|Variables Influenceing Equivalence Relations
|Sunday, May 30, 2010
|10:30 AM–11:50 AM
|Lone Star Ballroom Salon C (Grand Hyatt)
|Area: EAB/VRB; Domain: Experimental Analysis
|Chair: Erik Arntzen (Akershus University College)
|Abstract: The first paper by Vaidya will present data from three experiments in which stimuli in established and documented equivalence classes were exposed to simple discrimination contingencies. The results show that existing equivalence relations among stimuli can facilitate or retard the development of analytic units. The second paper by Fields and Moss in which the experiment trials were presented using match-to-sample trials that contained three comparisons. One comparison was presented from the same class as the sample, another comparison was from the other class, and the third comparison was a null comparison. The results were consistent with the predicted effects of nodal distance. The third paper by Tomanari et al. will present findings which indicate that the acquisition of conditional relations occurs in orderly sequences in humans, but not in pigeons. The fourth paper by Arntzen et al. is concerned with the different effects of distracters in the delays when testing for equivalence.
|Equivalence Relations Influence the Development of Analytic Units
|MANISH VAIDYA (University of North Texas)
|Abstract: Sidman’s (1986) original views on the origins of equivalence relations suggested that equivalence relations grew out of four-term contingencies of reinforcement exclusively. Sidman’s (1994, 2000) more recent thinking about the origins of equivalence represents a considerable expansion of the original theory in which equivalence relations were seen arising out of conditional discrimination contingencies exclusively. Though still defined in terms of reflexivity, symmetry, and transitivity and measured in terms of performance in 4-term contingencies of reinforcement, equivalence classes are seen as resulting from the operation of the contingencies of reinforcement with no lower limit on the complexity of the required contingency. This expanded viewpoint makes a number of interesting predictions including the possibility that equivalence relations can actually influence the development of analytic units such as simple discriminations. This paper presents data from three experiments in which stimuli in established and documented equivalence classes were exposed to simple discrimination contingencies. The results show that existing equivalence relations among stimuli can facilitate or retard the development of analytic units. These results provide tentative support for Sidman’s expanded formulation of the origins of equivalence relations.
|Nodal Distance Effects in Three-Node Five-Member Equivalence Classes
|LANNY FIELDS (Queens College, The University of New York), Patricia A. Moss (The Graduate Center of the City University of New York)
|Abstract: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of nodal distance using within-class-preference tests. In this experiment, two 3-node 5-member equivalence classes were established using the simultaneous protocol. During equivalence class training and testing, trials were presented using match-to-sample trials that contained three comparisons. One comparison was presented from the same class as the sample, another comparison was from the other class, and the third comparison was a null comparison. After class formation, within-class probes were subsequently presented to four participants. Virtually all of the within class preference probes produced the immediate emergence of performances that were consistent with the predicted effects of nodal distance.
|The Acquisition of Conditional Relations and the Emergence of Equivalence Classes in Human and Nonhuman Subjects
|GERSON YUKIO TOMANARI (University of Sao Paulo), Miriam Garcia-Mijares (Universidade de São Paulo), Adriana Rubio (Universidade de São Paulo e Universidade Metodista)
|Abstract: Whether non-human subjects demonstrate the formation of equivalence classes has been a major debate. Typically, the performance in equivalence tests, but not in the previous training, has been the focus of comparative analyses involving human and non-human subjects. In addition, the acquisition of conditional relations in a matching-to-sample procedure has often been assessed based on global and relative accuracies of a set of conditional relations, and not on the acquisition of each individual relation along the training. In the present symposium, we will present and analyze aspects of the training normally employed in equivalence studies. Based on data collected with normal adults and pigeons, we will show that the acquisition of conditional relations occurs in orderly sequences in humans, but not in pigeons. Differences in the history of training may be related to the failures to demonstrate equivalence in non-human subjects.
|Distracters During Testing in Delayed Matching to Sample
|ERIK ARNTZEN (Akershus University College), Christoffer Eilifsen (Akershus University College), Aleksander Vie (Akershus University College)
|Abstract: Delays in matching to sample training have been used mostly with one delay value only, and often 0 second delay. However, some studies have used a number of values, i.e., from 0 up 15 second. For example in Arntzen (2006) four experiments were employed in which different delay values were varied. In Experiment 1, the findings were that number of trials to criterion and accuracy increased as function of increasing delays. In Experiment 4 with the use of distracters during the delays in testing, the findings were that none of participants responded in accord with equivalence. In the current study we want replicate these findings and also to explore the knowledge by using other types of distracters.