Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


40th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2014

Event Details

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Symposium #164
CE Offered: BACB
Pre-Verbal Foundations: Conditioned Reinforcement for Observing 3-Dimensional Objects
Sunday, May 25, 2014
10:00 AM–10:50 AM
W184bc (McCormick Place Convention Center)
Area: AUT/VRB; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Joan Broto (Semiahmoo Behaviour Analysts, Inc.)
CE Instructor: Joan Broto, Ph.D.

We tested three procedures to condition 3-D stimuli as conditioned reinforcers for observing responses. The first study used a stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure to condition 3-D stimuli as reinforcers for observing. Following the establishment of 3-D stimuli as reinforcers, participants showed increases in 3-D and 2-D match-to-sample responding and decreases in stereotypy. In the second and third studies 3-D stimuli were conditioned as reinforcers for observing using a visual tracking procedure, resulting the acquisition of generalized match-to-sample repertoires.

Keyword(s): 3D stimuli, conditioned reinforcement, cusp, generalized matching
The Effects of the Acquisition of Conditioned Reinforcement for Observing Three-Dimensional Stimuli on Stereotypy and Match-to-Sample Responding
JACQUELINE MAFFEI-LEWIS (Teachers College, Columbia University), Jessica Singer-Dudek (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: We tested the effects of the acquisition of conditioned reinforcement for observing three-dimensional (3-D) stimuli on responses to two-dimensional (2-D) and 3-D match-to-sample tasks and stereotypy using a delayed multiple probe design across participants. Pre-intervention probe data showed that 3-D desktop stimuli did not function as reinforcers for observing for the preschool-aged participants. The 3-D stimuli were conditioned as reinforcers using a stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure. Once the participants acquired conditioned reinforcement for observing 3-D stimuli, correct responses to 2-D and 3-D match-to-sample tasks increased significantly and rates of stereotypy decreased. The results of the study suggest that a relationship exists between reinforcement for observing 3-D desktop stimuli and 2-D to 3-D match-to-sample responses.

The Effects of Conditioning Observing Three Dimensional Stimuli on Following Classroom Routines, Identity Matching and Imitative Responses in Young Children with Autism

JEANNE MARIE SPECKMAN (Fred S. Keller School, Teachers College, Columbia University), Jennifer Longano (Fred S. Keller School), Noor Younus Syed (Teachers College, Columbia University)

We tested the effects of an observing three dimensional object conditioning procedure on pre-listener, imitation and match to sample responses of young children with autism. Three children between the ages of 2 and 4.8 years who attended center based Early Intervention or preschool programs participated in the study. The three dimensional object conditioning procedure involved the students visually tracking preferred and non-preferred items that were placed under transparent and then opaque cups and were rotated a set number of times per phase. Initial probes for the presence or absence of the following behaviors were conducted 1) generalized match to sample for identical three-dimensional stimuli, 2) generalized match to sample for identical two- dimensional stimuli, 3) generalized match to sample of two dimensional to corresponding three dimensional stimuli, 4) imitation of object use and 5) generalized imitation. We also compared the rate of acquisition of skills across the following programs immediately before and after the conditioning procedure was implemented: three-dimensional selective match to sample, instructional control with visual cues, follows school routines with visual cues, selective imitation and object use imitation. The results showed that for all three participants, the three dimensional conditioning procedure was functionally related to increases in generalized three dimensional matching and object use imitation. Decreases in instructional trials to criterion, or increases in rates of acquisition of skills across the aforementioned programs were seen for two of the three participants as well (the third participant left the study before data could be analyzed).


The Effects of a Visual Tracking Protocol on the Acquisition of 3-Dimensional Stimuli as Conditioned Reinforcement for Observing and Generalized Matching Repertoire

Lin Du (Teachers College, Columbia University), JOAN BROTO (Semiahmoo Behaviour Analysts, Inc.)

We tested the effects of a visual tracking procedure on the acquisition of 3- dimensional objects as conditioned reinforcement for observing and on generalized matching repertoire. There were 3 participants in the study who were enrolled in an Early Intervention program. The independent variable was the visual tracking protocol, in which the participants were taught to observe clear and opaque cups that were in rotation, with a preferred and eventually non-preferred item placed underneath one cup. We implemented a delayed multiple baseline design and the results showed the protocol was effective to induce generalized visual identity matching repertoire, which were not in the participants repertoire prior to the implementation of the protocol.




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