Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


36th Annual Convention; San Antonio, TX; 2010

Event Details

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Poster Session #199
AUT Poster Session 2
Sunday, May 30, 2010
12:00 PM–1:30 PM
Exhibit Hall A (CC)
1. Modifying Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for OCD: Addressing Obsessive-Compulsive Behaviors in Children with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MELANIE DUBARD (Kennedy Krieger School), Claire Donehower (Kennedy Krieger School)
Abstract: Children with autism frequently exhibit behaviors characteristic of obsessive compulsive disorder. However, it is less common for children with autism to exhibit severe enough symptoms to warrant an OCD diagnosis in addition to their autism diagnosis. When children do exhibit severe symptoms it is difficult to separate stereotypical behaviors from obsessions and compulsions. Two students with autism who presented with ritualistic behaviors that could be characterized as obsessions and compulsions were referred for treatment. Their behaviors were interfering with presentation of academic demands and when blocked were resulting in aggression, disruptive behaviors, and leaving the area. A cognitive behavioral intervention for OCD was modified for use with both students (who had limited verbal skills) in the school setting. Data were collected during all components of the treatment. Reductions in ritualized behaviors were observed post-treatment. Generalization and maintenance will also be discussed. It is important for school staff to have strategies to address obsessive compulsive behaviors when they interfere with a student's functioning in the academic environment.
2. Treating Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Children With Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Approach
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ELIZABETH ROMBOUGH (Brock University), Tricia Corinne Vause (Brock University), Maurice Feldman (Centre for Applied Disability Studies, Brock University)
Abstract: Research has demonstrated that up to 81% of individuals with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) have Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) (Leyfer et al., 2006). To date, no study has evaluated group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) with family involvement as a treatment for OCD in children with PDD. Using a multiple-baseline design across OC behaviours, three participants, between the ages of 8-12, will receive an adapted version of March and Mulle’s (1998) CBT treatment protocol. Obsessions and compulsions will be identified using standardized measures, with targeted OC rituals consisting of excessive hand washing, hoarding, and repetitive counting. The group CBT treatment package will involve 12 one-hour weekly sessions situated around three components: awareness training, a protracted cognitive component, and exposure plus response prevention (E/RP). Awareness training will be conducted for all participants’ obsessions and compulsions, while brief cognitive training and E/RP will be applied to participants’ OC behaviours. Pre and post-measures of OCD, as well as secondary outcome measures of participant/family satisfaction and quality of life will be conducted. Maintenance of treatment gains will be evaluated at a 3 and 6 month follow-up.
3. Assessment of Fears and Phobias in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
LAURA B. TURNER (Binghamton University), Raymond G. Romanczyk (Institute for Child Development, Binghamton University)
Abstract: While phobias have been reported in up to 64% of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; Muris, Steerneman, Merckelbach, Holdrinet & Meesters, 1998), the phenomenology of fear is not well understood in this population. Given this, valid and reliable assessment techniques are crucial to a clearer understanding of fear in this population. Further, it has been suggested that the phenomenology of fear in children with ASD may be related to the language delays, social impairments and restricted behaviors characteristic of ASD (Evans et al., 2005; Sukhodolsky et al., 2008), but this speculation has not been sufficiently tested. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the content and intensity of fear and presenting symptoms in children with ASD. The content and intensity of fears were measured through direct behavioral observations, in addition to parent report. During observations, children were exposed to either auditory or pictorial representations of parent-rated neutral and feared stimuli. Parents also completed the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior Inventory (Cohen & Sudhalter, 2005) as a measure of current ASD symptoms. Additionally, the amount of agreement between parent report and direct observation of child fears was determined. Implications of the results will be discussed.
4. Evaluating Effects of Caregiver Training With a Three-Step Prompting Procedure; a Replication
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ADRIENNE MUBAREK (CaliforniaPsychCare), Rebecca M. O'Gorman (Western Michigan University), Erin Guzinski (CaliforniaPsychCare), Alison L. Costa (CaliforniaPsychCare), Eric L. Carlson (CaliforniaPsychCare), Ali Sadeghi (CaliforniaPsychCare)
Abstract: This study extended previous research conducted Tarbox, Wallace, Penrod & Tarbox (2007) which evaluated the effects of caregiver training on the child’s frequency of problem behavior. Participants included parents of children with low levels of compliance, as in the Tarbox et al. (2007) study. All participants received in-home behavior intervention through a behavioral agency and intervention was conducted in the home and in the community. A multiple-baseline across participants was used to assess behavior change in children before and after parent training with a three-step prompting procedure. Data are being collected. Results and discussion will focus on the effects of training parents on the three-step prompting procedure and the effect of that training on the child’s behavior.
5. The Analysis of Multiple Treatments on Increasing the Rate of Trial Presentation of Paraprofessional Staff in an Early Intensive Behavior Intervention Program- A Revision and Extension
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CARA M. CAPPALLI (ACES, Inc.), Cyndi Giordano (ACES, Inc.), Lisa Tereshko (ACES, Inc.)
Abstract: Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention programs have consistently proven to be effective in educating young children with autism utilizing, among other methods, discrete trial instruction. Intensity within this type of programming hinges on both the accuracy and rate of trials presented. The motivation of paraprofessional staff to complete trials at an optimal rate within an educational program can be an ongoing challenge. A study aimed at increasing this rate using a multiple treatment with reversal design was previously conducted. Independent variables included self-monitoring, goal setting, and anonymous public posting. Results of this study suggested that a treatment package including all of these variables increased the rate of trial presentation. The purpose of this poster is to revise the previous study in consideration of limitations encountered in the implementation and continuation of the treatment package. Further extension of the study will also be conducted looking at a larger sample, as well as additional independent variables, and maintenance of the targeted effect.
6. Pivotal Response Training: A Special Education Teacher’s Experience
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
RANGASAMY RAMASAMY (Florida Atlantic University)
Abstract: For the purpose of this poster presentation, the author selected the pivotal response training procedure with peers in special education to facilitate play behavior in children with autism. Fellow special education teachers were taught the strategies using modeling, role playing and feedback. After they learned the strategies they implemented pivotal response training strategies with the children with autism. Picture prompts were provided to assist peers in recalling the strategies. Once they recalled, the prompts were faded and procedures were implemented without providing any instruction. Through this model, fellow teachers learned to redirect, respond, and reinforce children with autism to increase play and social activities. The goal of this presentation is to highlight peer-mediated interventions to teach and facilitate play in children with autism. The participants that attend this poster session will learn the use and effectiveness of PRT with peers in special education to teach specific skill area for children with autism.
7. Parents' Ability to Identify Social Communication Behaviors in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
LAURA MULFORD (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Jennifer M. Asmus (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Cara Vaccarello (University of Wisconsin - Madison)
Abstract: A central and defining feature of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a difficulty engaging in reciprocal social interactions. Researchers have identified two key areas (i.e. joint attention and symbol use) of social-communication skills that are instrumental in the development of social reciprocity, language, and communication skills. However, comprehensive interventions for families with young children with ASD remain limited. In response to this limitation, researchers have studied parent-implemented interventions (PII), which provide a method for parents to provide treatment to children in a naturalistic setting. Studies of PII demonstrated that children with ASD made positive gains in language and social development. However, parents have reported that although PII programs are generally acceptable, they were unsure of what behaviors to look for and why. The present study demonstrated a method for training parents to identify social communication behaviors. A single case design will be presented highlighting parents’ increased ability to accurately identify their child’s social-communication behaviors after training. Data was collected including parents’ identification of antecedent, behavior, and consequence of their child’s social-communication behavior at baseline and treatment. IOA was collected on at least 25% of sessions and agreement exceeded 85%.
8. The Effects of a Staff Training Package on Incidental Teaching
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
HEGE TRYGGESTAD (Centre for Early Intervention), Sigmund Eldevik (Centre of Early Intervention), Astri Valmo (Centre for Early Intervention), Silje Haugland (University of Agder), Tone Kristensen (Centre for Early Intervention), Hege Aarlie (Centre for Early Intervention)
Abstract: Using a multiple baseline design across 5 persons we evaluated the effects of a staff training package on incidental teaching. The intervention package was a combination of scoring a video of themselves lasting about 5 minutes, a specially prepared written and verbal information pack on incidental teaching, and 5 video clips of correct incidental teaching episodes and role-play. The intervention lasted a total of 1 hour and 40 minutes. Four participants showed 0 incidental teaching episodes on the pretest, and between 4-6 episodes in posttest and at follow up. The last participant showed no change between pretest and posttest/follow up.
10. Current Trends in the Use of Alternative Interventions for the Treatment of Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
STEPHANIE M NIEVES GWIZDZ (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey), Robert LaRue (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey), Kimberly Sloman (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey), Mary Jane Weiss (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey), Suzanne M. Buchanan (Autism New Jersey), Linda S. Meyer (Autism New Jersey), Vanessa Falcon (Autism New Jersey), Elizabeth Neumann (Autism New Jersey)
Abstract: Autism is a complex, heterogeneous disorder characterized by significant impairments in language development, social interaction and stereotypical/ritualistic behavior. As such, a variety of different interventions have been developed for use with this population. To determine the prevalence of different interventions for autism, a brief survey (15-20 minutes) was sent to the parents of children diagnosed with autism. Items in the survey included demographic information about the child (i.e., age, functioning level). In addition, respondents were asked if they used behavioral interventions (e.g., ABA), medical interventions (e.g., medication, vitamin therapy, chelation) or other non-medical, non-behavioral treatments (e.g., horse therapy, dolphin therapy) to intervene. Questions were asked about the perceived effectiveness of the treatments and the measures they used to evaluate effectiveness. Data on different types of therapy, perceived effectiveness and procedures for evaluating intervention effectiveness will be summarized.
11. Determining the Most effective Treatment for Increasing Active Engagement and Decreasing Inappropriate Work Behavior for an Individual With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
CATHLEEN M. ALBERTSON (Devereux CARES), Jean Hirst (Devereux CARES)
Abstract: This study assessed the effects of several interventions, including the Wilbarger Protocol (modified), use of a weighted vest, contingent reinforcement and non-contingent reinforcement on out of seat behavior during work sessions using an alternating treatments design. The participant was a male student with autism, age 6, who attended an approved private school for children with autism. In addition to initial pilot data, the experimenters will examine the effectiveness of various intervention packages on both reducing out of seat behavior and increasing active engagement. Results have implications for collaboration with multiple disciplines and person-centered research. Inter-observer agreement data was collected on approximately 40% of sessions.
12. Conducting Cross-Country Research With Parents of Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ELLIE KAZEMI (California State University, Northridge), Grace Mihyun Cho (Namseoul University), Xochitl C. Swanson (California State University, Northridge), Dae-Eun Son (Namseoul University), Lovely Tapuro (California State University, Northridge), Stacy Blanco (California State University, Northridge), Youngmi Park (Namseoul University)
Abstract: Prevalence of autism is 1 in 150 in the U.S. (CDC, 2007) with similar prevalence reported in South Korea (Grinker & Kim, 2008). Since autism affects so many lives, finding factors that affect intervention seeking and outcomes are important. Out of an estimated 408 different types of treatments proposed for autism, only a few have empirical evidence of effectiveness. Comparing treatments, considerable empirical evidence reveals that early intensive behavior intervention produces lasting improvements in many children with autism in social, adaptive, self-help, and communication skills as well as decreased maladaptive behaviors. Such findings offer compelling reasons to investigate factors that affect parents’ decisions, globally, in seeking interventions for their children with autism. However, little is known about factors that affect parents’ likelihood to seek evidence-based interventions. In this presentation, based on parent-reports, we will discuss factors such as cultural and religious differences as well as parental attitudes toward healthcare, knowledge of autism, self-reported stress, marital satisfaction, beliefs in the medical myth model, and familial social support between Koreans and Americans. We will further encourage cross-country research, discuss the strengths as well as challenges in international collaborations, and share data regarding the current status of service delivery in South Korea.
13. An Assessment of the Effectiveness of and Child Preference for Forward and Backward Chaining
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
SARAH K SLOCUM (Louisiana State University), Jeffrey H. Tiger (Louisiana State University)
Abstract: While response chaining is used to teach complex tasks to children of all abilities, there is an insubstantial amount of evidence suggesting either forward or backward chaining as consistently differentially effective in promoting skill acquisition. Individual sensitivity to each teaching procedure may be idiosyncratic across learners; however, it has not yet been determined how to predict which method will engender the most rapid skill acquisition on an individual basis. The current study developed a brief teaching assessment in which we taught children with autism short sequences of motor tasks and compared the outcomes of these brief assessments with the same children’s acquisition of longer chains of motor tasks. Our preliminary results indicated (a) individual differences in sensitivity to backward and forward chaining and (b) correspondence between differential sensitivity on the short assessment task and the longer assessment tasks.
14. Standards for Monitoring Quality of Behavioral Intervention Programs in Mainstream Schools
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ASTRI VALMO (Centre for Early Intervention), Sigmund Eldevik (Centre of Early Intervention), Hege Tryggestad (Centre for Early Intervention), Tone Kristensen (Centre for Early Intervention), Grethe Brandsar (Centre for Early Intervention), Birgitte Kaldhussater (Center for Early Intervention), Elisabeth Ulvestad (Centre of Early Intervention)
Abstract: In Norway almost all children with autism attend their local mainstream school. Implementation of behavioral intervention programs in this setting may be difficult. In an effort to monitor and improve quality a monthly measurement system was implemented.The quality standards are both an instrument, to help management assess the level of quality in the services they provide, and a system, to help improve that quality. Monitoring includes measuring procedural routines, criteria for testing and evaluation, therapeutic skills, available resources and educational quality. We will present quality criteria, routines for data collection and results.
15. An Evaluation of the Effects of a Class-Wide Preschool Life Skills Curriculum
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MEGAN MALONEY (New England Center for Children), Danielle Ostrowsky (The New England Center for Children), Katelyn Elizabeth Waterhouse (The New England Center for Children), Rebecca Seban (New England Center for Children), Ashley Williams (new england center for children), Gregory P. Hanley (Western New England College), Rebecca P. F. MacDonald (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: The Preschool Life Skills Curriculum was developed to decrease problem behavior and promote social skills in preschool age children (Hanley et al. 2007). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the class wide Preschool Life Skills curriculum on four typically developing children and four children with autism and to examine generalization across teachers and settings. Participants were observed during evocative situation to see if they would display an appropriate response (a preschool life skill). The preschool life skills Unit 1 consisted of: responding to name and following one and two step instructions. A multiple probe design was used to evaluate the effects of the Preschool Life Skills Curriculum. Results indicate that the Preschool Life Skills Curriculum increased appropriate responses to classroom situations in the typically developing children and the children with autism. Generalization across and teachers and setting was also observed in both groups of children.
16. Promoting Generalized Imitation of Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
YOSHIKO HARA (Keio University), Hitomi Kuma (Keio University, Japan), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Keio University, Japan)
Abstract: It has proved that one of the central problems in autism is the deficit of imitation. In the present study, the following two points were investigated: 1) what type of children have difficulties with what class of imitation? 2) Can they imitate difficult imitation tasks by teaching another class of imitation? First, we presented various classes of imitation, such as self-directed imitation, other-directed imitation, motor imitation, minute motor imitation, oral imitation, verbal imitation and facial imitation to 20 children with autism. Then we investigated correlations of their imitation scores and some developmental scales. The results showed correlations in facial imitation to verbal imitation, and minute motor imitation to developmental age. Second, we taught another class of imitation that children have difficulties by using the Discrete Trial Teaching methods. Another investigation was based on a question, “does generalized imitation which we do not teach promote?” The result showed that all participants increased imitation score and promoted generalized imitation. These results support the effectiveness of imitation intervention for promoting not only various imitation especially oral imitation and verbal imitation but also some developmental scales.
17. Evaluating Strategies for Teaching Observational Learning to Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Bridget A. Taylor (Alpine Learning Group), Jaime A. DeQuinzio (Alpine Learning Group), GIZEM TANOL (University of Minnesota)
Abstract: Observational learning has been defined as learning that results from observing the responding of others and/or the consequences of such responding (Catania, 1998). In the present study, the observational learning sequence was defined as a peer modeling a response and encountering consequences delivered by an instructor, the participants monitoring that response, and the participants engaging in a similar response following a delay in the absence of the peer model. Using a multiple baseline across participants design, three children with autism were taught to monitor the responding of a peer while observing the peer label pictures during analog training. The monitoring response consisted of both a verbal response to the question, “What did she say?” and a matching response in which the participant was required to match the picture labeled by the peer to a picture grid. The effects of teaching a monitoring response on the acquisition of observational learning were later measured by presenting the same pictures used in analog training and asking the participants to label them in the absence of the peer. Additional probe measures were used to evaluate generalization of the observational learning skills acquired during analog training to new stimuli (i.e., novel pictures labeled by peers).
18. Reducing Errors in a Matching-to-Picture Task: The Irene Method Improves Depth Perception in Children with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
KENDRA MCDONALD (The Aurora School), Jelena Djordjevic (The Aurora School), Carlos F. Aparicio (The Aurora School)
Abstract: It has been hypothesized that children with autism have problems with visual distortion caused from an overload of sensory activity. Light and shapes, and contrast in colors and objects, cause their vision to become distorted producing errors in matching to sample tasks. To improve their visual perceptual skills, the Irene Method uses changes in color (i.e., colored filter papers or glasses with colored lenses) creating a more balanced appearance to the surroundings of the child. The present study assessed the efficacy of the Irene Method in reducing or preventing errors in a matching-to-picture task. Two children with autism and deficits in visual perceptual skills participated in the study. An ABAB design was used, condition A measured the number of errors in a matching-to-picture task that children made when colored-filter papers were not used to support the task, and condition B estimated improvements (error reduction) in the children’s visual perceptual skills when colored-filter papers were used to support the task. Because each child reacted differently to every color, a trial and error method was used to identify the color deflecting the unwanted light. The number of pictures and the order of presentation in the task were controlled across conditions. Differences in results between conditions A and B suggested that the children’s visual perceptual skills, particularly depth perception, improved with the Irene Method. It was concluded that the Irene Method should be tested in children with autism having problems seeing things clearly.
19. An Effective DRO Procedure in Just Two Hours A Day
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
NICOLE L. BANK (The PartnerShip), Erin Lacey (Private Provider)
Abstract: Head hitting and other self injurious behaviors quickly make a learner with autism stand out in a group of peers. Moreover, approaches from teachers and socially competent peers decrease dramatically upon the onset of self injurious behavior. This DRO procedure was initiated for a 5-year-old boy with autism when head hits gradually increased to 300 hits per 2-hour teaching session. Head hitting was initially occasioned by the presentation of a demand however it appeared to be multiply-maintained by the time treatment began. Treatment sessions were provided for only 2 hours per day. A 5-minute DRO session was successful if head hitting did not occur when a small edible was provided given 30-seconds of zero instances of head hitting. Academic demands were systematically faded into each 5-minute session upon success. Demand fading ceased when the rate and difficulty of demands matched those of a typical teaching session. For this particular participant, 2 hours per day of a 5-minute DRO with demand fading decreased head hitting to zero levels in 6-weeks.
20. Assessment and Treatment of Vocal Stereotypy in an Adult With Mental Retartdation
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
PAMELA ANN SINCLAIR (The New England Center for Children), Michael McSweeney (The New England Center for Children), William H. Ahearn (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: The purpose of the current study was to assess and treat the vocal stereotypy of an adult diagnosed with mental retardation. Vocal stereotypy was assessed using a pair wise functional analysis similar to Iwata, Duncan, Zarcone, Lerman and Shore (1994). The results of the functional analysis indicated that the behavior occurred most frequently in the alone condition, suggesting that vocal stereotypy was maintained by automatic reinforcement. Based on this assessment, the treatment introduced was response interruption and redirection, similar to Ahearn, Clark and MacDonald (2007). The treatment was presented in a multiple treatment reversal design and consisted of two types of RIRD, vocal (matched) and motor (unmatched). Results of the treatment analysis indicated that vocal RIRD was an effective treatment to reduce vocal stereotypy. RIRD motor seemed to be ineffective as it resulted in baseline levels of vocal stereotypy.
21. Decreasing Vocal Stereotypic Behavior of a Male Student in Public School Setting
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
BETH SLAWINSKI (Fannie E. Proctor Elementary School, Northborough/), Jennifer Ostroff (Frannie E. Proctor Elementary School), Paula Ribeiro Braga-Kenyon (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Previous research (Ahearn et. al., 2007) examined using a response interruption and redirection procedure (RIRD) to reduce vocal stereotypy (VS) of four children diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. The results of presenting demands contingent on the occurrence of VS were promising. The current study replicated and extended previous research by using RIRD to reduce VS behavior of a 9-year-old male student at a public school setting. A functional analysis was conducted and the results indicated that VS was likely not maintained by social consequences. Following assessment, RIRD was introduced following a multiple baseline design across three different settings (work, meals, and group activities). When RIRD was introduced, VS decreased considerably across all settings. Follow up probes indicated that the VS was maintained at levels similar to those from the intervention phases. Four instructional aides were trained on how to implement RIRD across all conditions. Social validity data indicated that the implementation of RIRD in the work condition was more difficult to implement then in the group and meal conditions. The instructional aides agreed that the procedure was effective in decreasing VS. IOA was collected during 22% of the sessions and and agreement averaged 99%.
22. Stereotypic Behaviors and Exercise: Is There Any Functional Relationship?
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
LUCY VANESSA MARTINEZ (The Aurora School), Jennifer Bush (The Aurora School), Lauren Fouts (The Aurora School), E. J. Lee (The Aurora School), Ashley Stultz (The Aurora School), Heather Chandler (The Aurora School), Carlos F. Aparicio (The Aurora School)
Abstract: Stereotypic behaviors inhibit learning behavior and interfere with the acquisition of adaptive behaviors necessary for the individual’s academic and social integration. Research investigating the use of aerobics to reduce stereotypic behavior suggests that stereotypic motor patterns can be altered with exercise, but the origin of the stereotypic behaviors remains unchanged. Thus, research has focused on altering the nature of the sensory reinforcement, using exercise to reduce stereotype and inappropriate behaviors. We hypothesized that multiple-frequency-exercise could reduce the rate of stereotypic behaviors while increasing the duration of on-task behaviors. Three children with autism participated in the study. An ABAB design was used. Condition A determined the baseline of stereotypic behaviors (echolalia, flapping hands, rocking back and forth, jumping up and down, and vocal stereotypy) in video tape structured teaching activities. Condition B scheduled 10-minutes of exercise three times per day prior to video tape structure-teaching time. On-task behavior was the child’s verbal and/or motor response appropriate to the situation. Changes in the frequency of stereotypic behaviors occurring in condition B after each sessions of exercise were analyzed and compared to baseline. Results were consistent with the limited research in the area of multiple frequency exercise programs to reduce inappropriate or stereotypic behaviors.
23. Teaching Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders to Attend Church
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JESSICA ROTHSCHILD (Caldwell College), Sharon A. Reeve (Caldwell College), Linda S. Meyer (Autism New Jersey), Patrick R. Progar (Caldwell College)
Abstract: Much research has been conducted on methods to successfully include people with disabilities in school, work settings, and their neighborhood. Little research, however, has been devoted to teaching people with disabilities to participate in their faith communities. The present study investigated the use of a treatment package that included shaping, reinforcement, and backward chaining to teach four children with an autism spectrum disorder to attend a Roman Catholic Mass. The shaping procedure consisted of reinforcing on-task behavior for successive increases of time spent in the church during the mass, beginning with 5-min intervals at the end of the mass. Intervals were increased contingent on success during the prior interval until the participant remained in the church for the entire mass. A changing-criterion multiple-probe design across participants was conducted. The results indicated that all participants successfully attended the full duration of a Roman Catholic Mass. Such skill acquisition may provide additional opportunities for family-based activities for children with autism spectrum disorders.
24. Demand Fading With Reinforcement to Increase Consumption of Nonpreferred Foods
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
BROOKE M. HOLLAND (California State University, Los Angeles), Michele D. Wallace (California State University, Los Angeles), Robert Haupt (Autism Spectrum Therapies)
Abstract: Research over the past decade has suggested escape extinction to be the main component for increasing nonpreferred food consumption. Studies, have displayed that escape extinction alone or in combination with other procedures as a treatment package to be the most effective. In addition, behaviors have been noted to decrease following the implementation of escape extinction. However, limited studies have shown fading with reinforcement in absence of escape extinction to be an effective procedure for increasing food consumption. Thus, we looked to evaluate the effects of demand fading with differential reinforcement in absence of escape extinction with a four-year old child diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Procedures were similar to that of Najadowski, Wallace, Doney, and Ghezzi (2003), which consisted of increasing the nonpreferred bite ratio based upon previous session levels. Bite ratios of nonpreferred food began at one bite with reinforcement delivered contingent on consumption in absence of behaviors. We hoped to provide parents with a procedure that does not evoke high rates of behaviors or aversive reactions, as well as increase consumption of nonpreferred foods.
25. Evaluation of Stimulus Control in the Treatment of Automatically Maintained Stereotypic Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
LARA SPEROFF (The Chicago School of Professional Psychology)
Abstract: Treatments have been developed to reduce both motor and vocal stereotypy in children with autism. For example, response interruption and redirection (RIRD) was effective in reducing automatically maintained vocal stereotypy (Ahearn, Clark, MacDonald, & Chung, 2007). One alternative to reducing stereotypy is to develop stimulus control over an intervention so that the child can discriminate when the response is available. For example, Brusa and Richman (2008) paired a neutral stimulus with RIRD for motor stereotypy during discrimination training and found that behavior decreased in the presence of the stimulus associated with the intervention. In the current study, functional analyses suggested that stereotypic behavior was maintained by automatic reinforcement and RIRD was evaluated as a treatment in a reversal design. During discrimination training, a neutral stimulus was then paired with the treatment using a multiple schedule design (Tiger et al., 2008) to quickly establish stimulus control over the behavior. Results are described in terms of the implications for establishing stimulus control with treatments for stereotypic behavior.
26. Descriptive Analysis of the Properties of Vocal Stereotypy Under Free-Operant Conditions
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MARC LANOVAZ (McGill University), Ingrid E. Sladeczek (McGill University)
Abstract: Although vocal stereotypy has several dimensions (e.g., duration, pitch, timbre, intensity), most if not all studies on the topic have used a one-dimension approach to measuring the behavior (i.e., duration). Examining how other dimensions of vocal stereotypy vary under free-operant conditions may explain why some researchers have found that prior access to stereotypy decreased subsequent engagement in the behavior (e.g., Rapp, 2004, 2007) whereas others have found the converse (e.g., Ahearn, Clark, Gardenier, Chung, & Dube, 2003; Lanovaz, Fletcher, & Rapp, in press). We compared the duration, perceived loudness, intensity, and pitch of vocal stereotypy emitted by five children with autism spectrum disorders during 5, 30-min free-operant conditions. The results indicated that vocal stereotypy did not typically decrease across sessions and that some dimensions of vocal stereotypy varied together (i.e., correlated). The implications of the results for the assessment and treatment of vocal stereotypy and how they relate to conjugate reinforcement schedules will be discussed.
27. Assessment of Vocal Stereotypy Using a Three-Component Schedule
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Sara M. Bartlett (St. Cloud State University), John T. Rapp (St. Cloud State University), Stephanie Sheridan (St. Cloud State University), Lauren Shrader (Coyne & Associates), Diana Maltese (Coyne & Associates), Ethan S. Long (The Bay School), GREGORY J. SWANSON (The Bay School), Marc Lanovaz (McGill University)
Abstract: The vocal stereotypy of 16 individuals aged 7 to 12 years was assessed during 5 sessions containing 3 consecutive 10-min components with no social consequences. Results showed that 75% of the participants consistently exhibited the lowest level of stereotypy in the third component. Consistent with prior studies (Rapp, 2004, 2007), the results suggest that prior access to stereotypy in the first or second component exerted an abative effect on subsequent engagement in vocal stereotypy. Nevertheless, this finding is not ubiquitous (e.g., Lanovaz et al., 2009). Thus, the purpose of this study was to further evaluate this pattern. The results have at least two potentially important implications. First, evaluations conducted with the 3-component methods must include control conditions to account for decrease in automatically reinforced behavior in the absence of an independent variable. Second, providing free access to stereotypy prior to critical training periods may decrease stereotypy during those training periods and increase engagement in appropriate behavior. Future research should address the latter possibility.
28. An Evaluation of the Differential Effects of Caregiver and Therapist on the Function of Aggressive Behavior in a Child Diagnosed with Autistic Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JAMIE L JOHNSTON (Autism Spectrum Therapies), Andrea Ridgway (Autism Spectrum Therapies), Diana Morris (Autism Spectrum Therapies), Hayley Watarz (Autism Spectrum Therapies)
Abstract: It has been demonstrated that functional analyses have provided differential results when conditions were implemented by a child’s caregiver verses conditions conducted by clinical staff (Ringdahl & Sellers, 2000). Ringdahl & Sellers (2000) demonstrated that the environmental conditions of escape, attention, etc., not only had an effect on the problem behavior but also who was delivering the consequences in each of the conditions. A functional analysis was conducted to determine the function of aggressive behaviors displayed by a four year old girl diagnosed with autism. Furthermore, the functional analysis included both the caregiver and therapist implementing conditions to determine if maintaining variables differed as a function of the experimenter (i.e., caregiver or therapist). The functional analysis consisted of ten conditions (play, ignore, attention, demand, and tangible with caregiver and with therapist) and was implemented in a multi-element design. A function-based treatment was selected based on the results of the analysis.
29. Using Video Modeling to Teach Affection Skills to Preschoolers With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
KARIN ANN CAMERON (San Diego State University), Yasemin Turan (San Diego State University)
Abstract: Children with autism have difficulties relating appropriately to other people. Although their relationships with adults often improve, peer relationships usually remain impaired. One specific area of interaction that is impaired is affection behavior towards peers. Children with autism need specific skill instruction to develop friendship skills. Video modeling has been an effective strategy in increasing a variety of skills in children with autism such as self help, communication and play skills. This is because children with autism respond well to visual cues. Furthermore, video modeling is a time and cost efficient approach, and also allows multiple students to receive intervention since it can be reused. However, very little research has been done on using video modeling to teach affection skills. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of video modeling to promote affection skills of preschool children with autism. A multiple baseline design across 3 children were will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention procedures.
30. Group Instruction of Turn-Choice Skills to Children With Autism and Developmental Disabilities
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
SHIGEKI SHIMADA (Tokiwa University)
Abstract: One of the behavioral characteristics of autistic disorder is stereotyped behavior. Some participants often persisted in the same turn in the group activity, so progress of the activity was disturbed. Five children participated in the study, aged from 11 to 15, 3 of 5 were autism or PDD. Group activity session was held for 90 minutes, 11 sessions in a year. Each session consisted of meeting, group activity, and snack time at judo facilities. Several university students served as a peer. Instruction of the turn-choice skill had three phases. Baseline phase consist of 4 sessions. Participants were observed which turn he/she selected at the game. Intervention phase consist of 4 sessions. In this phase, each participant was reinforced, if he/she chose a turn other than previously chosen. Participants were able to get a sticker on their name card. But if they chose the same turn, they could not get a sticker. Second baseline phase conducted 2 sessions. In baseline phase, each participant chose the same turn more than 50%. In intervention phase, all participants chose the different turn. Some participants chose different turn, other participants chose same turn in the second baseline.
32. Matching Social Skill Instruction to Individual Preferences
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JENNIFER E. COPELAND (Melmark), Kate Langston (Melmark), Alicia Brough (Melmark)
Abstract: Copeland et al. (2006, 2007) showed that students with disabilities could be trained by their peers to engage in social skills that were functionally equivalent to their inappropriate social behavior. Copeland et al. (2008) showed that the “enthusiasm” of a peer partner could substantially influence the manding behavior of a communicative partner. The purpose of this extension study was to investigate whether or not participants would select peers with whom they had previously been the most “enthusiastic” or with whom they had most frequently used appropriate communication. Four adolescents ranging from 17-20 years old that were diagnosed with autism and other developmental delays served as student participants. Peers ranged from 17-22 years old and presented a variety of different skills and abilities. We investigated what type of peer each participant would self-select when a choice was made available during daily, 10-minute social interactions. Choice of peer varied across participants; some individuals primarily selected peers with whom they were most frequently appropriate in their communications, and some did the exact opposite. Inter-observer agreement ranged from 67% - 100% with a mean of 93% during 30% of sessions across all behaviors and participants.
33. Comparing the Effects Between First-Person Perspective and Second-Person Perspective Video Modeling in Teaching Children With Autism Social Interaction Skills
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
HUI HUNG CHEN (SEEK Education Inc. - Taiwan)
Abstract: Two types of video modeling were compared to determine their relative effectiveness in training 2 children with autism to study social interaction skills. In first-person perspective video, the subjects can only see hands and hear some speeches that the demonstrator said. The subjects can see what the demonstrator looked, but cannot see the demonstrator. In second-person perspective video, the subjects can see the demonstrator and the person who talked with. Multiple-baseline design across 2 children was used in this research. Social interaction skills in this research are defined in three categories: get attention, eye contact and verbal initiation.
34. Teaching Children With Autism to Take Part in Conversation
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ELISABETH ULVESTAD (Centre of Early Intervention), Birgitte Kaldhussater (Center for Early Intervention), Sigmund Eldevik (Centre of Early Intervention), Hege Tryggestad (Centre for Early Intervention), Astri Valmo (Centre for Early Intervention), Tone Kristensen (Centre for Early Intervention), Grethe Brandsar (Centre for Early Intervention)
Abstract: Teaching children with autism conversation skills has typically been based on script-fading procedures. However, multiple - exemplar training has been used successfully to promote new untrained responses in number of skill areas. This study investigates whether the use of multiple - exemplar training will lead to new untrained responses when taking part in and initiating a conversation. The participants in this study were 5 children with autism, aged between 5 and 14 years. The child’s responses to an adult’s initiative to conversation and the child’s initiative to start a conversation are targeted, along with the length of the conversation.
35. Using Activity Schedules and Video Modeling to Teach Children With Autism to Play a Video Game
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
ALYSSA R. BLUM (Wyckoff Board of Education), Sharon A. Reeve (Caldwell College), Kenneth F. Reeve (Caldwell College), Hannah E. Hoch (Rethink Autism)
Abstract: Autism is characterized by severe and pervasive impairment in three main areas: Social interaction, communication, and repetitive and restrictive behaviors. These impairments often restrict people with autism from engaging in independent activities such as leisure skills. There has been little research to date on effective ways in which to teach leisure skills to individuals with autism and related disabilities. The purpose of the present study was to teach young children with autism to engage in an age-appropriate leisure skill, specifically playing Guitar Hero II ™, through (a) the use of an activity schedule to set up, turn on, and turn off the game and system, (b) the use of video modeling and manual prompts to manipulate the Guitar Hero II ™ controller to play the game, and (c) the use of multiple exemplar training to develop a generalized repertoire of playing Guitar Hero II ™. A multiple-baseline probe across participants design was used to evaluate the treatment package for four students diagnosed with autism. Results demonstrated that all of the participants successfully learned to play Guitar hero II™ and the results generalized to novel songs and settings thereby increasing independence and the likelihood of playing with their siblings and friends.
36. Teaching Learners With Autism to Establish Eye Contact When Making Play Comments
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
JAIME M. SCHILLING (Alpine Learning Group), Bridget A. Taylor (Alpine Learning Group), Jaime A. DeQuinzio (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract: Many individuals with autism fail to establish eye contact when speaking. This study assessed the effects of a reinforcement package (verbal praise and edibles) on the percentage of play statements made with eye contact. A four-year-old boy with autism who made play comments but did not establish eye contact was the participant. A multiple baseline design across activities was used. Play sessions were conducted in which a play activity was set up and the learner was given a verbal reminder to talk while playing. Data were collected on the first ten comments made. Data indicated the participant initially did not consistently establish eye contact when making play comments. With the introduction of the reinforcement package, the percentage of play comments made with eye contact increased across all activities. Interobserver agreement and procedural integrity data were calculated for at least 30% of sessions.
37. The Effects of Precision Teaching Frequency Building of Language Component Skills on the Performance of Language Composite Skills in Adults With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MARY SENS AZARA (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey), Marlene Cohen (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey), Donna L. Sloan (Rutgers University), Meredith Bamond (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey), Joseph Novak (Douglas Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey), Robert LaRue (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey)
Abstract: Each year, many learners with autism are aging out of school programs and moving into adult programs. More needs to be done to provide quality services in the least restrictive environment possible for these adults. Precision Teaching with frequency building procedures is one method that holds promise as an efficient and effective means of instruction for older learners. This research is proposed to extend previous clinical demonstrations of the impact of Precision Teaching with frequency building procedures to the realm of language skill acquisition. Previously, pilot research in this area has indicated results similar to those of fine motor skill studies, when implementing frequency building of verbal language components. Preliminary results indicate that the application to new untaught skills has a cumulative effect of more rapid acquisition of related language skills. Using a multiple baseline design, this research continues to explore whether instruction of component language skills should end when minimum frequency aims are initially achieved, or if continuing instruction of component skills to higher frequencies enhances performance of language composite skills. The proposed research will examine the cumulative effect of frequency building of three component skills on performance of a single composite skill.
38. The Application of PowerPoint to Improve Functional Communication of Adolescents With Autism and Reduce Stigma Associated With Traditional Adaptation Strategies
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
KAORI NEPO (PAAL), Avram Glickman (PAAL), Gloria M. Satriale (PAAL)
Abstract: The rapid advancement of technology made tremendous amount of software applications available, and made the devices extremely portable. The traditional adaptive strategies for communication such as voice output devices or pictures in a binder can be not only stigmatizing, especially in the community, but also the cost of devices or system is tremendous. The authors developed the highly customizable PowerPoint application on PDAs as a voice output system to improve communication and to reduce the stigma associated with the bulky appearance of the traditional strategies. A 17-year old female student diagnosed with moderate to severe autism will participate in the present study. The student will communicate via PDA by selecting visual representation on the touch screen. The frequency of using sentences will be collected 5 times per week over 2-month period. The social validity data will be also collected to validate social acceptance in the community. Authors hope to demonstrate the improved communication, independence, and social acceptance of the participant with autism through communication using power point application on a PDA.
39. Teaching an Adolescent With Autism to Ask Clarifying Questions
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ERICA FOSS (FEAT of Washington), Jamie Rose Feddock (FEAT of Washington)
Abstract: Adolescents with autism are often faced with unclear expectations or directions from people in their daily lives. Asking questions to gain necessary information, identify the meaning of unknown vocabulary, and to clarify vague or unclear information can lead to greater success when interacting with others and can improve overall self advocacy skills. We aimed to teach a 16 year old girl with autism to ask clarifying questions when faced with a variety of unclear information by first teaching under contrived conditions and then assessing and teaching as needed under more naturally occurring opportunities. This poster focuses on both the process and result of that intervention.
40. Using Fluency-Based Instruction to Increase the Length of Echoic Responses of a Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
PATRICIA K. SOLANO-FAH (FEAT of Washington), Kelly J. Ferris (Organization for Research and Learning), Michael Fabrizio (FEAT of Washington)
Abstract: This poster highlights the improvement in echoic behavior of a 4-year-old boy with autism and developmental delays who participated in an behavior analytic integrated preschool program 5 days a week. Upon assessment the student was identified as having weak echoic and tacting repertoires. To increase the student’s echoic repertoire, fluency based instruction was used to teach Hear/Say words and phrases. Interventions using differential reinforcement of higher rates of behavior (DRH) were employed contingent on the student achieving a daily improvement goal. Student performance data, measured in frequency of syllables correct, correct words, and incorrect words per minute, will be displayed. Criteria for data-based decisions as well as systematic changes to interventions will be discussed.
41. Using Embedded Scripts and Script Fading to Increase Question Asking for a Student With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MARK R. GRISSOM (NYCA Charter School), Jessica Seeman (New York Center for Autism Charter School), Julie Fisher (New York Center for Autism Charter School)
Abstract: Impairments in social and communication skills are two of the core deficits seen in individuals diagnosed with autism. Script and script fading procedures have been used to increase spontaneous language in students with autism in a variety of contexts. In the current study, textual scraipts are embedded into salient stimuli within a joint activity schedule and systematically faded from back to front to increase question asking in one student diagnosed with autism. The projected data will likely show the student engaging in zero or low rates of question asking during baseline. Once scripts are introduced, it is hypothesized that data will show an increase in question asking and that this will remain at high rates as scripts are faded.
42. International Outreach: Providing Picture Exchange Communication System and Pivotal Response Treatments Training to Increase Communication of Students With Autism in Ghana
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
Lori Beth Vincent (Southwest Autism Research & Resource Center), Brad Herron (Southwest Autism Research & Resource Center), Casey McFeely (Global Autism Project), MOLLY OLA PINNEY (Global Autism Project)
Abstract: The Global Autism Project seeks to empower the communities it serves to effectively address the needs of individuals affected by autism through education, outreach, training, and the promotion of acceptance and compassion. On a training visit to an autism center in Accra, Ghana, clinical team members of the Global Autism Project provided training and consultation to staff members of the center. Baseline data was collected on the frequency of prompted and unprompted social communication for eleven children and adolescents with autism at the center. Training was provided to staff at the center on implementing the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and Pivotal Response Treatments (PRT) to increase functional communication of children with autism. Intervention strategies on how to create communication opportunities and prompt appropriate communication were taught to staff members through lecture and in-vivo feedback. PECS and PRT strategies were implemented with the children solely by staff members of the centre. Social communication data was collected before and after staff training. Data shows a significant increase in social communication for all eleven participants both during and following training. Staff evaluations were also completed to measure the social validity of training provided.
43. Evaluating Choice-Making Opportunities in Activity Schedules on Problem and On Task Behaviors
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
LAURA J. HALL (San Diego State University)
Abstract: Research demonstrates that learners with autism can be taught to use activity schedules to complete a variety of tasks/activities independently. The sequence of activities, however, is typically designed by a parent or educator rather than by the students themselves. A multiple-baseline design across participants was used to evaluate the effect of embedding student choice into activity schedules of three participants with autism spectrum disorders to determine the effects for on-task and problem behavior in the classroom setting. Following the baseline condition, staff provided students with the order of the tasks to be completed using an activity schedule. In the choice and maintenance conditions, students were provided both pictures and text of various tasks and were asked to choose the tasks and the order of the tasks to be completed. Results of the activity schedules alone and the activity schedules when choice is included will be evaluated using whole-interval time-sampling to estimate on-task behavior, and event recording to record problem behavior. Fidelity of intervention will be scored and interobserver agreement on participant and staff behavior will be collected.
44. An Evaluation of Skill Generalization Across Programs for Learners With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
LAURA J. HALL (San Diego State University)
Abstract: Although best practice calls for evaluation of program goals and objectives across environments, research completed when participants are engaged in multiple programs is rare. The following study evaluated the maintenance of target skills that had been mastered in a private, nonprofit educational program implementing strategies based on applied behavior analysis during participation in a community program held after school and on weekends. Three boys with autism spectrum disorder who attended the educational program full-time were the participants in this study. Each of the students also attended the community program that focused on developing community living and social skills. A multiple baseline design was used to evaluate the generalization of the targeted skills mastered at school to the community context which is the focus of the after school program. Staff working in both programs are trained in procedures based on applied behavior analysis and both program collect ongoing data. The intervention will include consultations presented via group trainings in which the community coaches (employed by the after school program) will watch video (taken at the school program) showing students (A) during skill acquisition and (B) at mastery level, engaging in target behaviors. Data to be collected.
45. Using a Prepared Teaching Sequence to Teach an Adolescent With Autism to Navigate Within the Community
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ALISON J. MCMANUS (FEAT of Washington), Jamie Rose Feddock (FEAT of Washington)
Abstract: Learning to independently navigate across locations in a community setting can be a critical step toward independence for an adolescent with autism. We began instruction on this skill by first identifying the critical features (those features we intended to systematically manipulate during the course of instruction) and variable features (those features we planned to vary freely throughout instruction) of instruction that were likely important for our learner and created a teaching sequence based on those features. Baseline data were collected and instruction began within the teaching sequence based on those results. We aimed to teach an 18 year old adolescent with autism to safely navigate between community locations by systematically targeting instruction toward each of the critical features identified. This poster focuses on both the process and result of that intervention.
46. Effects of a Shaping Procedure on Food Acceptance With ASD Clients
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Behavior Analysis
MEGAN E. BRINKMAN (Spalding University), Kim Francia (Spalding University), Sami Baker (Spalding University), Keith Hersh (Spalding University), David Morgan (Spalding University)
Abstract: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) typically exhibit undesirable eating repertoires, frequently exhibiting selectivity and escape from non-preferred foods (Ahearn, Castine, Nault, & Green, 2001). Food selectivity can have profound effects on several dimensions of health, making it a topic that clearly meets the criteria of being applied. This study examined a shaping procedure which combined elements of desensitization, reinforcement, and Premack principle with three children diagnosed with ASD. A changing criterion design was utilized to assess progress across a sequence of steps involving progressively closer approximations to the terminal behavior of interest, eating the non-preferred food. A functional assessment was first conducted to determine that the function of food refusal was escape from non-preferred foods. A list of preferred and non-preferred foods was then obtained from parent report and direct observation. Next Premack principle was implemented in conjunction with a shaping protocol in which the child had to meet the current criteria in order to access the preferred food item. Results indicated varied effectiveness of the shaping procedure combined with Premack principle at increasing food acceptance behavior across all participants. However, all participants successfully met the criteria for at least some of the successive steps of the shaping procedure.



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