Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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40th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2014

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Poster Session #385
AUT Mon Noon
Monday, May 26, 2014
12:00 PM–2:00 PM
W375a-d (McCormick Place Convention Center)
121. Teaching An Adolescent with Autism to Complete Short Response Chains Using Observational Learning
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SHEIBA KOSHY (Alpine Learning Group), Jason Stambaugh (Alpine Learning Group), Jaime DeQuinzio (Alpine Learning Group), Bridget A. Taylor (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract: A common rationale for inclusive education is the opportunity for observational learning. However, individuals with autism show deficits in skills that may be associated with observational learning such as imitation and sustained attention. Taylor, DeQuinzio, and Stine (2012) demonstrated that as a result of learning to monitor (i.e., attend to and imitate) the reading responses of their peers, children with autism could acquire unknown sight words. In current study, we extended this research by examining the effects of learning to monitor the responses of a peer on the acquisition of three short response chains by a non-verbal adolescent male with autism. A multiple baseline design across three responses was used to evaluate the effects of monitoring training. During baseline test sessions, the participant was instructed to either sort silverware, wash a table, or refill a napkin dispenser. Following baseline, we simply exposed the participant to a peer model engaged in the sorting silverware task and measured acquisition 10 minutes after exposure in the absence of the peer. The participant could not demonstrate any steps in the response chain. We then started monitoring training for the sorting silverware response category, which consisted of delivering verbal, gestural prompts, and reinforcement to the participant approximately every 4 seconds for watching the peer. Correct responding during the test sessions quickly increased to 100%. We staggered the implementation of monitoring training across the two remaining tasks (washing a table and refilling a napkin dispenser. Responding did not increase for the washes table task, so we made a modification in which we required the peer to pause after before and after engaging in each of the component responses of the response chain. Responding increased to 100% for both tasks. Results imply that simply exposing the participant with autism to a peer did not result in behavior change, rather acquisition of the response chains required that the participant learn to monitor the responses of the peer, and that the responses modeled were conducted slowly.
 
122. Acquisition and Generalization of Spontaneous Wearing Skills for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SAORI MAEDA (Keio University), Jun-ichi Yamamoto (Keio University)
Abstract: It is difficult for the children with ASD to learn wearing skills in naturalistic environment because of their difficulties in fine motor skills. Usually, their parents have hard time to have them acquire the independent ADL skills because they dont know how children with ASD learn to wear by themselves and it may increase child-care stress. In this study, we examined whether four children with ASD could acquire and generalize spontaneous wearing skills by total-task-presentation procedure. The multiple baseline design across participants was used. We divided wearing skills into 17 elements such as slipping smock and fastening buttons. During the intervention, the therapist used verbal and physical prompts and prompts were gradually faded. Their mother observed how the therapist presented and faded the prompts and took the role of the therapist in generalization test. We calculated the percentages of correct responses (elements) that the child could achieve spontaneously. Results showed that three of four children could acquire and generalize the spontaneous wearing skills. Results were discussed in that the total-task-presentation procedure was effective for children with ASD to acquire the spontaneous wearing skills and that the fluency of motor skills would be the prerequisites to acquire the wearing skills.
 
123. A Comparison of the Effects of Errorless vs. Error Correction Procedures on Skill Acquisition
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA NIEMEIER (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center  ), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Amber R. Paden (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Children with autism often make frequent errors and have considerable difficulty when acquiring new skills. Terrace (1963, 1974) suggested that procedures that allow errors to occur frequently (e.g., error correction) produce negative emotional behaviors, which can in turn interfere with skill acquisition. However, teaching procedures that prevent errors (e.g., Touchette & Howard, 1984) have not been directly compared with those that permit and then correct errors (e.g., Grow et al, 2011) in children with autism. The current study compared an errorless teaching procedure similar to the one developed by Touchette and Howard (1984) with a commonly cited error-correction procedure in two children with autism spectrum disorder. A receptive identification task was used as the dependent measure. In the errorless condition, the prompt delay was moved in 1 s increments contingent on the participants responding. In the error-correction condition, trials were repeated until the participant responded independently and correctly. Results indicated that the errorless procedure was more efficient for one participant and error correction was more efficient for the other. Further research should be conducted to assess the mechanisms that facilitate skill acquisition using each of these procedures.
 
124. Community-Based Intensive Behavioral Intervention for Preschool Children with Autism: A Retrospective Effectiveness Study
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Lisa M. Wright (University of Manitoba), CT YU (University of Manitoba), Toby L. Martin (St. Amant Research Centre), Carly Chand (University of Manitoba), Leslie Thorne (St. Amant Research Centre)
Abstract: Intensive behavioral intervention has been shown to be effective in well-controlled studies for children with autism. However, relatively few studies have evaluated its effectiveness when delivered in the community often under less than ideal conditions. We conducted a retrospective effectiveness study of such an intervention and compared outcomes between children with higher versus lower adaptive behavior scores at intake. The intervention consisted of 31 weekly hours of individualized instructions using applied behavior analytic procedures. Archival data examined included standardized measures of adaptive behavior, language, autism symptoms, and cognitive development. Children included in the study (n = 100) must have intake standard scores on adaptive functioning and intake and year-1 scores on at least one measure. Mean intake-age of the participants was 46.75 months, and diagnoses included autism, autism spectrum disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified. After one year of intervention, statistically significant improvements (p < .05) on all measures were observed. Moreover, a computed rate of development in adaptive behavior also reached statistical significance. Higher functioning children (Group A in Figure) consistently outperformed the lower functioning children (Group B in Figure) on average on all measures. The community-based intensive behavioral intervention based on applied behavior analytic procedures was effective.
 
125. On-Task Intervention Using a Motivaider Across Multiple Settings
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MOLLY ANN MCGINNIS (May Institute), Lauren Eaton (The May Institute), Robert F. Putnam (May Institute), Courtney L. Keegan (May Institute)
Abstract:

The intervention demonstrates the use of a Motivaider during multiple settings to prompt on-task behavior. CW is a 12-year-old boy and is diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). During baseline, data was collected by the observer during a 30-minute time period. The observer wore the Motivaider to complete data using 3-minute momentary time sampling to track the presence or absence of on-task behavior at the end of each interval. During the intervention training, the Motivaider was present so that the trainer and the participant could hear the vibration. At the end of the interval, the trainer would prompt the participant by saying, Are you doing what youre supposed to be doing right now? The trainer then used least-to-most prompting to teach appropriate responding. During intervention, data was collected using a 3-minute momentary time sampling procedure. Data regarding on-task versus off task behavior was collected during this phase as well as whether CW successfully self-redirects at the end of the 3-minute interval if he was off-task. The percentage of self-redirects within 10s are demonstrated in the attached graph as well as overall on-task behavior. Interobserver agreement (IOA) data was collected during 1 session during the intervention in the home at 100% agreement. Further IOA data will be taken as this study continues. At the time of submission, CW demonstrates significant progress regarding on-task behavior in the home environment and some progress regarding on-task behavior in the social studies setting. The trainer hopes to implement the same intervention training present in the home environment at the school setting to promote high rates of on-task behavior in another environment. Further implementation will also occur in other settings to demonstrate generalization across multiple settings.

 
126. Blocking and Redirection Towards Competing Items to Decrease Destructive Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CAITLIN FULTON (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center  ), Kasey Thomas (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Angie Christine Querim (Ball State University), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: A 10-year-old boy diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, Nate, was referred to a severe behavior disorders clinic for the assessment and treatment of destructive behavior; specifically, the breaking of light bulbs, light fixtures, outlets, and lamps. Functional analyses indicated this destructive behavior was maintained by automatic reinforcement. In 1996, Piazza et al. demonstrated that providing access to tangible items as well as social attention reduced the rate of automatically maintained dangerous behavior for an individual diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. Paired stimulus preference assessments (Fisher et al., 1992) were conducted to evaluate Nates preference for light bulbs and other leisure items. The final treatment included blocking Nate from touching light bulbs, fixtures, and wall outlets while providing access to highly preferred items contingent on compliance to a specified number of household tasks. If Nate engaged in destructive behavior, he was immediately transitioned to a timeout room with a 2 minute calm criterion. Nates attempts to interact with the lights, fixtures, and outlets decreased to near zero levels while his compliance with the tasks given and interaction with the alternative items increased to high levels.
 
127. Using Digital Stimulus Superimposition and Fading to Establish Sight Reading With Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
EDGAR D. MACHADO (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Kenneth F. Reeve (Caldwell College), Kevin J. Brothers (Somerset Hills Learning Institute), Barbara C. Etzel (The University of Kansas), Sharon A. Reeve (Caldwell College)
Abstract: Research suggests that stimulus superimposition with fading may successfully transfer stimulus control of vocal labeling from pictures to text for a variety of learners. Schilmoeller, Schilmoeller, Etzel and LeBlac (1979) demonstrated that criterion related cues (i.e., stimulus features of the initial stimulus complex contained the same or similar features as the terminal discriminative stimuli) were better than non-criterion related cues for shifting stimulus control. The current study extends this body of work, in particular, the work of Birkan, McClannahan and Krantz (2007), by fading the superimposed stimuli that appears outside the target S+ first and then fading the superimposed stimuli that appears inside the target S+, using Microsoft Word to gradually shift responding from pictures to corresponding text to teach sight-word reading to people with autism. A multiple-baseline design across pairs of words was used with two children with autism (data are shown for 1 participant). Over the course of the stimulus superimposition of words over pictures and stimulus fading of the pictures, continuous probes of the text alone words were presented to assess when transfer of control of reading from pictures to text occurred. During baseline, no sight reading occurred but all picture stimuli evoked correct vocal tacts. During intervention, all sight word pairs came to occasion correct reading. Sight reading also generalized to words written in fonts that differed from those used during training. Sight reading also maintained following the completion of training. Thus, these results provide an effective method to errorlessly teach sight reading.
 
128. The Effects of Pairing on Response Allocation to Staff Members
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KELLY DELLA ROSA (Alpine Learning Group), Janell Scheuer (Alpine Learning Group), Lindsay Barth (Alpine Learning Group), Jaime DeQuinzio (Alpine Learning Group), Bridget A. Taylor (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract: Some research indicates that children with disabilities will choose to work with staff members who are more preferred. The current study evaluated procedures for conditioning staff as reinforcers by pairing staff members with preferred activities. A multi-element design was used to assess the effects of pairing on response allocation to each staff member. Prior to baseline, a reinforcer assessment was conducted to identify social reinforcers (e.g., hugs, tickling). Neutral exposure and test sessions served as the baseline. During neutral exposure sessions, the participant spent 3 minutes with each staff member in an empty room. No prompts or reinforcement were delivered. Following two neutral exposure sessions, neutral test sessions were conducted, where pictures of two staff members were positioned randomly on a table. The participant was instructed to “Pick who you want to work with” and response allocation to each staff member’s picture was measured. The participant was then required to earn five tokens with that staff member. Following baseline, pairing intervention sessions began. During these sessions, staff members A and B were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: paired and non-paired. In the pairing condition, the staff member delivered social reinforcement on a FT-15 s schedule. Conversely, the non-paired condition featured staff that did not provide reinforcement, initiate interactions and remained neutral when responding to the participant. Test sessions were conducted 45 minutes following two pairing intervention sessions. Pictures of staff members A and B were positioned on a table and the participant was instructed to “Pick who you want to work with.” The participant then worked with that staff member until he earned five tokens. It is anticipated that the participant will allocate the most responses to the staff member paired with preferred social activities indicating that staff can be conditioned as reinforcers.
 
129. Duration-Reduction of Treatment Sessions as Reinforcement for Appropriate Behavior in Young Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
EMILY SKORZANKA (University of Nevada, Reno), Ainsley B. Lewon (University of Nevada, Reno), Daylee E. Magnison (University of Nevada, Reno), Patrick M. Ghezzi (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Before a child exits treatment, it is often important to fade the use of a token economy in favor of more naturalistic behavior management techniques. Little research has been conducted in this area and, as such, a session reduction procedure was developed to fade the use of a token economy and other tangible reinforcers, and decrease the rate of problematic behaviors that interfere with instruction with young children with autism who are transitioning out of EIBI treatment. All participants experienced a change in session structure whereby a token economy was replaced by a session reduction procedure in which a childs treatment session was terminated contingent upon the completion of a predetermined number of curriculum responses. In this way, the discontinuation of a childs treatment session was directly related to on-task behavior, rather then a pre-scheduled time. Results and suggestions for future research will be discussed.
 
130. Evaluating the Use of Catalyst Application on the iPad for Data Collection
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SHAELA BRUCE (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, CASD), Jessica Niemeier (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Amber R. Paden (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Nitasha Dickes (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: The purpose of the current study was to compare the use of a standard data collection (e.g., paper and pencil data) and management (e.g., enter data via Microsoft Excel, writing progress notes via Microsoft Word) to the use of technology-based data collection and management (i.e., Catalyst). Catalyst, created by DataFinch Technologies is a customizable applied behavior analysis (ABA) data collection platform. The application is available for use on the iPad. Two therapists participated in this evaluation. Each therapist has a bachelor's degree and both have prior training in ABA therapy. Both therapists reviewed the online manual prior to using the system. First, we assessed the total duration of the standard data collection and data management method (i.e., graphing using excel, creating a changes sheet for the following therapy day using Word, and creating a progress note using Word). Time-stamped emails were sent to mastered level supervisors when each task (graphing, progress notes, and changes sheets) was started and finished. Next, Catalyst was utilized to measure data collection and management via the application. We compared these two methods using a within subject reversal design. Results, suggested that on average, the standard data collection and management method took 20 minutes longer than when the Catalyst system was used. When using the Catalyst system, time spent on graphing, progress notes, and changes sheets was decreased to an average of 10 to 15 minutes.
 
131. Evaluating the Use of Two Seating Arrangements on Skill Acquisition
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HEATHER DOLL (Munroe Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center  ), Amber R. Paden (Munroe Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Nitasha Dickes (Munroe Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Previous research has shown that several variables, such as the seating arrangement, influence skill acquisition for typically developing children during discrete-trial training (Van Houten and Rolider, 1989). Van Houten and Rolider demonstrated that a knee-to-knee seating arrangement increased children's accuracy with correct responding to flashcards. The purpose of the current study was to extend the findings of Van Houten and Rolider (1989) by evaluating the effects of two seating arrangements, table seating and knee-to-knee seating, on the accuracy of responding during discrete-trial teaching in children three children with autism. During the knee-to-knee arrangement, both the therapist and child sat with knees touching and no table or distractors were present. In the table seating arrangement, the therapist sat adjacent to the child at a table. Following low levels of correct responding during baseline, the two seating arrangements were implemented using a combination multiple-baseline/alternating-treatment design to compare skill acquisition. Reinforcement was provided on a fixed-ratio 1 (FR1) schedule for correct responding in each teaching arrangement. The study is ongoing but preliminary results showed that there was a larger and more rapid increase in correct responding with the table seating arrangement relative to the knee-to-knee condition for at least one participant.
 
132. Project iCAN: Using the iPad to Communicate and Access Needs
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
ELISA CRUZ-TORRES (Florida Atlantic University Center for Autism & Related Disabilities)
Abstract: Lack of access to enriching resources may hinder language acquisition and opportunities for social engagement, as well as mediate problem behavior. Children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) that have severely impaired communication skills and no access to stimulating learning materials may face even more adversity than their typically developing peers. With funding support from Autism Speaks, Project iCAN provided iPads and a communication app, called Proloquo2Go, to underprivileged families who have children with ASD and limited communication skills. Four families attended three 6-hour workshops in which they were trained how to navigate and customize the iPad and Proloquo2Go. The Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment & Placement Program (VB-MAPP) was used to assess each child’s language skills. Target goals were derived based on the pre-study results. To provide further support, in-home consultations were conducted bi-weekly for three months. This presentation will review the rationale for this project, as well as procedures utilized in training and consulting with multicultural and multilingual families. Pre- and post-parent surveys regarding the training and its impact on their technology competence will be discussed. VB-MAPP results of the each child’s language development will also be shared.
 
133. Moderate Effect of Early Intensive Behavioural Intervention in Rett syndrome
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KRISTINE TITLESTAD (Norway ABA), Hege Aarlie (Norway ABA), Sigmund Eldevik (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences)
Abstract: Background: Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder, almost exclusively occurring in females. After a period of normal development Rett children loose speech and purposeful hand use, and develop stereotypic hand movements and gait abnormalities. No specific therapy is advised for Rett syndrome. Aim: May early behavioural intervention be an effective intervention for children with Rett syndrome. Methods: Twin girls with Rett syndrome received early intensive behavioural intervention for 33 months, from the age three. Up to 35 hours intervention was given one-to-one and in small groups. Effects of teaching were assessed using The Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills- Revised and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Parent/Caregiver Rating Form. Results: Vineland and The Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills- Revised showed that both girls maintained and learned new skills. Skills that were systematically targeted where maintained and a number of new skills where established. Conclusion: Our results indicate that early intensive behavioural intervention may have some moderate positive effects in Rett syndrome.
 
134. Effectiveness and Generalization of an Intensive PRT Professional Training Program
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
KATRINA OSTMEYER (Virginia Tech), Angela Scarpa (Virginia Tech), Daniel Adam Openden (Southwest Autism Research & Resouce Center), Leasha Barry (University of West Florida), Brent Seymour (Southwest Autism Research & Resource Center), Rachel McIntosh (Southwest Autism Research & Resource Center)
Abstract: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are likely to be served by professionals through a variety of mental health, medical, and school-based community systems; however, the training needs of these professionals are often unmet due to inadequate training in evidence-based practices and lack of funding (Stahmer, Collings, & Palinkas, 2005; Simpson, 2005). For these reasons, cost-effective training methods for community professionals need exploration. The current study examined an intensive four-day training workshop in evidence-based Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT: Koegel, Koegel, Harrower, & Carter, 1999) on the ability of professionals working with children with ASD to apply PRT techniques with a target child and generalization of learned techniques to another child. Two community professionals working with children with ASD completed the training and video probes working with a child targeted during the training and another child for generalization. Data were coded for the correct implementation of each of five PRT strategies (shared control, providing opportunities, interspersing trials, reinforcing attempts, and reinforcing behavior) from 10-minute videos collected at baseline before the training as well as one week, one month, and two months after the training. Data show that professionals learned to apply PRT techniques with each target child and skills also generalized to working with another child not directly targeted in training. One provider maintained her level of performance while the other did not during maintenance probes. Results and implications for policy and training in evidence-based practices will be discussed.
 
135. Identifying Function of Problem Behavior and Classification of Repetitive Behavior by Hospitalized In-Patients
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MAEGAN PISMAN (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Griffin Rooker (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Jennifer R. Zarcone (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Louis P. Hagopian (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Outcomes of indirect assessments and functional analyses do not always produce the same conclusion regarding the function of a behavior (Toogood & Timlin, 1996; Paclawskyj, Matson, Rush, Smalls, & Vollmer, 2001; Iwata, DeLeon, Roscoe, 2013). Research evaluating indirect assessments that measure defining features of autism (e.g., repetitive behaviors, inflexibility) and comparing those features to outcomes of functional analyses may help determine the utility of these indirect measures in the assessment of problem behavior. In this study, we examined differences in the severity of repetitive behavior using the repetitive behavior scale revised (RBS-R; Bodfish, Symons, & Lewis, 2000) and severity of inflexibility using the behavioral flexibility rating scale revised (BFRS-R; Scheffer et al., 2008) for individuals admitted to an inpatient hospital and diagnosed with autism only and autism with comorbid ID. In addition, we identified the percentage of participants with automatic and tangible functions that fell within a range of scores on the indirect measures. Results indicate that the BFRS-R may be a good indicator for identifying social vs. automatic reinforcement for various problem behaviors. Results also indicate no statistical significance between the scores for the low functioning autism and high functioning autism groups on these indirect assessments.
 
136. An Evaluation of Response Latency to Predict Behavioral Function
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANNA ING (The University of Iowa), James Green (The University of Iowa), Wendy K. Berg (The University of Iowa)
Abstract: Recent studies have evaluated the efficacy of using latency to problem behavior as an alternative to response rate to identify the function of problem behavior within a functional analysis. Latency analyses have been shown to have high correspondence to functional analysis outcomes, but require less time and fewer instances of problem behavior than functional analyses (Thomason- Sassi, Iwata, Neidert, & Roscoe, 2011). This study evaluated the correspondence between behavior functions identified by a standard functional analysis (calculated using response rate) and behavior functions identified with three variations of latency analyses. Post hoc latency analyses were conducted with functional analysis data sets for 12 participants who attended an extended outpatient service for assessment and treatment of problem behavior. Participants ranged in age from 2 to 21 years old. Each data set was reviewed for latency to first target behavior, latency to the second occurrence of target behavior, and latency to any problem behavior. High levels of correspondence were found between the functional analysis and latency to first target behavior (83%), latency to first problem behavior (83%), and latency to second target behavior (75%). Results will be discussed in terms of the utility of different latency analyses as an alternative to functional analyses.
 
137. A Comparison of Data Presentation Methods for Functional Analysis Data
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SORAH STEIN (Partnership for Behavior Change), Jonathan Amey (AIMS Instruction), Joseph Baird (Indiana University South Bend), Justin McCammon (Partnership for Behavior Change)
Abstract: Determining function of behavior for people with developmental disabilities is typically achieved via functional analysis. Functional analysis data can be represented and thus analyzed in various ways. Traditionally, we looked at condition(s) with highest percent of intervals in which behavior occurred to determine the function of a behavior (Iwata et al., 1982). More recently some researchers and clinicians started to look at frequency of behavior within conditions to determine function (Kahng & Iwata, 1999). In the present study, researchers examined the high-frequency vocal stereotypy of a fifteen-year-old boy. Analyses were carried out across 15, five-minute conditions, then data were analyzed and compared using percent of intervals, aggregated rate per condition, and rate per minute within conditions using the timings (standard celeration) chart. Pre-analysis, we hypothesized the behavior to be automatically maintained, which was supported by analysis of data by percent of intervals. Rate per minute and per session revealed the behavior to be attention-maintained, and enhanced by data tracked via audible clicker; this finding was not revealed by analysis of percent of intervals. Rate per minute data reveal trends in the behavior not revealed in per-session presentation. Thus, we recommend analyzing functional analysis data in rate per-minute.
 
138. Pairwise Functional Analysis of Pica: Measuring Within-Session Patterns of Responding Utilizing Placebo Pills
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MELISSA ENGASSER (The Bedrock Clinic & Research Center), Delia Sequeira (The Bedrock Clinic & Research Center), Michael Hitchcock (The Bedrock Clinic & Research Center), Sarah Cohen (The Bedrock Clinic & Research Center)
Abstract: Few studies have been completed to better understand pica of prescription medication. This study sought to assess the dangerous behavior of drug ingestion pica of a 10-year-old male child. A pairwise variation functional analysis was completed in order to determine the function of the behavior. A set of 10 items, which included both preferred edibles and edible items that resembled inedibles, were systematically presented. Placebo pills created by a compounding pharmacy were utilized to take the place of prescription medication. The conditions tested involved the presence of a person versus the absence of a person in the assessment room while the set of multiple stimuli without replacement were presented. Also tested was the availability of attention and no attention to the child from the person in the room. Within the pairwise variation, the following information was also attained: the order of item preference, latency of ingestion of items, and frequency of pica behavior. The results confirmed the hypothesis that the maintaining function of pica was access to socially mediated attention.
 
139. The Use of Within-Session Patterns of Self-Injury to Clarify Behavioral Function
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ERIC BOELTER (Seattle Children's Hospital), Amber Persons (Seattle Children's Autism Center)
Abstract: Functional analysis methodology has been shown to effectively identify the behavioral function of disruptive behavior. Analyses of within session patterns of behavior have been used to augment the results of the functional analysis. The use of within-session patterns of behavior, which may help clarify the results of a functional analysis, are important to replicate. This study examined within session patterns of behavior to clarify behavioral function following a functional analysis with two participants diagnosed with autism who engaged in self-injury. For each participant, a functional analysis was conducted that yielded undifferentiated results. For one participant an additional functional analysis was conducted to control for an idiosyncratic independent variable. Subsequently, an extended alone/ignore phase was conducted with both participants and suggested that an automatic behavioral function may be present. However, follow-up analysis of within-session patterns of self-injury during the extended alone/ignore phase suggested that an automatic function was not present for either participants. Inter-observer agreement was obtained on 30% of all sessions for each participant and average agreement was 95% and 90%, respectively. These results are important because they add to the literature on the use of within-session patterns of behavior to help clarify behavioral function.
 
140. Play-Based ABA Using Mother as Co-Therapist: Pilot Data on 4.5 Hours per Week of Therapy
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
E. AMANDA AMANDA BOUTOT (Texas State University), Samuel DiGangi (Arizona State University)
Abstract: This case study presents results from a play-based applied behavior analysis intervention used with a two-year-old diagnosed with autism. The intervention was implemented in a play setting, with the child's mothers serving as co-therapist. Success was noted in the areas of play, language, social interaction, cognition, and adaptive behaviors over six months. Suggestions for continued research are discussed.
 
141. Investigating Changes in Parent Knowledge about Obsessive Compulsive Behaviour Following Group Function-Based Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Children with High Functioning Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RACHEL KOFFMAN (Surrey Place Centre), Tricia Corinne Vause (Brock University), Naomi Johnson (Brock University), Heather Yates (Brock University), Maurice Feldman (Centre for Applied Disability Studies, Brock University)
Abstract: This study investigated improvements in parent knowledge of effective intervention strategies following participation in a group function-based CBT treatment (GFbCBT) package for children with comorbid OCD and ASD. Nineteen parents of children ages 7-12 years with High Functioning Autism (HFA) participated in the 9-week treatment program. Key components of treatment included psychoeducation and mapping, cognitive-behavioural skills training, function-based interventions and exposure and response prevention (ERP). Treatment sessions also included direct parent education, which followed a behavioural skills training model (Miltenberger, 2008). Parent knowledge (N = 19) was measured pre and post treatment using a vignette about a child demonstrating obsessive-compulsive behaviour. Results of a one-tailed pairwise t-test indicated statistically significant changes (p=.036) in overall parent knowledge following participation in treatment. Statistically significant changes were also found in parents ability to generate ERP and function-based intervention strategies. These results provide preliminary evidence that parents benefit from active involvement in the GFbCBT treatment package.
 
142. Behavioral Assessment and Treatment of a Severe Feeding Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTOPHER TUNG (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Samantha R. Young (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Shari M. Pincus (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Amanda Goetzel (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Jonathan Dean Schmidt (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: It has been estimated that up to 90% of children with autism have some form of feeding issue (Kodak & Piazza, 2008); however, there is a lack of literature on the fading and generalization of treatments for complex children with both medical and behavioral issues. For the current study, a 10-year-old male, diagnosed with autism, feeding disorder, and gastroparesis, was admitted to an inpatient unit for the assessment and treatment of chronic problem behavior during mealtime. Results of a functional behavior assessment suggested that problem behavior may be maintained by escape from the meal context. Treatment for consuming food consisted of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA)/differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), and escape extinction; treatment for consuming drinks consisted of noncontingent reinforcement (NCR). Results indicated a 92.20% reduction of problem behaviors during the meal context and stable consumption of food. Although stable rates of responding were achieved after generalizing treatment across a small number of care providers, effects were not maintained. Additionally, a shift in response allocation was observed during mealtimes from full expulsion of the food to rumination. After applying contingencies for rumination, rates during the meal dropped to near zero.
 
143. Increasing the Reinforcing Efficacy of Edibles and Removing Competing Protective Equipment in Treating Meal Refusal
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHELSEA R. FLECK (New England Center for Children), Jason C. Bourret (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: The purpose of this analysis was to identify the variables controlling meal refusal and consumption in a residential student with autism who wears protective gloves to decrease the likelihood of tissue damage from self-injurious face-pinching. During baseline, the regular school lunch was presented and the participant was required to remove his protective gloves before eating. We conducted a paired-stimulus preference assessment to identify a highly reinforcing meal. In the high preference alternative condition (HP Alt), the highly preferred meal was presented simultaneously with the school lunch, and the participant was instructed to choose one. During those sessions, the participant was also required to remove his protective gloves. In the final condition (Gloves), the participant was instructed to place latex gloves over his protective gloves and was subsequently presented with the school lunch and allowed to eat without removing his gloves. Both the use of more reinforcing meals and allowing the participant to continue to wear protective gloves during meals resulted in increases in meal consumption, suggesting that meal refusal was impacted by both the relative reinforcing efficacy of the meal and negative punishment in the form of required removal of protective equipment.
 
144. The Effects of Behavioral Approach Art Therapy on Social Interaction of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
WAN-CHI CHOU (National ChangHua University of Education), Hua Feng (National ChangHua University of Education)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of behavioral approach art therapy on social interaction abilities of two children with autism spectrum disorders. A single-subject experimental design of multiple probes design across behaviors was used. The independent variable of this study was behavioral approach art therapy, which included EO, token economic, prompting and modeling. The dependent variables were the percentage of verbal communication (i.e., responding to other, requesting for material and initiate questions), displaying and showing, and eye contact. Visual analysis method was used in this study to analyze the results. Evaluation questionnaires and interviews of the parent and teachers were used to collect the data for social validity. Main results of this study were as follows: (1) The behavioral art therapy programs could enhance, maintain and generalize outcomes of verbal communication for children with autism spectrum disorders. (2) The behavioral art therapy programs could enhance, maintain and generalize outcomes of displaying and showing for children with autism spectrum disorders. (3) The art therapy programs could enhance, maintain and generalize outcomes of eye contact for children with autism spectrum disorders. (4) Behavioral approach art therapy could enhance the art performance and creation of children with autism spectrum disorders. (5) Social validity data showed favor results for this outcome.
 
145. Preference Between Massed and Alternating Trials to Teach Word-Picture Relations to Children With ASD
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
PAULO GUILHARDI (Beacon ABA Services), Jennifer Smith (Beacon ABA Services), Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services)
Abstract: The goal was to assess efficacy and preference between massed vs. alternating matching-to-sample trials by children with autism. Children were presented with a matching-to-sample procedure to teach multiple sets of words -picture stimuli relations on a computer screen. Each set was composed of three words and pictures and two sets were taught at a time. Sessions were initiated by the selection of a participant to a colored square stimulus on the screen which indicated how two sets of 18 trials each were interspersed within a session (conditions). During the massed-trials condition, 18 trials from one set were followed by 18 trials from a second set. In the alternating condition, 18 trials from each set alternated. Children were exposed to both conditions following an ABAB design during the (Pre-exposure phase). A preference for massed vs. alternating trials phase was assessed. Sessions started with a choice between the two stimuli previous associated with the massed vs. alternating conditions and trials were presented accordingly. Once preference was assessed, the stimuli associated with each condition were reversed. Results will determine the most appropriate procedure to be used when teaching word recognition to children with autism, and whether assessment of procedure choice should be conducted.
 
146. The Effects of Work Schedules on Performance and Preference in Students With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MAGDALENA BUKALA (Queens College, City University of New York), Meng Yao Hu (Queens College, City University of New York), Ronald Lee (QSAC), John Claude Ward-Horner (Beacon ABA Services), Daniel Mark Fienup (Queens College, City University of New York)
Abstract: This study investigated performance under and preference for continuous and discontinuous schedules of work in three students diagnosed with autism. In the continuous schedule, participants completed five independent work activities and received five minutes access to the preferred activity. In the discontinuous schedule, work and access to preferred activities were broken up into smaller units such that participants completed one independent work activity followed by one minute access to a preferred activity, repeated five times. During the forced choice phase, the researcher selected the work schedule that the participant completed. Later, participants completed the free choice phase where the participant chose the schedule. The researchers measured session duration, task duration, and transition durations under the respective work schedules. All three participants preferred the continuous work schedule. Sessions were shorter during the continuous schedule for two of the three participants. These results suggest that continuous schedules are more preferred and efficient.
 
147. The Effects of the Conversation Box on Initiation of Social Questions
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
RACHEL DACOSTA (Beacon ABA Services), John Claude Ward-Horner (Beacon ABA Services), Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services)
Abstract: Students with autism often display limited or significantly delayed social interactions, which are essential to developing and maintaining social relationships. The purpose of the current study was to teach a school aged student with autism to initiate social interactions using a conversation box. During baseline, the participant was instructed to talk with his peers while sitting at a group of desks during snack time. No programmed consequences were followed. During intervention, a box containing textual cues was used to prompt interactions between peers in a classroom during snack time. Data were collected on the percentage of independent asking and answering of WH questions, as well as on the frequency of any other appropriate social communication occurring in the context of the experimental sessions. A multiple baseline design across social initiations was used to demonstrate experimental control. Inter-observer agreement data and procedural fidelity data were collected on 30% of the experimental session and were above 90% on both measures. Results indicate that the use of the conversation box increased the number of social interactions between the student with ASD and his classroom peers.
 
148. Variables Involved in Parental Choices for Treatments in their Child’s Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KIMBERLY N. FRAME (University of Memphis), Laura Baylot Casey (University of Memphis)
Abstract: How do parents choose treatments for their child’s autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? Parents of children with ASD are confronted with a myriad of choices to treat their child’s autism. The following research will extend the literature on what treatments are being used with children with ASD, what the parent’s expectations for treatments are on the symptoms of ASD, as well as, add to the literature on the decision making process parents use to select interventions to treat ASD. In addition, this study will attempt to educate parents on ASD, the evidence-based treatments available for ASD, and how/why to use an evidence-based approach in lieu of an alternative therapy to see if education alone can modify parent’s decision making criteria when selecting treatments for their child.
 
149. Parents Taking Action: A Psycho-Educational Intervention for Latino Parents of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
WENDY A. MACHALICEK (University of Oregon), Sandy Magana (University of Illinois at Chicago), Kristina Lopez (California State University Long Beach)
Abstract: Recent studies show that Latino children with autism or another developmental disability, compared to White children, have a consistent pattern of worse health care access, utilization, and quality. Additionally, Latino children are more likely to be diagnosed later and are less likely to receive specialty autism services including ABA-based treatments than white children. This pre-test post-test pilot study examined the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary outcomes of a culturally derived intervention for 14 Spanish speaking mother of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The 16 week intervention was delivered to mothers in their home by trained Latina women who were also mothers of a child with an ASD. Module I provided parents with basic information about autism, advocacy, and navigating service delivery and public school systems. Module II provided parents with information about evidenced-based interventions, largely ABA-based intervention strategies, to improve their childs social communication and play skills and to decrease and prevent challenging behaviors. Paired sample t tests were used to compare outcome variables for Module II parent and child outcome variables. Parents completing Module I reported significantly greater knowledge of ASD, their child's strengths and needs, their rights and how to advocate, and better information about child development, support systems and community access. Parents completing Module II reported a significant increase in the efficacious use of targeted strategies. In addition, parents answering a social validity questionnaire rated the intervention as acceptable, feasible, and effective. Suggestions for future research are discussed.
 
150. Parental Perception of the Transition Process and the Role of Non-School Affiliated Professionals
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SHELLEY MCDERMOTT (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Maureen van Stone (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: The number of children receiving special education services under the diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been steadily increasing over the years. As a result, the educational system is faced with the challenge of preparing this growing population for the transition to adulthood. Research examining the effects of transition out of high school on the behavior of individuals diagnosed with an ASD indicates that behavioral and adaptive functioning may be negatively impacted (Taylor & Seltzer, 2010). Because many individuals diagnosed with an ASD receive behavioral services outside of the school, it may be helpful to include these providers in the transition process to make it as smooth as possible for the individual. The purpose of this study was to gather information from Maryland families with a child diagnosed with an ASD who have been through, or are currently involved in the transition process to identify ways in which transition services can be improved. Families completed an online survey and provided suggestions for improving the transition process. Results indicate that the majority of families feel unprepared for the transition of their child, and they would appreciate support from service providers unaffiliated with the school.
 
151. Early Versus Late Autism Spectrum Disorders Diagnosis (ASD) and Parental Stress, Anxiety, and Coping Skills
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ALBERT KNAPP (Argosy University ), Stephen Berger (Argosy University ), Bina Parekh (Argosy University ), Mark Hume (Argosy University )
Abstract: The purposes of this study were (a) to determine how the age at which a child is given an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnosis affects parental stress and anxiety and (b) to determine the differential stress reactions and coping styles between mothers and fathers of a child with ASD. Sixty-one parents who have a child with a diagnosis of ASD was used for this study, and were separated into three groups: Mothers, Child Diagnosed at age four years or older (n=12); Mothers, Child Diagnosed before age four years (n=40); and Fathers, all of whom had a child diagnosed before age four years (n=9). Participants were administered the Parenting Stress Index, III Edition (PSI), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the WAYS of Coping Scale-Revised (WAYS-R). Results supported the main hypothesis of this study that mothers with a child diagnosed with ASD at age four years or older exhibited higher levels of stress than did parents whose children were diagnosed before age four years. Mothers of a child diagnosed with ASD at either age level reported significantly greater stress than did fathers. Mothers of children diagnosed at age four years or older made the most use of the three coping styles.
 
152. Applied Studies of Lag Schedules of Positive Reinforcement on the Behavioral Variability of Children with Autism: A Literature Review.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BRYANT C. SILBAUGH (The University of Texas at Austin), Summer Gainey (The University of Texas at Austin), Terry S. Falcomata (The University of Texas at Austin)
Abstract: Basic experimental research on lag schedules of positive reinforcement and their effects on behavioral variability have inspired applied research on the effects of lag and lag-like schedules to increase the behavioral variability of children with autism. Differences in methods and procedures between studies suggest a critical review may be useful for interpreting the current body of research and designing future studies. All existing studies of lag schedule effects on variability in behavior of children with or without autism were reviewed. Studies of verbal and non-verbal behavior were analyzed separately. For each study, it was determined if procedures used to increase variant behavior matched the definition of a lag schedule from basic research. Next, internal and external validity were evaluated and ranked, and procedural descriptions were evaluated for adequacy and clarity. It is concluded that the data from these studies converged to suggest lag schedules can increase variant and novel responding by children with autism and/or intellectual disability. The review concludes with recommendations for future research.
 
153. Social Interaction Interventions for Individuals With Autism: A Review of the Literature
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
LACI WATKINS (The University of Texas at Austin), Michelle Kuhn (The University of Texas at Austin), Cindy Gevarter (The University of Texas), Heather Gonzales (The University of Texas at Austin), Deanna Longino (The University of Texas at Austin), Laura Rojeski (The University of Texas at Austin), Nicolette Sammarco (The University of Texas at Austin), Mark O'Reilly (The University of Texas at Austin)
Abstract: The purpose of this presentation is to review the characteristics of interventions designed to increase social interaction behaviors in individuals with autism. Forty-five studies published in peer-reviewed journals between 2008-2013 were included. The studies presented a variety of interventions which were categorized as behavioral, naturalistic, parent training, video modeling, visual, and peer-mediated approaches. Findings are summarized in terms of: (a) participant age and functioning level, (b) primary intervention type, (c) additional intervention components, (d) intervention outcomes, and (e) an appraisal of the study's design and methodological rigor to determine certainty of evidence. The relative efficacy of each different intervention approach is analyzed, and results suggest that there is empirical evidence to support a variety of treatments for increasing social interaction in individuals with autism. Findings suggest that some intervention approaches (behavioral, video modeling, visual, and peer-mediated) have been evaluated more adequately than others (parent training and naturalistic). Recommendations for educational practice and possible areas for future research are highlighted.
 
154. Utilizing Webcam Technology to Evaluate the Efficacy of a Parent-Implemented Treatment Package to Improve Sleep
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KAREN M. ZELTMAN (ABC Consultants at Rowan University), Philip L. Concors (ABC Consultants at Rowan University)
Abstract: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders have a higher prevalence of comorbid sleep disturbance as compared with non-disabled children of the same age (Liu et al., 2006). Although evidence-based behavior-analytic interventions can be readily implemented by parents and caregivers in the home setting, direct observation data is often difficult to capture for a variety of reasons. Caregiver sleep-checks are not only demanding on their own sleep schedules, but can inadvertently cause sleep interference for the child. Video monitoring and recording via an internet-integrated webcam system offers the potential for non-intrusive real-time data-collection for intervention evaluation and progress-monitoring. In this study, an infrared webcam programmed to detect motion and sound was utilized to monitor the sleep behavior of an eight-year-old child with autism with frequent night wakings, including disruptive behavior (e.g. screaming, throwing items, leaving bed, leaving room). A multi-component treatment package including sleep hygiene supports and a bedtime pass was implemented by her parents through a conjoint behavioral consultation model.
 
155. Parenting Stress and Sleep Problems in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder in South Korea
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
EUIHYUN KWAK (Yonsei University), Jihyeon Seo (Yonsei University), Chunmae Lee (Yonsei University)
Abstract:

The present investigation examined the relationship between parenting stress and sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in South Korea. Forty-six parents with children with autism spectrum disorder participated in this research, and diagnosis of their children is as follows: 24 with autism, 4 with Asperger syndrome and 18 with PDD-NOS. Participants completed the Childs Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and Korean-Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (K-PSI-SF). Results revealed the positive correlation obtained between overall parenting stress and overall child sleep disturbance scores of CSHQ. Overall scores of parenting stress are also related to bedtime resistance and daytime sleepiness subscales in CSHQ. In subscales, the score of difficult child in K-PSI-SF was associated with bedtime resistance and daytime sleepiness in CSHQ. These results showed clearly that sleep problems of children with ASD contribute to the stresses of parent in South Korea. Findings suggest that behavioral treatments to modify settling problems and improve daytime functions of children with ASD would be helpful to alleviate stress of caregivers.

 
156. Investigation of Sleep Patterns Among Children With PDD in Korea
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
CHUNMAE LEE (Yonsei University), Dayi Jung (Yonsei University), Kyong-Mee Chung (Yonsei University)
Abstract: Childrens sleep problems affect daytime behaviors and the sleep quality of the other family members. Sleep disturbance were reported by almost 40~80% young children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the sleep problems in Korean children with PDD. Mothers of 154 children with PDD and 169 typically developing children (age 4-12) completed Childrens Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ). Our study showed that sleep problems are found in most children with PDD and are not related to age excluding daytime sleepiness. Consistent with previous findings, children with PDD showed significantly higher scores on Bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, sleep anxiety, night waking and sleep disordered breathing than TD group. On the contrary, sleep duration in PDD group (M=9.51, SD=1.83) was longer than TD group (M=9.05, SD= 1.98), which was against to advanced research. Then we divided the group into two groups (preschool, school age) according to the age. In the school age children (7-12 years), the PDDs total score and the score of sleep onset delay, sleep anxiety were higher than TD group but in the preschool children there were not significant difference excluding sleep onset delay. Preliminary findings suggest that the most frequent sleep problems were difficulty falling asleep and sleep anxiety across all age levels in the PDD group. And the CSHQ was a good questionnaire to distinct the group of pathology.
 
157. What Interventions Do Arabic Websites Promote For IndividualsWith Autism Spectrum Disorders?
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
FAHAD ALNEMARY ALNEMARY (CSULA/UCLA ), Faisal Alnemary (University of California, Los Angeles ), Abdulrahman Alamri (University of North Texas, Denton)
Abstract: Background: Given the limited access to services and experts, many parents of children with autism in the Arab world may find the World Wide Web as the only source to obtain information to help them understand and address their childrens needs. Objectives: We aimed to examine the characteristics (i.e., attribution, currency, purpose, description of autistic symptoms, and promotion of interventions) of Arabic websites that provide information about autism. Methods: We entered the word autism to locate 200 websites utilizing two search engines (i.e., Google & Yahoo) in September 2013. Our final sample included 131 websites (after eliminated those overlapped). Results: Although 47% of these website were updated in 2013, less than three percent of all websites (n = 3) attributed the information provided to peer-reviewed materials. The most frequently coded website purpose was individuals site, forum, or blog (35%), followed organizations (17%), and news site (15%). In addition, while sixty-six percent provided definitions or descriptions of autistic symptoms, 63% promoted various types of treatments as effective, including: behavioral interventions (39%), educational (11%), medical and related interventions (40%), allied health (34.8%), and complementary and alternative medicine (5.8%). Conclusions: Based on these preliminary findings, we conclude that the available online information is not only insufficient, but also not empirically validated. Developing websites under the supervision of experts that provide reliable and trusted information is an important step to mitigate the limited access to experts and services for children with ASD in the Arab world.
 
158. Family Factors Related to Children’s Outcomes in Intensive Behavioural Intervention
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
REBECCA SHINE (York University), Adrienne M. Perry (York University), Odette Weiss (York University)
Abstract: Intensive Behaviour Intervention (IBI) is a time-intensive program utilizing Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) techniques and has been shown to be an effective treatment for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) (Perry et al., 2008). While IBI has become the treatment of choice for children with ASD, there is still a large amount of variability in children’s outcomes. This variability may be due to many different factors including, those related to the child, the intervention, and the family. This poster will examine different family factors that are related to children’s outcomes in IBI in a sample of 28 parents whose children are receiving publicly funded IBI in Ontario. The family variables being examined in this poster are Socioeconomic Status (SES) which was moderately correlated with children’s outcomes (P = .33), maternal employment status which was strongly correlated with children’s outcomes (P = .64), parental distress which was moderately correlated with children’s outcomes (P = -.41) and parent’s involvement in their child’s IBI program which was moderately correlated with children’s outcomes (P = .45). These findings help us to begin to understand how family variables may be impacting children’s progress in this treatment.
 
159. The Effect of Class wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CWFIT) on Inappropriate Classroom Behavior on a Student With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARY ELIZABETH DANIELS (Missouri State University), Erin Wilson (Missouri State University), Linda G. Garrison-Kane (Missouri State University)
Abstract:

A single-subject, ABAB withdrawal design was used to increase on-task behavior, decrease negative statements, and decrease inappropriate help requests in an third grade male diagnosed with Autism. Class Wide Function-Based Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) is an evidence-based classroom management strategy that has been proven to increase desired behaviors in students who engage in disruptive classroom behavior (Wills, Kamps, Hansen, Conklin, Bellinger & Neaderhiser, 2010; Kamps, 2012). The classroom management strategy Class Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) was employed to teach to the target students attention-seeking behavior in the special education resource room. CW-FIT taught to the function of the students inappropriate behavior by teaching the student how to appropriately obtain his teachers attention and reinforce the student when he engaged in the appropriate replacement behaviors. Results indicate a successful intervention, that increased the students on-task behavior by a mean of 52%, decreased the students negative statements from a mean of 26 to a mean of 1 per instructional period, and decreased the students inappropriate help requests by a mean of 20.2 to a mean of 0.8 per instructional period.

 
160. FCT and Multiple Schedules of Reinforcement to Treat Challenging Behavior of Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
WENDY A. MACHALICEK (University of Oregon), Mallory Brown (University of Oregon), Mandy J. Rispoli (Texas A&M University), Vincent E. Campbell (University of Oregon), Sarah E. Pinkelman (University of Oregon), Tracy Raulston (University of Oregon), Fahad Alresheed (University of Oregon)
Abstract: This study examined the assessment and treatment of challenging behavior associated with the interruption of perseverative activities by 3 school age children with autism. Functional analyses indicated that challenging behavior occurred to the perseverative activity for each child. Individual adapted reversal (ABABC) designs were used to evaluate the effectiveness of functional communication training package with extinction and subsequent signaled multiple schedules of reinforcement on challenging behavior and appropriate communication. The multiple schedules of reinforcement consisted of: (a) schedule A which consisted of interruption of perseverative play every 30 s and termination of interruption contingent on appropriate communication), and (b) schedule B wherein perseverative play was continuously interrupted, but appropriate communication was placed on extinction. In both schedules challenging behavior was ignored. The FCT intervention decreased challenging behavior and increased appropriate communication for each child. The multiple schedules of reinforcement were effective in maintaining reductions in challenging behavior for each child when appropriate communication (i.e., FCT response) was under extinction. Two of the three children reached 80 s delays to reinforcement. Results suggest potential utility of signaled multiple schedules of reinforcement to fade reinforcement following FCT packages to treat challenging behavior maintained by reinstatement of a perseverative activity. Suggestions for future research are discussed. This study has been completed (one figure has been uploaded).
 
161. Treatment and Evaluation of Tantrum Behavior and Vocal Stereotypy in a First Grader With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KATHERINE M. SHAW (Gonzaga University), Anjali Barretto (Gonzaga University), Kimberly P. Weber (Gonzaga University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to decrease challenging behaviors in a 1st grade student with Autism using treatment package. The two challenging behaviors that were the target of this study were tantrums and vocal stereotypy. A functional analysis and an antecedent analysis were conducted to determine a function of the aberrant behavior, and from those assessments it was determined that tantrum behaviors were maintained by tangible reinforcers and vocal stereotypy was automatically maintained. A treatment package was implemented to address both topographies of challenging behaviors; Functional Communication Training (FCT) to target tantrum behaviors and Differential Reinforcement of Other behaviors (DRO) to decrease vocal stereotypy. Interobserver agreement was collected for 32.4% of the sessions with an average of 95% agreement. Results will be discussed in terms of treatment of the two topographies of behavior across various phases of the treatment package.
 
162. Individualized Online Behavior Intervention Planning in Autism: The Effects on Child Behavior Challenges and Teacher Efficacy
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
REGAN HEATH LINN (University of California, Riverside), Jan Blacher (University of California, Riverside), Jonathan J. Tarbox (Autism Research Group, Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD)), Elizabeth Laugeson (University of California, Los Angeles Autism Research Alliance), Sara McCracken (University of California, Los Angeles Autism Research Alliance)
Abstract: Title: Individualized, online behavior intervention planning in autism: The effects on child behavior challenges and teacher efficacy Collaborators: Regan H. Linn, M.Ed., BCBA, Jonathan Tarbox, PhD, BCBA-D, Jan Blacher PhD, Elizabeth Laugeson, PsyD, BCBA-D Sara McCracken, PhD, BCBA-D Contact: heath.regan0906@gmail.com, SEARCH Family Autism Resource Center, Graduate School of Education, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 Program Area: AUT, EDC Submission Domain: Basic Research (Data-based) Abstract: The primary goal of the proposed study is to investigate the efficacy of a computer-based behavior intervention planning program for improving the behavioral challenges of young children with ASD. Secondarily, we will explore whether the involvement of teachers in this intervention will increase self-efficacy while improving their relationships with students. Method: Participating teachers received in-person tutorial on how to use the computerized intervention program. Pre-intervention measures, completed by the participating teachers, included: the Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale (TES) (Gibson & Dimbo, 1995), the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS) (Pianta, 2001) and the Classroom Climate Inventory (CCI) (Eisenhower, 2008). A multiple baseline design across 12 participants (6 teachers and 6 students) was utilized to determine the efficacy of the behavior intervention program. Baseline data on frequency of targeted behavior (different for each child) was obtained before intervention began (see Table 1, for two subjects). Teachers are currently involved in creating and implementing an intervention program for each student using the online Behavior Intervention Planner (BIP) over the course of a three-month intervention phase. At the conclusion of the intervention, the TES, STRS and the Teacher Climate Questionnaire (TCQ, Laugeson, 2012) will be completed. Results and Discussion: Analyses at pre-intervention indicated that teachers reported high levels of instructional and disciplinary self-efficacy as per the TES. They also reported significantly lower student-teacher relationships than the normative group, accounted for mainly by lower levels of closeness. Discussion will focus on levels and implications of intervention effectiveness.
 
163. Use of Multiple Schedules With Reinforcement Thinning to Treat Perseverative Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DEWEY DELISLE (The New England Center for Children), Jessica L. Sassi (The New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Perseverative speech can be problematic when the speech occurs at such high frequency that it interferes with instruction or typical social interactions. Previous studies have shown that perseverative speech maintained by attention can be treated through the use of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA;e.g., Rehfeldt & Chambers, 2003; Wilder et al., 2001), however, DRA may produce high rates of approach speech and fading of these DRA schedules is not frequently demonstrated. Hanley, Iwata, & Thompson (2001) showed that use of multiple schedules can decrease problem behavior and maintain low levels of appropriate alternative responding. In this study, the attention-maintained perseverative speech of a 17-year old diagnosed with autism was treated with a DRA for appropriate speech. Treatment consisted of alternating between (a) reinforcement components during which appropriate speech was reinforced and perseverative behavior was ignored, and (b) extinction components, during which all speech was ignored. Schedules were gradually altered to increase the length of the extinction component. Interobserver agreement was collected in 41.6% of functional analysis sessions and 33.3% of treatment sessions. Agreement coefficients were 96.9% and 94.0% respectively.
 
164. HANDS in Autism Intensive Week-Long Training for School Personnel: Outcomes across Nine Years of Implementation
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
J. BLAKE WAREHAM (HANDS in Autism, Indiana University School of Medicine), Tiffany Neal (HANDS in Autism, Indiana University School of Medicine), Naomi Swiezy (HANDS in Autism, Indiana University School of Medicine), Iryna V. Ashby (HANDS in Autism, Indiana University), Megan Marie Stevenson (HANDS in Autism, Indiana University School of Medicine), Anne Fletcher (HANDS in Autism, Indiana University School of Medicine)
Abstract:

The HANDS in Autism Interdisciplinary Training and Resource Center initiated an intensive week-long training for school personnel in 2005 to support active learning and knowledge transfer through implementation in a simulated classroom environment. The HANDS in Autism Summer Training program represents the original foundation and delivery format for the HANDS Model. Summer training is offered in one-week sessions three times each summer utilizing the HANDS Model comprehensive curriculum. The HANDS Model combines information on Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) and empirically-based practices presented using didactic instruction, observation, modeling, hands-on practice, and coaching. Through practical experimentation, the composition of the training has evolved while still focusing on main components of the HANDS in Autism Model training curriculum such as structure/choreography, assessment, planning/intervention, academic, and social skills. A number of evaluation tools have been developed to evaluate this training each summer with regards to increases in participant knowledge, application of knowledge as well as satisfaction and later use of the strategies taught. In this poster, we will provide a systematic evaluation of the training progression, assessment of knowledge, participant outcomes, and further transfer of skills to their workplace, consider potential improvements, as well as offer recommendations on transportability and training replication.

 
165. Using a Tablet to Teach Children With Autism to Engage in Conversational Exchanges: A Script Fading Procedure
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANA BIBAY (IME MAIA - Paris, France), Neal N. Fleisig (Professional Crisis Management, Inc.), Marie Tiseire Penot (IME MAIA - Paris, France)
Abstract:

Script-fading procedures have been used to increase the communication skills of children with autism (Krantz &McClannahan, 1993 and 1998 ; Sarokoff, Taylor and Poulson, 2001) The study was completed to evaluate the effects of a scripted conversation with a scripted fading procedure to teach children with autism to engage in conversational exchanges. The scripted conversation and scripted fading procedure were facilitated by the use of a tablet. Two school-age students with Autism participated in the study. They were both readers and attended regular school 5 mornings a week with the assistance of a trained therapist. The present study was implemented in the treatment center (in Paris, France). Informed consent from the students family was obtained. A multiple baseline across 3 sets of stimuli was used to assess the effects of a script-fading procedure to teach 2 children with autism to engage in conversation statements about the stimuli. Scripts were elaborated based on the following stimuli: 1) set of edibles; 2) set of toys; 3) set of school materials. Each participant had his own script, with 5 statements to each participant. When each participant read his script for six sessions, a five-step script-fading procedure was introduced (based on Krantz & McClannahan study of 1993). In Step 1, 25% of the words were faded from back to front; in Step 2, half of each sentence was faded; in Step 3, the stimuli and first letter of each line remained; in Step 4, the tablet was presented with the stimuli; and in Step 5, only the stimuli was presented. Baseline data was collected on two behaviors: number of scripted and unscripted statements made by each participant. Scripted statements were verbalizations that were identical to the written script. It was not necessary for the textual script to be present for a statement to be scored as scripted. Unscripted statements were unprompted statements not present in the script but related to the stimuli. Data were collected once a day, during 2-min sessions. Both students stated all the scripted statements, and unscripted statements also increased. Generalization was assessed with novel conversational partners. In summary, this study supports the work of script-fading procedures to promote language in children with autism and presents a discussion in how the use of a digital tablet can facilitate the implementation of these procedures.

 
166. Training Observational Learning and Social Responses in Children with Autism: The Effects of Vicarious Reinforcement
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NICOLE DENISCO (Alpine Learning Group), Jaime DeQuinzio (Alpine Learning Group), Bridget A. Taylor (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract: Past research has demonstrated that children with autism can learn academic tasks by watching their peers earn reinforcers for correct responses during instruction implying a vicarious reinforcement mechanism (Taylor, DeQuinzio,& Stine, 2012). There is limited research on the effects of vicarious reinforcement on the acquisition of social behavior. This study evaluates procedures for teaching participants with autism to learn new social responses (i.e., to choose to play next to a peer) by watching peers earn reinforcers (i.e. praise) for those responses. Prior to the start of the study, reinforcer assessments confirmed that praise functioned as a reinforcer for all three participants. A multiple baseline design across participants is being used to determine the effects of vicarious reinforcement on the acquisition of social responses of three children with autism ages 7 years to 10 years. A small room is arranged so that there are two play areas, approximately 5-8 feet apart, consisting of identical toys. The trials are randomly arranged so that on each trial a peer is playing in one of the two play areas. During baseline, the participant is instructed to “Go play.” During the vicarious reinforcement condition, the participant observes a video clip prior to being instructed to play. In the video clip a peer is instructed to play, chooses the play area that contains the other peer, and the teacher provides descriptive praise for this response (e.g., “Good playing near a friend”). No additional prompts or reinforcement are provided. The participant is allowed to play in the chosen area for approximately 1-2 minutes. Data are summarized as the percentage of trials in which the participant allocated responses to a peer (i.e., chose to play with the toys in the play area with a peer). During baseline, participants are consistently choosing to play away from the peer. We anticipate that during the vicarious reinforcement condition they will allocate responses to the play area with a peer.
 
167. Using Time Delay to Teach Conversational Initiations to Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AUBREY BYRNE (The Alpine Learning Group), Jaime DeQuinzio (Alpine Learning Group), Bridget A. Taylor (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract:

Research targeting social skills in children with autism typically includes initiating social interactions as one response in a large class of social responses such as play, greetings, sharing, etc. Few studies have focused on teaching conversational initiations alone and in the context of a social event (e.g., snack). The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of using a time delay visual cue (various pictures of activities) and prompt delay on the acquisition of social initiations made within a 5 minute group snack time. A multi-element design was used to compare the training condition in which the visual cue and prompts were used with a baseline condition. During baseline, participants sat at a table with peers and were told, Its time for snack. No instructions or prompts to initiate were provided. Conversational initiations were scored as any comment or question directed at a peer or group of peers and required the use of a peers name, a general introductory statement (e.g., Hey everybody, guess what?), eye contact, or gaining peer attention in any way (e.g., saying Hey! tapping shoulder, etc). During baseline, conversational initiations were low and stable ranging from 0-2 for both participants. During training, every 30 seconds the instructor provides a visual cue, verbal prompts, and manual guidance to assist the participants in engaging in the conversational initiation. Initially reinforcement was provided for these prompted responses but was shifted to independent responses. For both participants, conversational initiations were higher during the training condition than during the baseline condition. In subsequent phases, prompts will be faded in the training condition using a time delay procedure.

 
 
Keyword(s): poster session

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