (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Mitch Fryling (California State University, Los Angeles)
Abstract: While error correction strategies are obviously central to the development of new skills, a relatively small amount of research exists in this area. Moreover, the existent literature in this area has focused on specific skill areas, and is often conducted with adults with developmental disabilities. Within the existing research in this area a strategy called multiple response repetition has been evaluated by several researchers, and seems similar to strategies commonly used in clinical practice. During multiple response repetition learners are prompted to emit multiple correct responses after making an error. The current study examined two variations of multiple response repetition; two response repetitions (MRR 2) and five response repetitions (MRR 5), and compared this to a straightforward differential reinforcement of alternative behavior condition. The effects of the 3 experimental conditions on the acquisition of listener responses with two children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder were measured using trials-to-criterion, retention tests, and total number of responses. A multiple-baseline across stimulus sets and alternating treatments design was used to determine the most effective and efficient procedure. Both MRR procedures lead to faster skill acquisition relative to the DRA condition, however DRA was still effective. Moreover, there were no consistencies found regarding the differential effectiveness of the MRR 2 and MRR 5 conditions. Implications for future research are provided.
66. Evaluation of Antecedent Interventions to Treat Food Selectivity in Home-Based Settings
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DANIELLE EWRY (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology), Mitch Fryling (California State University, Los Angeles)
Abstract: A number of researchers have evaluated interventions to treat food selectivity in children with autism and other developmental disabilities. The high-probability instructional sequence and simultaneous presentation of foods are two antecedent interventions with inconsistent results; they are occasionally effective in the absence of other interventions, but at other times require additional interventions or even fail to add to the effectiveness of other interventions. However, these less intrusive interventions may be especially useful for children with less severe feeding problems. Using reversal designs, we evaluated the effectiveness of the high-p sequence and simultaneous presentation on increasing the consumption of non-preferred foods in two mildly selective children with autism. The high-p sequence increased acceptance of two non-preferred foods for one participant and the simultaneous presentation of preferred and non-preferred foods increased consumption of two non-preferred foods for the second participant for whom the high-p sequence was not effective. Lastly, individuals from the child’s natural environment were trained to implement the interventions, and integrity and consumption remained high during this phase. Implications for further research and practice are provided.

Examining the Effectiveness of Using an iPad-Based Video Modeling Plus Video Prompting Package to Teach Conversation Skills to Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MOHAMMED ALZAYER (Doctoral Candidate in Special Education), Frank W. Kohler (University of Northern Iowa)

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an iPad-based video modeling plus video prompting package to teach conversational skills to students with autism. A single subject multiple baseline across four children with autism design was used. Two typically developing children were involved to fulfill the video modeling and video prompting roles. Videos were created of peer models answering questions and responding to comments in complete sentences. On the videos, the questions and comments were asked by actual teachers and the peer models answered and provided comments in complete sentences in order for the target children to observe and imitate. Data was collected during teacher led discussion in a variety of experimental phases (baseline, video modeling, video modeling plus video prompting 1, video modeling plus video prompting 2, video modeling plus video prompting 3). Results suggest that a video modeling plus video prompting package was partially effective to improve the conversational skills for the four children with autism. However, all four students required a modified intervention package in order to perform the desired conversational skills during group instruction. Finally, the teachers indicated positive perceptions of the intervention at the end of the study.


Autism Parent Training Using Google Hangouts

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NELL CARAWAY (IRIS Educational Media)

How easy is it to hangout these days? Using Google Hangouts, this National Institute of Health-funded research project offered education and support to parents with children, ages 4-8, who have an autism spectrum disorder. Autism Parent Training used Google Hangouts to join groups of five to seven parents with experienced parent educators to provide training in Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) and Acceptance Commitment Training (ACT). The ABA instruction focused on teaching Antecedent Behavior Consequences to help parents work with their children's challenging behavior and develop routines that support potty training, eating, sleeping and going out in the community. The ACT instruction focused on teaching mindful awareness and diffusion to reduce parental stress. Because existing services for children with autism and their families have not been able to keep up with the rapid increase in prevalence it is critical to think innovatively about how to create wide-reaching and cost-effective programs, including face-to-face online training programs for parents who lack access to services.


Teaching Children With Autism the Usage of Past Tense Verbs Through Sufficient Exemplars

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SIGMUND ELDEVIK (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences), Rosie Wilson (Bangor University), J. Carl Hughes (Bangor University)

The use of regular past tense verbs were established in two children with autism. Using a multiple probe design a protocol was followed where a sufficient number of verbs were trained for generalization to occur. We defined generalization as correct use of three consecutive untrained verbs. In training, each verb was introduced separately and then in a mix with mastered verbs. The protocol was based on discrete trial teaching and a way of displaying trial by trial data, that both serves to monitor teaching and to report the results.

70. Training Paraprofessionals to Improve Social Skills in Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SUNNY KIM (University of California, Santa Barbara), Robert L. Koegel (University of California, Santa Barbara), Lynn Kern Koegel (University of California, Santa Barbara)
Abstract: The employment of paraprofessionals has increased dramatically in recent years in order to support students with autism (Blalock, 1991; Boomer, 1994; Frith & Lindsey, 1982; NCES, 2007; Pickett, 1986). However, paraprofessionals often report that they receive little to no training on how to successfully support these students (Giangreco, et al., 2001; Jones & Bender, 1993). Within the context of a multiple baseline across participants design, the present study assessed: (1) whether paraprofessionals could be trained to fidelity to effectively implement social interventions for students with ASD; and (2) whether such training would improve the social interactions between students with ASD and typically developing peers (percent intervals with social engagement and rate of verbal initiations). Interobserver agreement was above 80% for all measures. The results in Figures 1 through 4 suggest that paraprofessionals can be trained to fidelity to implement social intervention for students with ASD, and that such training improves the measured social skills for students with ASD. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for using trained paraprofessionals to improve socialization for students with ASD in the school setting.

School Professionals Implementation of Trial-Based Functional Analysis

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SUSAN D. FLYNN (Coastal Carolina University), Lisa Vernon-Dotson (Rowan University)

Although functional analysis (FA) is the only valid method that can show a causal relationship between an antecedent or consequent stimulus and a response (Asmus, Vollmer, & Borrero, 2002), it is rarely used to assess challenging behavior in school settings. Two potential reasons include the complexity of FA procedures (e.g., manipulating antecedent and consequent stimuli accurately) and time limitations. One variation of the FA that addresses these concerns is the trial-based FA. The present study used a multiple-baseline-across participants research design to assess the effects of training on school professionals correct implementation of all trial-based FA conditions. Results indicated that all 8 participants met the accuracy criterion with performance feedback following group training. During maintenance measures, 6 participants accurately conducted conditions.

72. Using Imaginative Education Approaches to Increase Successful Adoption, Implementation, and Satisfaction Levels for Individual Education Plans for Students With ASD
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
YEARIN KIM (Simon Fraser University)
Abstract: Introduction Egans theory of Imaginative Education or IE (2005) offers great potential to educators and can be used to help build an effective adapted curriculum and Individual Education Plan (IEP) to foster the success of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in integrated classrooms. Method A case study is used to examine one family and education teams experience using IE tools to implement their IEP goals. An Interpretive Phenomenological Approach (IPA) guides this investigation. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a family and their education team to explore the IEP process. Results In this presentation, a thematic analysis is used to examine the impact of IE approaches on the implementation of the IEP goals. Preliminary findings show that the family and education team reported better focus on goals, higher motivation to implement, and greater success of implementation. Discussion IE can be implemented to support the educational goals of students with ASD and to achieve better levels of adoption and satisfaction for the students education teams. For the poster presentation, three sample IEP goals will be presented along with their associated curriculum and sample activities, as well as findings from the interviews and preliminary data gathered from classroom evaluation of IEP goals.
73. An Evaluation of Treatment Outcomes When Behavior Intervention Plans Are Informed by Choice Making (COA) vs. Functional Analysis (FA) in Elementary School Settings
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JAN TURBES (Northwest Area Education Agency), Brenda Langstraat-Janisch (Northwest Area Education Agency), John F. Lee (The University of Iowa), Angela Dunlop (Sioux City Community Schools), David P. Wacker (The University of Iowa), Brenda J. Bassingthwaite (The University of Iowa Children's Hospital), Sean D. Casey (The Iowa Department of Education), Barbara Lyle (Northwest Area Education Agency)
Abstract: We evaluated the treatment outcomes of two public elementary school students when the treatment was based on choice making analyses. Cassie was a 10-year-old, 3rd grade female, and Andrew was a 10-year-old, 4th grade male. Both were high functioning students with ASD being served 100% of the time outside the general education classroom due to problem behavior. They were referred to the Challenging Behavior Team ( CBT) from Northwest Area Education Agency because of the frequency and intensity of their problem behaviors. Cassie's treatment was initially informed by Functional Analysis results, then modified on results from a concurrent operants assessment ( COA). Andrew's treatment was informed by COA results. Support during the assessment and treatment design was provided by the University of Iowa Challenging Behavior Training Service ( a service funded by the Iowa Department of Education) to the CBT. All treatment procedures were conducted in elementary school settings by teachers and para-educators. Outcomes indicated treatments based on COA quickly reduced levels of problem behaviors. Treatment data were extracted from student's IEP process monitoring data. Interobserver agreement on data extraction was conducted on all data sheets and averaged 100%

Video Modeling and Pairing Procedures for Pre-Service Educators in a Simulated Condition

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KELLY D. SCHAFFER (Western Michigan University)

As the prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) climbs, there is a paralleled increase in the need to prepare educators in effective teaching strategies to support students with ASD, and a subsequent increase in attention to teacher preparation programs. For this study, the researchers sought to examine the effects of video modeling of pairing procedures on the fidelity of implementation of pairing procedures by pre-service educators in an undergraduate teacher preparation program. A critical focus of this study was the assessment of competencies prior to intervention during baseline phases for all three participants. Following intervention competencies were demonstrated at 100% for three successive sessions across all three participants. Video modeling was effective in building competency in the implementation of pairing skills for pre-service educators. This adds to the body of research that supports video modeling as evidence based practice for preparation of teachers to implement procedures for teaching students with autism.

75. Reliability and Validity of the PEAK Relational Training System: The Direct Training Module
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
KYLE ROWSEY (Southern Illinois University Carbondale), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University), Jordan Belisle (Southern Illinois University), Jacob H. Daar (Southern Illinois University )
Abstract: Over the past few decades, behavior analytic research in autism spectrum disorders has been successful in developing effective behavioral assessments and curriculums. Many different tools based in behavior analytic methodology are available for use to practitioners of applied behavior analysis; however the validity and reliability of these protocols have often gone unevaluated. In an era of research based intervention, it is imperative that the tools we provide as behavior analysts undergo appropriate empirical testing. The current paper presents data from several studies involving the PEAK Relational Training System: Direct Training Module. Assessments of internal and external validity are demonstrated through component analysis and assessments of the relationship between scores on the PEAK Direct Training Module and scores on established assessments of intelligence and language skills. The results indicate a high degree of convergent validity with previously established measures of language and learning skills as well as an assessment of the components which make up the PEAK Direct Training Module.

Enhancing the Supervision of Behavior Analytic Practice With the Use of Technology

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
TIMOTHY C. FULLER (University of Nevada, Reno), Linda J. Parrott Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno)

Supervising the applied activates of behavior analyst in training is a vital aspect to the continued growth and effectiveness of behavior science. As the need for supervision continues to grow and in many locations the need exceeds the local resources some turn to distance based arrangements. This poster seeks to contribute to the resources available to supervisors and supervisees who find them selves not geographically contiguous. Specifically, components to supervision best practices are outlines along with how the use of technology enhanced observation and meeting software can produce better supervision outcomes than traditional face-to-face arrangements. Data collection strategies and examples of standardized measurement practices are offered.


Sensory Dominance in Individuals with ASD

Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
ADAM GHEMRAOUI (University of British Columbia), Stefania Moro (York University), Jennifer Steeves (York University)

Previous research has shown that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may perceive the world differently. We investigated whether participants with ASD demonstrate typical visual dominance when presented with an audio-visual event. The current experiments measure speeded detection and discrimination of auditory, visual and audiovisual targets presented as a stream of paired familiar objects and sounds in people with ASD and controls. We found that all participants were almost equally able to detect the presence of auditory, visual or bimodal targets. Participants with ASD demonstrated a preference of auditory stimuli compared to visual stimuli or rather, a reverse Colavita effect. This suggests an absence of the typical visual dominance and instead, auditory dominance. These findings indicate a difference in perceptual processing that may contribute to social communication impairments associated with ASD.


Maternal Immune Activation and Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Analysis of Behavior Rate, Habituation, and Time Distribution

Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
Maria Isabel Munoz Blanco (University of Nevada, Reno), DAVID LEGASPI (University of Nevada, Reno), VITTAWAT SRIPHONGNGARM (Unknown), Oanh Luc (University of Nevada, Reno), Kenneth W. Hunter (University of Nevada, Reno), Linda J. Parrott Hayes (University of Nevada, Reno)

The epidemiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has shown a significant increase over the past years (Newschaffer, et al., 2007). There is evidence that individuals diagnosed with autism exhibit histological changes in the hippocampus (Bauman & Kemper, 1994; Bailey et al, 1998; Kemper & Bauman, 1998). It was considered then that collaboration between neuroscientists and behavior analysts would be useful to add to the validation of the MIA mice as a model for autism. The Maternal Immune Activation project (MIA) was created to investigate the notion that the neuropathology of autism is caused at least in part by the brain's response to inflammation by providing a behavioral account of the most characteristic symptoms of autism. An experiment was conducted in order to compare social interaction behavior, learning and habituation between control and experimental mice and their relationship to deficits in these aspects as seen in individuals with Autism. Differences were found with respect to social behavior but results were not conclusive with respect to learning and habituation deficits. It is concluded that the different animal models of autism need to be tested using behavior analytical techniques to add to their validity.

80. A Comparative Analysis of Time-Based Versus Contingency-Based Strategies for Teaching Delay Tolerance
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MAHSHID GHAEMMAGHAMI (Western New England University), Gregory P. Hanley (Western New England University), Joshua Jessel (Western New England University)
Abstract: The effectiveness of treatments for problem behavior, like functional communication training (FCT; Tiger, Hanley, & Bruzek, 2008), depends on the extent to which the treatment can be extended to and maintained in the typical environment of that individual. Immediate reinforcement is not feasible in the typical environment and the unavoidable delay to reinforcement may lead to unplanned extinction of the newly acquired communication response and a reemergence of problem behavior. Relying on single-subject designs, we compared the relative effectiveness of two progressive delay training procedures—time-based (TBPD) and contingency-based (CBPD)—for teaching tolerance for delays to reinforcement following FCT with four individuals who engaged in a range of problem behaviors (e.g., aggression, vocal and motor disruptions, self-injury). Both procedures included the immediate reinforcement of 40% of Functional Communication Responses (FCRs) while the scheduled delay intervals for the other 60% of FCRS were gradually increased according to a geometric progression starting at 1s. In TBPD, FCRs were reinforced following the target delay interval regardless of participant behavior, whereas, in CBPD, FCRs were reinforced following the completion of the target response requirement during the delay interval. Results were consistent across all participants and showed lower rates of problem behavior and emotional responding during CBPD than TBPD.

Behavior Analysis Training System (BATS)

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
RICHARD W. MALOTT (Western Michigan University)

A Two-Year MA Program in Autism and OBM




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