Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


40th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2014

Event Details

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Poster Session #471
Monday, May 26, 2014
7:00 PM–9:00 PM
W375a-d (McCormick Place Convention Center)
120. A Comparison of Video Modeling and Visual Schedule on Increasing Independent Task Transitioning
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NING HSU (Purdue University), Teresa A. Doughty (Purdue University)
Abstract: The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of video modeling and photographic visual schedule on increasing independent task transitioning. An alternating treatment design research was conducted on two high school-aged individuals with autism in a classroom setting. Participants were given either video modeling or visual schedule prior to task transition. The frequency of independent transitioning and level of prompting required were recorded across baseline, intervention, follow-up, and maintenance phases. The results indicated increases on independent transitioning from task to task under both video modeling and visual schedule conditions. Although there were no significant differences between two conditions, both participants performed slightly better under visual schedule condition. Participants’ preference, implications, and direction for future research will be presented.
121. Using the Ipad to Increase Conversation Skills
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
EMILY GREGORI (Baylor University)
Abstract: Deficits in communication and social skills are a hallmark trait of autism spectrum disorders (ASD); specifically, conversation skills are significantly impaired. Theory of Mind research has revealed, that while individuals with ASD perform below their typically developing peers in social skills, through intervention these skills can be learned. Previous research has shown that video modeling (VM) is an effective way to teach these skills. The present study sought to extend previous VM research by measuring the effects of the iPad as a VM tool for a four year old male with Asperger syndrome. Results showed an increase in the participant’s ability to have an age appropriate conversation.
122. Merge of Behavior Analysis Procedures into a Speech-Language Pathology Autism Clinic
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
ELIZABETH SIMONS (James Madison University), Heather White (James Madison University), Marsha Longerbeam (James Madison University), Trevor F. Stokes (James Madison University)
Abstract: This study developed applied behavior analysis skills in a different discipline through training and coaching speech-language pathology graduate students providing therapy services in a program for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Two graduate students in applied behavior analysis trained seven graduate students in speech-language pathology in three concepts: function of behavior, positive reinforcement and differential reinforcement. After training, each participant received bug-in-the-ear coaching on the use of positive reinforcement daily for five days during therapy delivery. At the end of each day therapists developed a list of activities that their clients preferred that day. The following day, coaching encouraged therapists to provide these activities, social praise, and positive touch to the client if the client was on task. If the client was off-task, these reinforcers were withheld. Coaching focused primarily on differential attention to providing access to reinforcement when the client was on task, as well as a few prompts, due to therapist requests regarding the style of coaching. Results indicated that speech-language pathology graduate students increased the percent of intervals in which they implemented positive reinforcement. Furthermore, if therapists implemented positive reinforcement for on-task behavior in 60% of observed intervals, the likelihood of maintenance and durability was stronger when coaching was discontinued.
123. The Use of the iPod Touch as an Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) Device to Improve Communication Skills for Adults With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KAORI G. NEPO (Chimes), Matthew Tincani (Temple University), Saul Axelrod (Temple University)
Abstract: Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often suffer from limited communication skills. Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) devices have increasingly gained attention as an effective strategy to teach functional communication skills for individuals with ASD. The recent technological advancement has made more portable devices such as the iPod Touch available as an option for AAC. In this study, we will examine the efficacy of the iPod Touch as an AAC device to improve communication skills of three adults with ASD via a multiple baseline design. The impact of the iPod Touch on their independent manding, maladaptive behaviors, and the results of social validity survey will be discussed. Additionally, generalization of the skills will be assessed in a controlled setting first and then in the vocational program.
124. Behavior Analysis and the Dentist: An Oral Health Desensitization Program for a Young Adult with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Abstract: While dental procedures may be challenging for many individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), those most severely affected by ASD are at a particularly high risk for oral health problems and have a high amount of unmet oral health care needs. Among several effective behavior analytic techniques to teach compliance in dental procedures, desensitization is one in which individuals are exposed in a gradual manner to the fear-provoking dental situation. The purpose of this study was to teach an 18-year-old male with ASD to comply with a basic oral health examination in a simulated dental environment. A hierarchy of steps was created. Each step within the desensitization hierarchy was considered mastered when there were three consecutive correct sessions across at least two people administering the program. All sessions were videotaped. Interobserver agreement data were collected on baseline and intervention sessions (IOA = 100%). Visual inspection of the data indicated that the intervention has been effective such that the participant has moved through the steps of the task analysis successfully. Practical implications of the program and challenges associated with completing the intervention and generalizing the analogue results to an in vivo dental environment will be explored.
125. Translating Indirect Assessments to Spanish With an Eye Toward Reliability and Validity
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CRISTINA VEGA (Seek Education, Inc.), Michele D. Wallace (California State University, Los Angeles), Marisela Alvarado (FCDS), Adriana Gracias (A.B.E.D.I. Inc.)
Abstract: Indirect behavioral assessment instruments are used as a preliminarily strategy in identifying potential functions of behavior and have traditionally been available only in English. Many families in America and around the world do not speak English and finding a fluent Board Certified Behavior Analyst in their native language is difficult, if not impossible. Thus, the need exists to develop assessment instruments in other languages. This study developed a Spanish version of the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF) and the Indirect Functional Assessment (IFA) instruments. Forward and back-adaptation committees were used in the translation process. The QABF and the QABF-Spanish (QABF-S) were administered to a group of 80 bilingual participants to assess both the reliability and validity of the assessments. A factor analysis yield four factors that were consistent with the four subscales examined in this study. Reliability coefficients were good for the attention, escape, and tangible subscales on both the QABF and QABF-S. The QABF-S and the IFA-Spanish (IFA-S) version were then administered to Spanish speaking parents during a functional behavior assessment and results were compared to those of a functional analysis (FA). Agreement between the QABF-S, the IFA-S version and FA results was high. Limitations and future research are discussed.
126. In Our Own Words: Competitive Employment for Adults With Autism Through the RAISE Program
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
RUSTY HORRNIG-ROHAN (Global Autism Project), Emily Boshkoff-Johnson (Global Autism Project)
Abstract: There are many people throughout the world who are employed individuals; however, many people with autism are unemployed. Across the world, only 4% of adults with autism are competitively employed. For the very few people with autism who are employed, they are not being paid for the work that they have done for certain time periods. The Global Autism Project has adopted a RAISE program to employ individuals with autism. The acronym RAISE stands for Real Advancement Independence Social Skills and Empowerment, which encourages people with autism to become very independent and have better social skills. As an adult with autism, I will present information on this poster about the importance of employment for individuals with autism and the benefits of the RAISE program. Adults with autism should have more opportunities to be competitively employed and this poster is about how the RAISE program and Global Autism Project have helped me to achieve that.
127. Comparing Low-Tech and High-Tech Picture Activity Schedules to Increase Independence in Adolescents With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
DR. TINA MARIE COVINGTON (Hawthorne Country Day School), Julie A. Bates (Hawthorne Foundation), Daren Cerrone (Hawthorne Country Day School), Vaughn Clarke (Hawthorne Country Day Scho0l), Cynthia Milite (Hawthorne Country Day Scho0l)

As students with severe disabilities transition from school to adult services, it becomes increasingly important that they have the skill to complete and transition to activities independently; however, it is common for adolescents with autism and severe disabilities to have a difficult time learning to independently complete tasks without the support of an aide or teacher. One tactic in the literature that has shown to be effective in teaching independent activity and transition skills is picture schedules. With the advancement in technology, traditional low-tech picture schedules have become more advanced. While research has demonstrated the effectiveness of picture schedules, it has not evaluated the effectiveness of traditional low-tech schedules to more high-tech schedules with individuals with severe disabilities. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of two different visual activity schedules. An alternating treatments design was used to compare traditional, low-tech static picture schedules to high-tech picture schedules presented on an iPad. Three adolescents with severe intellectual disabilities participated in the study. The data will be analyzed by comparing the learn units to criterion for each condition, the impact both interventions have on increasing independent responding, and student preference for treatment will be evaluated.

128. Using iPads as Stimulus Prompts to Increase On-Task Behavior in Preschool Aged Students With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KATHLEEN MCCABE-ODRI (Partners in Learning, Inc.), Nicole Pease (Partners in Learning, Inc.), Lauren DeGrazia (Partners in Learning, Inc.), Jennifer Cornely (Partners in Learning, Inc.), Nicole M. Rzemyk (Partners in Learning, Inc.)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often struggle with social communication and interactions as well as engage in repetitive patterns of behavior (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). These deficits can lead to challenges in including individuals with ASD in regular education classrooms. Some of these challenges could include behavior outbursts, comprehension delays, low-socially mediated behavior, and failure to recognize environmental cues as discriminative stimulus. While these challenges may occur, it is necessary to provide an inclusive environment with opportunities to interact with typically developing peers as part of intervention for children with ASD (Strain, Schwartz & Barton, 2011).While previous research has been conducted on using iPads within educational programs focusing on academic, communication, employment and leisure skills for those with developmental disabilities there is limited research on using iPads to increase on-task behavior in students with autism (Kagohara, et al., 2013). There is some evidence that by utilizing iPads and applications one can save time and materials (Murray & Olcese, 2011). There is also evidence that utilizing iPads for individuals with ASD can be less socially stigmatizing due to the popularity of the devices with typically developing peers (Neely, Rispoli, Camargo, Davis & Boles 2013). The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of using an iPad and the SMART Notebook application as a method of stimulus prompting to increase on-task behavior for students with autism in an inclusive preschool classroom. Two preschool aged students diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder participated in this study. The study included three phases: baseline, iPad training, and maintenance phases. Results show that the use of iPads was effective for both subjects, showing significant increase on-task behavior at circle time. Both subjects maintained on-task gains at one month follow-up, with one subject scoring an increased level of attending post study.
129. CANCELED: Children's Preference for Descriptive Versus General Praise During Discrete-Trial Teaching
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SEAN ANGLIN (Beacon ABA Services), John Claude Ward-Horner (Beacon ABA Services), Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services)

The use of descriptive praise is widely recommended practice with children diagnosed with autism. Nevertheless, comparison studies have indicated that students' performance on skill acquisition and maintenance tasks are similar regardless of whether descriptive or general praise is provided. The present study sought to further examine the effects of different praise statements on student preference for descriptive versus general praise statements by using a concurrent chains arrangement. Three toddlers diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders participated in the study. Participants selected initial link stimuli associated with either descriptive, general, and no praise terminal conditions, and skill acquisition targets were then taught according to the respective condition. Researchers measured participants' preference by recording the cumulative number of choices for each initial link. The results indicate that children did not display differential preference for either type of praise. The results are discussed in terms of variables that may affect praise as a conditioned reinforcer and general practice recommendations in favor of descriptive praise.

130. Improving Quality in Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) in a Mainstream Preschool Setting Using the Periodic Service Review (PSR)
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MARIANNE MJOS (Norway), Roy Tonnesen (
Pedagogisk Psykologisk Tjeneste
), Sigmund Eldevik (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences  )
Abstract: The Autism Department (Avdeling Autisme) is a tax payer funded department in the city of Bergen, Norway providing Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention to children with autism in mainstream pre-school settings. We have developed a checklist based on the logic of the PSR to evaluate and improve quality of Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention. In a mainstream pre-school setting there are many elements that have to be organized between different departments in the city. This requires a highly systematic approach detailing the contribution of each entity. The Periodic Service Review provides a framework for evaluating and improving quality for employees and organizational performance. Data was collected in the PSR system on all the clients served between august 2010 and august 2013. Data are registered every month for each client. Data show an increase in the quality scores from and average of ca. 60% to ca. 80% after monitoring started.
131. Adult Autism Services and Best Practice
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KRISTINE TURKO (University of Mount Union)
Abstract: The care and well-being of adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a growing concern. While this concern is on the radar of researchers and practitioners, little action has been taken because of the ever present need to keep up with the diagnosis and treatment of the younger population. Effective services for adults with autism are needed in order for them to continue their education, establish work, become involved in the community, and find suitable living accommodations. This poster presents data related to adult autism services. A questionnaire was used to examine the concerns and needs of caregivers of people with autism. The key components of the questionnaire included: transition to adulthood, best practice, and the efficacy of professionals who work with the adult autism population. The findings suggest that caregivers of individuals with ASD identify more basic and fundamental goals (independence in Activities of Daily Living, continuation of progress socially and intellectually, etc.) for their children than previous research has suggested. The findings can be used to develop a guide for best practice, and serve as an empirical foundation for future research on the topic of autism in adulthood.
132. Comparing Choice-Based Preference Assessments: Multiple-Stimulus Without Replacement Versus Paired-Stimulus
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
MAYA MADZHAROVA (Institute for Basic Research), Niall James Toner (Institute for Basic Research)
Abstract: A choice assessment has been found to be a more accurate method of identifying preferences than is single-item presentation (Piazza, Fisher, Hagopian, Bowman, & Toole, 1996). Multiple-stimulus without replacement (MSWO) and paired-stimulus (PS) are two common choice-based preference assessment methods that identify and rank stimuli. These stimuli could potentially serve as motivation for behavior change in individuals with developmental disabilities. Previous research suggest, that MSWO requires substantially less time than PS and will yield consistent outcomes (Deleon & Iwata, 1996). In the current study, the authors conducted both assessment methods with 5 students with autism in New York City public schools, to identify their most preferred stimuli. The authors seek to add to the literature the average time necessary for each method and whether these methods yield similar results across edible and tangible stimuli. The researchers predict a strong correlation between the three most preferred stimuli identified through each method. Results of the comparison between methods and stimuli will be discussed.
133. An Evaluation of a Desensitization Procedure for Tolerating Hair Clippers in an Adolescent With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TODD FRISCHMANN (Rutgers University), Zachary Brown (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey), Naomi Coral (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey), Erin Henricksen (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey), Ethan Eisdorfer (Rutgers University), Robert LaRue (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey)
Abstract: Appropriate grooming behavior can be challenge for individuals on the autism spectrum and their caregivers. Individuals with ASD often exhibit fearful reactions and/or hypersensitivity to grooming instruments (e.g., scissors and/or hair clippers). This reaction to grooming instruments can have detrimental effects on personal appearance and personal hygiene. A variation of a changing criterion design was used to investigate the effectiveness of a desensitization procedure for increasing compliance with hair cutting in an adolescent diagnosed with autism. Results demonstrated the efficacy of desensitization in increasing compliance with hair cutting. At the time that this presentation was submitted, the student had progressed from avoidance behaviors occurring in response to the sound of clippers without a visual cue to tolerating 5 seconds of direct contact with the clippers on his head without problem behaviors occurring. These findings suggest that systematically exposing individuals with aversive stimuli (i.e., hair clippers) can be used for the purpose of desensitization, which can have profound implications for the personal hygiene of individuals on the autism spectrum
134. Assessment and Treatment of Probing Behavior in an Adolescent With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SHAWNA UEYAMA (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University), Erica Dashow (Rutgers University), Rachel Mislavsky (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University), Robert W. Isenhower (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University), Chariana Guzik (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University), Denise McNair (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University), Robert LaRue (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: The presence of self-stimulatory behavior is common among individuals with autism spectrum disorders. This self-stimulatory behavior may include repetitive motor movements, noncontextual vocalizations or other types of sensation-seeking behavior. One topography of self-stimulatory behavior that presents unique challenges is rectal probing. Probing is socially stigmatizing, can interfere with potential job placement opportunities, and can pose significant health risks - especially when paired with coprophagia. In the current investigation, we sought to assess and treat the rectal probing for an adolescent male with autism. The results of the functional analysis revealed that probing was maintained by automatic reinforcement. The probing behavior was specifically observed during the alone condition, suggesting that the presence of staff controlled the behavior. A treatment package that included access to a competing item (iPad), a belt for his pants, and 30-second staff check-ins was implemented. The treatment was evaluated in a reversal design that showed an 81% reduction in probing. The results are discussed in the context of using antecedent-based intervention to reduce covert, automatically-reinforced probing behavior.
135. The Assessment and Treatment of Darting and Elopement Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
LAUREN DAVISON (Melmark), Elizabeth Dayton (Melmark)
Abstract: Functional analyses (Iwata et al., 1982/1994) are utilized to determine the variables that maintain problem behavior by manipulating the antecedents and consequences in a students natural environment (Cooper et al., 2007). Functional analyses have been effective for the treatment of a variety of problem behaviors, including elopement. However, the research on analysis and treatment of elopement that is maintained by multiple sources of reinforcement is limited. In the current study, we evaluated darting and elopement by conducting a functional analysis for an automatic function utilizing an extended alone condition and in addition, social negative and social positive functions were analyzed utilizing a latency functional analysis. The results of the functional analysis yielded a function of automatic reinforcement and access to tangibles for the elopement of one student diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. A treatment was developed to address the combined function of access to items and automatic reinforcement. Results and implications are discussed.
136. Using Stimulus Re-Presentation to Facilitate Discrimination Training in an Individual With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ROBERT W. ISENHOWER (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University), Kate E. Fiske Massey (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University  )

The ability to discriminate between and among stimuli involves a complex set of skills that many individuals with autism have difficulties acquiring, generalizing, and maintaining. Use of differential reinforcement (i.e., reinforcement for responding to the S+ and not to the S-) is a common means of teaching discriminations between stimuli; however, criterion levels of responding may not be attained solely through the application of differential reinforcement. In the current study we examined the use of stimulus re-presentation (i.e., not removing the stimulus array until the learner changed their response to the S+) on acquisition of a visual discrimination task. An 11 year old boy with autism, who had previously been unable to acquire reliable simple discriminations in a separate protocol, participated. Using a combination of stimulus re-presentation and differential reinforcement, he learned to reliably respond to the S+ across three pairs of targets. The results support stimulus re-presentation as viable supplemental tool for teaching discrimination skills. Results will be discussed in terms of the possible negative reinforcement contingency (i.e., not terminating the work demand until correct responding is emitted) utilized by stimulus re-presentation in conjunction with the positive reinforcement contingency (i.e., delivery of a preferred edible) utilized by differential reinforcement.

137. The Factors that Influence Parents Decisions on the Intensity of EIBI Services
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMY MUEHLBERGER (Beacon ABA Services), Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services), John Claude Ward-Horner (Beacon ABA Services)
Abstract: Current research in Early Intervention (EI) services for young children with autism supports that children who receive intensive services utilizing the principles of applied behavior analysis (ABA) have outcomes that are greater than those students who receive fewer hours of services or an eclectic service model (Howard, J., Sparkman, C., Cohen, H., Green, G., & Stanislaw, H., 2005). The current study examined factors that influenced parents' decisions to choose ABA and the total number of hours of services at start of ABA services. A survey was presented to families entering an ABA program within one month of the start of services. The participants were families with children aged 24-36 months of age who were also enrolled in their local early intervention programs and had chosen ABA as an intervention. The results indicate the diagnosing physician and their early intervention Service coordinator were the professionals that influenced parents' choice of intervention and intervention intensity. Results will be used to target outreach efforts to influential professionals that are working with families around making informed decisions on service intensity and expected outcomes.
138. CANCELED: The Effects of Treatment of Parent Mental Health on Treatment Fidelity of Child Diagnosed With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JACKELYN HART (Wesley Spectrum Services), Claudia Neely (Wesley Spectrum Services)

Because so few programs for individuals diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) address family mental health along with treatment for the individual diagnosed with ASD, the examined program provides a unique platform to assess the interaction between behavioral-based mental health interventions and behaviorally-based programming for children and families affected by ASD . Some behavioral-based mental health interventions with empirical support include Behavioral Activation for depression, Exposure Therapy for trauma, and Exposure and Response Prevention Therapy for obsessive compulsive disorders. Some parents of children with ASD in the examined program requested individual mental health therapy for anxiety, depression, and/or OCD. Individual and family therapy included one of the evidence-based behavioral mental health interventions. The researchers used a withdrawal to examine the impact of family mental health intervention on parent fidelity to treatment and child treatment outcomes when combined with parent coaching, and behavioral interventions for autism.

139. Mothers' Perception of Intensive Behavioral Intervention With Children on the Autistic Spectrum in Quebec
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NADIA ABOUZEID (University of Quebec in Montreal), Ariane Leroux-Boudreault (University of Quebec in Montreal), Nathalie Poirier (University of Quebec in Montreal)
Abstract: Introduction : Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting nearly 1 % of the population. It is mainly characterized by social communication and interactions deficits as well as stereotyped, restrictive and repetitive behaviours and interests (APA, 2013). These limitations alter the development and functioning of individuals with ASD. To overcome some of these difficulties, various programs are provided. For instance, in Quebec, rehabilitation centers offer ABA intervention, more specifically Intensive Behavioural Interventions (IBI) services to children with ASD aged between 2 and 5 years old (MSSS, 2003). Objective : This study aims to portray, through parents perception, the Intensive Behavioral Intervention (IBI) received by children with ASD in Quebec as well as their impact on their child development and functioning. Method : Participants : 15 mothers of children with ASD in Quebec Instruments : semi-structured interviews Analysis : qualitative (thematic analysis) Results : Children received in average 20 hours per week of IBI. Half of children received IBI as of the age of 4 years old for approximately 24 months. Conditions of the interventions were variable from a case to another. Some children benefited from an individual intervention, regular supervision for more than two years and complementary services such as speech and occupational therapy. However, other children were offered group intervention, very little supervision and no complementary services. Even though weaknesses were observed, the majority of parents perceived the intervention positively as it brought significant improvements in children and their familys lives. Improvements of language, social skills and behaviour were noticed. Parents believe it is necessary to provide services to children with ASD after the age of 5. Conclusion : Mothers of this study have a positive perception of IBI. However, it appears there are weaknesses in the way the intervention is implemented, especially when compared to results of previous studies revealing requirement for a successful intervention. Further research is imperative to achieve better standards in terms of intervening with children with ASD and to ensure the efficacy of the treatment.
140. Increasing Instructional Trials in Order to Decrease Problem Behavior in a Classroom Setting
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
LINDSEY MARIE VAN ALSTYNE (Hawthorne Country Day School), Nicole Piechowicz (Hawthorne Country Day School)
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to test the effects of increasing the number of trials presented and contingent escape to a student on the maladaptive behaviors emitted throughout the school day. The participant in this study is an eight-year old student diagnosed with Autism who emits self-injurious behaviors, aggressive behaviors, and property destruction in a variety of school settings. Results of this study revealed a decrease in maladaptive behaviors when instructional trials were increased. Limitations of the design and implications of the findings are discussed.
141. Immediate and Subsequent Effects of Behavioral Interventions for Socially Reinforced Behavior in Schools
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARC J. LANOVAZ (Université de Montréal)
Abstract: When attempting to change behavior in schools, educators in classrooms with high student:staff ratio may have insufficient time to implement behavioral interventions across the entire school day. As such, some educators may only implement behavioral interventions for short periods of time when a child’s target behavior, or lack thereof, impedes learning or engagement in ongoing activities most. From a clinical standpoint, it may thus be important to examine the effects of subsequently withdrawing the intervention. Using multielement designs, we examined the immediate and subsequent effects of behavioral interventions on engagement in both appropriate and inappropriate socially reinforced behavior in three children with autism spectrum disorders. The behavioral interventions produced idiosyncratic effects across participants. Notably, the interventions produced subsequent increases in problem behavior in two participants, subsequent increases in appropriate behavior in two participants, and subsequent reductions in appropriate behavior in one participant. The results highlight the potential clinical utility of measuring the postintervention effects of behavioral interventions for socially reinforced behavior in applied settings.
142. CANCELATION: Teaching Challenges in Autism School in Bangladesh-Teachers Perception
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research

Education is one of the fundamental human rights for all children. The right is equal for children with disabilities (CWD) also. So, integrating the children with Autism spectrum Disorder (ASD) into special education, mainstream education and ECD program is therefore a human rights and social justice issue. In Bangladesh the number of special school and inclusive school are very few. Although there are some special needs schools in the main Dhaka city areas, some of them are for the children with ASD. Due to insufficient constructive physical environments, low special educated teachers in this field and low trained up and poor education and learning opportunities make the quality of the teachers are not so high. The present study was a qualitative phenomenological study due to exploratory nature. Researcher wanted to get as much information as possible that come as close as possible to knowing what it is like. How much the problems they face? The study aims to explore the experience and perception of the teachers who are teaching the children with ASD at autism schools. Its purpose is also to develop hypothesis, concept and theory according to teachers view. This study shows that majority of the participants have satisfactorily knowledge about autism and the management of children with autism spectrum disorder at schools. They have included various challenges when teaching the children with autism spectrum disorder at schools. Some same activities of autism schools are use of choice board, drawing, singing, play, group play, self care activities like brushing, combing, dressing, etc. various challenges include aggressive behavior, repetitive behavior, stereotype behavior, compulsive behavior, Sensory processing dysfunction, Literal and visual thinker, sexual behavior, Low space of class room and play ground, parents attitude, schools rules, limited resources, Limited opportunities of training etc. for these kind of challenges they include various suggestions like Always engaged the child in purposeful activities, Avoid noisy child from working environment, Support each other in all activities, Negative rewards when necessary to avoid unwanted behavior, some times singing therapy plays a important role to get their attention, and support from supervisor and specialist. They also include that different professionals has their own different roles in schools settings.

143. From 1968 to Present: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
Erkan Kurnaz (Anadolu University), Melih Cattik (Anadolu University), Meral Koldas (Anadolu University), Elif Sanal (Anadolu University), Serife Sahin (Anadolu University), SERIFE YUCESOY OZKAN (Anadolu University)

The Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) was established in 1968 as a peer-reviewed, psychology journal, that publishes research about applications of the experimental analysis of behavior to problems of social importance. The journal was created by Donald Baer, Sidney W. Bijou, Todd Risley, and Montrose Wolf. The JABA has been published quarterly (Spring-Summer-Autumn-Winter) on a regular basis since 1968. In this study, papers published in JABA for 45 years were examined in terms of autism spectrum disorders. For this purpose, first of all papers published in JABA for 45 years were examined individually and determined the number of papers by years. Then papers were classified according to types and research studies were determined after this classification. Research studies were examined in terms of participants and studies conducted with participants with autism spectrum disorder were included. Dependent variables were investigated in terms of communication, social interaction and repetitive behaviors and independent variables were investigated in terms of evidence-based interventions included in the report of National Autism Center (2009).

144. Effects of Continued Behavioral Intervention Into School Age for Children With Developmental Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
CATHRINE OLSSON (Centre for Early Intervention (STI)), Sigmund Eldevik (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences), Kim Henrik Liland (Centre for Early Intervention (STI)), Astri Valmo (Centre for Early Intervention (STI)), Hanne Skau (Centre for Early Intervention (STI)), Elisabeth Ulvestad (Center for Early Intervention (STI))
Abstract: We found better outcome in intelligence and adaptive behavior scores for those children who continued to receive behavioral intervention in school compared to those children who ended their intervention. We compare the two groups of children during intervention in preschool, then eight and at nine years of age. The group of children (n=10) who received behavioral intervention in school continued to gain in intelligence and adaptive behavior scores, whereas the group that stopped (n=8) lost points. The difference in scores increased from when they were 8 years (see figure 1) to when they were 9 years of age (see figure 2). This finding supports the hypotheses that behavioral intervention can continue to benefit some children with autism and other developmental disorders well into school age. We have not been able to detect any clear indications for stopping behavioral intervention, although it appears that children with scores in the normal range have more stable scores.
145. Development and Evaluation of the Online and Applied System for Intervention Skills (OASIS) Training Program for Hispanic Parents of Children With an Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LINDA S. HEITZMAN-POWELL (The University of Kansas Medical Center), Joseph Furman Buzhardt (Juniper Gardens Children's Project), Sylvia Maack (The University of Kansas Medical Center), Ashley McGrath (The University of Kansas Medical Center)
Abstract: While the general prevalence of autism (ASD) in America continues to rise with rates cited as occurring in 1 in every 88 children (CDC, 2013), researchers report a lower prevalence among Hispanic children (Avila & Blumberg, 2008). Research suggests that early intervention produces the best outcomes; however cost and language/cultural barriers may prevent many Hispanic children from accessing early intervention. Parent training can significantly reduce the cost of services but language and cultural barriers may prohibit many families from accessing appropriate training. Hispanics are now the largest ethnic minority group in the U.S. (Borrego et al., 2006) and historically have utilized health services less than other groups (Martinez & Eddy, 2005) perhaps in part to their limited access to appropriate social/mental health services (Liptak et al., 2008). Further, few interventions have been evaluated with culturally diverse populations (Bernal, 2006). This project addresses these challenges by adapting the OASIS Training Program for use with parents who speak Spanish and have a child with an ASD. Preliminary data suggest that adaptations made to the English version of OASIS result in increases in both knowledge of evidence-based practices and application of those practices in Hispanic parents of young children with autism.
146. National Standards Project 2: Findings
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HANNA C. RUE (National Autism Center), Maria Knox (National Autism Center)
Abstract: The National Standards Project 2 (NSP2) is a follow up and extension of the National Standards Project released in 2009. The NSP2 evaluated the quality of science and beneficial treatment effects of over 350 treatment outcome studies for individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There were 350 treatment outcome studies that included participants under the age of 22 years. There were 25 treatment outcome studies that included participants ages 22 years and older. Over 60% of the treatment articles evaluated were single-case studies. The Scientific Merit Rating Scale (SMRS) was once again used to determine the quality of science of the treatment outcome studies evaluated in the systematic review. All treatment outcome studies were then evaluated for beneficial treatment effects and categorized according the Strength of Evidence Classification System. The NSP2 included participation of 27 expert panelists from across the United States and 53 article reviewers. The results suggest that interventions based on behavior analytic principles continue to have strong empirical support.
147. Data Analysis Involving Emergency Department Visits and Individual's With an Autism Spectrum Diagnosis
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
KIMBERLY N. FRAME (University of Memphis), Jeffrey B. Smith (Independent ABA Consultant), Laura Baylot Casey (University of Memphis), Robert Williamson (The University of Memphis), Elisabeth Claire Langford (University of Memphis)
Abstract: Previously conducted research targeting the cost of medical services have indicated an increase in financial burden for caregivers with children with an autism spectrum diagnosis (ASD). There have been several studies which have examined the medical expenditures as they relate to this population; however, none have looked at the actual costs associated with this type of care. Research on the financial expenditures for caring for the healthcare needs of a child with an ASD can help inform legislators when creating public policy and inform health insurers how to strategically expand services. This study seeks to extend the literature on the actual financial costs of treating children with ASDs by focusing on the actual costs for treatment in a pediatric emergency department in an urban setting. Descriptive statistics were obtained for three variables which include the number of tests conducted per ER visit, cost per visit, and time spent at the ER. Results indicated that overall, few differences exist between the care of those with ASD versus those without ASD in the emergency room setting. Furthermore, more patients with an ASD and/or their caregivers thought they had a neurological condition when presenting to the emergency room for care. However, most were not diagnosed with a neurological condition upon discharge. Patients with an ASD were also diagnosed with similar categorical conditions as those without an ASD in the emergency room setting.
148. Electroencephalographic (EEG) Abnormalities in Individuals with Severe, Non-verbal Autism: A Preliminary Study
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
OLIVER WENDT (Purdue University), Jane Yip (Purdue University)
Abstract: Background: ASDs are neurodevelopmental disorders defined behaviorally as deficits in social and communication deficits and the presence of restricted interests/repetitive behaviors. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the search for a signature electroencephalograms (EEGs) profile in ASDs known as biomarker (Bosl et al., 2011). However, a robust profile of EEG in the severe autism phenotype has not been reported. Objectives: This study examined the frequency and the nature of EEGs abnormalities in a sample of 9 individuals with severe autism who are non-verbal (ASDs) compared to 9 neurotypicals. Methods: Our sample consisted of 9 males, aged 4-15 years with a diagnosis of ASDs who are severe and non-verbal and 9 neurotypicals (5 females and 3 males), aged 4-20. Each participant was tested with an awake-sleep EEG registration. Results: The 78% of the participants with ASD showed EEGs abnormalities in the left frontal lobe region in the delta frequency band (1-4 Hz), up to three standard deviation. There were anomalies in amplitude asymmetry in the delta (1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz) and alpha (8-12 Hz) frequency band in 67% of the ASD participants. Coherence abnormalities were observed in all 9 ASD participants compared to the neurotypicals; this might constitute an EEG coherence based phenotype of severe autism in agreement with Duffy, 2012.
149. Facilitating Discriminative Control During Functional Communication Training Using Response Restriction
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JOHN LAMPHERE (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center  ), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Brian D. Greer (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Angie Christine Querim (Ball State University), Nicole DeRosa (The Kelberman Center and Upstate Medical University)
Abstract: Functional communication training (FCT) is the most widely published function-based treatment of problem behavior (Tiger & Hanley, 2008). However, FCT schedule thinning often generates high rates of requests for reinforcement, making it increasingly difficult for caregivers to deliver reinforcement for each request. Hanley, Iwata, and Thompson (2001) demonstrated that signaled periods of reinforcer availability and unavailability (i.e., multiple schedules) decrease high levels of requests while maintaining low levels of problem behavior. In a recent component analysis of FCT, Betz, Fisher, Roane, Mintz, and Owen (2013) found discrimination between periods of reinforcement availability and unavailability to be a critical component of FCT. However, some children struggle to discriminate multiple-schedule components. The current investigation was designed to evaluate response restriction (Roane et al., 2004) as a method of teaching children to discriminate reinforcement availability and unavailability during FCT. Results for 5 children who engaged in severe problem behavior suggest response restriction facilitated discriminated responding during FCT while maintaining low levels of problem behavior.
150. The Use of Competing Activities and Protective Equiptment to Reduce Skin Picking in a 7-year-old Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
BAILEY KING (BADD Consultants, LLC), Lloyd R. Thomas (Behavior, Attention, and Developmental Disabilities Consultants)
Abstract: Skin picking behavior can lead to a decrease in social interaction and increase in mental and helpth concerns. Skin picking was defined as any self-injurious behaviorbehavior involving pulling, scratching, lancing, digging, or gouging of one's body. In the current study, a service delivery intervention included a functional assessment and antecedent manipulations during academic instruction to decrease skin picking behavior in a 7 year-old boy with autism. The functional assessment revealed that the skin picking behavior was maintained by automatic reinforcement and was occuring at very high rates (16 times per minute) during baseline. Mulick (1978) used competing activities to decrease skin picking and Dorsey et. al. (1982) used continuous protective equipment. This study uses both competing activities (i.e. stem belt) and protective equipment (i.e. finger covers) to decrease skin picking behavior. The treatment package was implemented in both the school and home setting during an 18 week period.. A stem belt was first implemented reducing skin picking, but not at significant rates. Finger covers were then implemented showing a great decrease to near zero occurrences. The success enabled this of this intervention enabled this student to engage in longer periods of academic instruction.
151. Functional Analysis of Problem Behavior Using a Reversal Design and a Divided Attention Condition
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KATELYN SELVER (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University), Matthew L. Edelstein (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University  ), Jaimie Mulcahy (Rutgers University), Kimberly Sloman (Rutgers University)
Abstract: Research has shown that functional analysis is effective in identifying the environmental determinants of problem behavior (Iwata et al., 1982). Traditional multielement designs do not always yield differentiated results, rendering it difficult to develop a treatment plan targeting the factors maintaining problem behavior (Vollmer and Iwata, 1992). Vollmer and colleagues (1993) implemented a traditional functional analysis using a reversal design to clarify the function of SIB in four individuals with developmental disabilities. Fahmie, Iwata, Harper, and Querim (2013) further showed that functional analyses including a divided attention condition produce faster acquisition and more efficient results. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a functional analysis using a reversal design including a divided attention condition in determining the function of problem behavior. The participant was a 10-year-old boy with autism referred for assessment of self-injurious behavior, classroom disruptions, eloping, spitting, and aggressions, all of which were reported by staff to be maintained by access to attention. First, a traditional functional analysis was conducted in the classroom using procedures described by Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman, and Richmand, 1982. Results were undifferentiated. Next, a modified functional analysis including a divided attention condition using a reversal design was conducted. Clear results were obtained and indicated that problem behavior was maintained by access to attention when staffs attention was divided between the participant and other students in the classroom. These results replicate the previous studies that showed that reversal designs may be helpful in clarifying undifferentiated functional analysis results.
152. A Sequence for Assessing and Teaching Self-Monitoring Skills to an Adolescent Male With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MICHAEL DEFILIPPO (Alpine Learning Group), Jaime DeQuinzio (Alpine Learning Group), Bridget A. Taylor (Alpine Learning Group)

We developed and tested a sequence for teaching self-monitoring skills to an adolescent male with autism. The primary goal was for the participant to learn to identify occurrences and non-occurrences of his own behavior so that he could eventually accurately monitor his own DRO for problem behavior. Assessment 1 tested his ability to answer yes and no questions regarding common actions of others. Adults were videotaped performing common actions such as jumping, standing, walking, reading etc. Video clips of these actions were presented to the participant and he was asked yes/no questions such as, Is he walking? and Is she reading? He was able to answer over 80% of these questions correctly on the first assessment and 100% on the second assessment. In Assessment 2, we assessed his ability to answer yes and no questions regarding his own common actions and to score those responses on a data sheet. We created videos of the participant engaged in common actions such as sitting and standing. He watched 2 minute video clips of these actions. Approximately every 30 seconds, he was prompted by a vibrating pager to look at the video clip and to record the correct action by marking a box under a picture on the data sheet corresponding to the action. He was not able to accurately record these actions on the data sheet. These results serve as baseline data. During intervention, we will assess the effects of using verbal instructions, gestural prompts, manual guidance, and reinforcement on accurately recording the occurrences of his own behavior viewed on these video clips. Once the participant reaches criterion on this phase, we will then assess his ability to accurately record the occurrences of his own problem behavior as an intervention for reducing that behavior.

153. Generalizing a Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior Procedure to Decrease Escape-Maintained Maladaptive Behaviors
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LATOYA KINARD (Bancroft), Lauren Dvorak (Bancroft)
Abstract: Differential Reinforcement of Alternative behavior (DRA), a commonly used treatment for problem behavior, typically involves withholding reinforcers following problem behavior (extinction) and providing reinforcers contingent on some appropriate, alternative response (St. Peter Pipkin et al., 2010). Functional Communication Training (FCT) is a good example of how information from a functional analysis may be applied to a DRA-based treatment (Mace et al., 2010). Compliance also serves as a desirable alternative to escape-maintained behavior. The current study was conducted using 4 individuals who were diagnosed with Autism and admitted to a residential behavioral stabilization program for engagement in severe escape-maintained maladaptive behaviors. Target behaviors included aggression, self-injury, disruption and dropping. Reinforcement was provided for engagement in an alternative response (compliance or FCT) and all maladaptive behaviors were placed on extinction. Several studies have found that DRA is less effective at decreasing problem behavior when implemented without extinction (Athens et al., 2010). Sessions were conducted in various educational and residential settings across several instructors and caregivers. Results indicated that Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior is an effective treatment for reducing maladaptive behaviors and generalizing alternative appropriate behaviors during the presentation of non-preferred activities.
154. Manipulating Establishing Operations to Evaluate Mand Training With iPod Touch
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA WEBER (Florida International University ), Anibal Gutierrez Jr. (Florida International University)
Abstract: For some children, vocal language presents a significant challenge and augmentative and alternative communication methods (e.g. speech-generating devices (SGDs)) may aid in teaching functional communication. With advances in technology there has been increased interest in using devices, such as the Apple iPod as an SGD. The current study evaluated the utility of the iPod in teaching discriminated mands to a young boy with autism. An establishing operation (EO) manipulation was used to evaluate and establish discriminated manding. Initially the participant was taught to mand for two preferred items. Subsequently, the EO manipulation allowed the child free access to one item, removing the motivation to mand for this item, while motivation for the other item was present. The results show that although discrimination between an icon and a distracter was established during training, discriminated responding in the presence of two icons was not observed. This suggests that children may learn to functionally use the iPod to request a preferred item when only one icon is present but that discrimination training may not be sufficient to teach discriminated manding when more than one icon is presented simultaneously. Implications for using an iPod as an SGD with young children will be discussed.
155. Effects of Controlled Access to Stereotypic Behavior and DRO During Demand Conditions
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SUZANNE SIMARD (University of West Florida), Wayne S. Robb (University of West Florida), Dayna Beddick (University of West Florida), Leasha Barry (University of West Florida)
Abstract: The effect of controlled access to stereotypic behavior and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) during demand condition was evaluated for decreasing stereotypy in a kindergarten student with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Baseline and intervention phases occurred during 15 min center sessions four times a week consisting of tabletop activities. A single subject ABAB design showed a reduction in stereotypy after the participant was permitted to engage stereotypic behavior prior to demand situations. Primary reinforcement was delivered when stereotypic behavior did not occur for 15 consecutive seconds during treatment. Results are discussed in terms of the advantages of this approach as one solution for decreasing stereotypy during tabletop activities for students with a diagnosis of ASD.
156. The Effects of a Simultaneous Prompting Procedure on the Acquisition of Calculating Elapsed Time
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MIRELA CENGHER (City University of New York, The Graduate Center), Heyde Ramirez (Queens College, City University New York), Daniel Mark Fienup (Queens College, City University of New York)
Abstract: Simultaneous prompting has been effective in teaching a variety of skills, of different levels of complexity, to children with learning difficulties. The current study replicated and extended the literature by teaching three children with developmental disabilities to calculate elapsed time. Elapsed time is the duration from a start to end time. When the minutes of the start time are greater than the end time, regrouping is necessary. Simultaneous prompting was used to teach participants to conditionally discriminate the type of problem and engage in the respective behavior chain for problems that required (5-step) and did not require (3-step) regrouping. Results demonstrated that all three participants readily acquired the respective behavior chains and were able to accurately report the elapsed time for both types of problems. The findings have implications for teaching complex behaviors that are governed by 4-, or more, term contingencies.
157. HANDS in Autism: Supporting Professionals and Families Working With Individuals With ASD across 10 Years
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
J. BLAKE WAREHAM (HANDS in Autism, Indiana University School of Medicine), Tiffany Neal (HANDS in Autism, Indiana University School of Medicine), Naomi Swiezy (HANDS in Autism, Indiana University School of Medicine), Iryna V. Ashby (HANDS in Autism, Indiana University School of Medicine), Megan Marie Stevenson (HANDS in Autism, Indiana University School of Medicine), Anne Fletcher (HANDS in Autism, Indiana University School of Medicine)

The HANDS in Autism Interdisciplinary Training and Resource Center was founded in 2004 to extend the outreach and training offered by the Christian Sarkine Autism Treatment Center at Riley Hospital at Indiana University Health and the Indiana University School of Medicine. The mission of the HANDS in Autism Center is to continually evolve a model system of outreach, education, and training that will facilitate the development of local capacity within schools, districts, and communities in serving individuals and families affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental disabilities (DD). This mission is accomplished through two primary goals: 1) bridging across multiple environments (educational, medical/clinical, home/community) to establish a common language regarding ASD/DD and collaborate in creating comprehensive, proactive programming across settings; 2) training professionals and caregivers across settings to provide individualized programming based on best practices and data-driven decision making. Across 10 years, over 800 trainings have been conducted and greater than three thousand people have been educated with materials and resources disseminated to diverse and ever expanding audiences through web-based, toolkit, and hard copy formats. A systematic evaluation of the design, implementation, outcomes, evolution, and recommendations on transportability and replication of programs will be explored.

158. iPad Applications As A Preferred Visual Schedule Modality For An Adolescent Student With ASD
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER ANDERSEN (University of Iowa), Lisa Kemmerer (College Community Schools), James Stachowiak (Iowa Center for Assistive Technology Education, and Research, University of Iowa)
Abstract: The use of picture schedules has been shown to increase on-task and on-schedule activities in students with disabilities, including Autism (Spriggs, Gast, & Ayres, 2007; Banda & Grimmett, 2008; Bryan & Gast, 2000). Cihak (2011) found that the use of visual schedules increased on-task behaviors in all student participants and that preferences of individual students may lead to higher or lower outcomes depending on the modality used. Banda and Grimmett (2008) highlighted that there is a lack of literature analyzing the differences in success between various types of modalities. The purpose of this study was to improve the independence level of a middle school student with autism in the completion of functional work tasks comparing two different schedule modalities- an iPad app and a paper picture schedule. Baseline data suggested that initial curriculum strategies (system of least restrictive prompts) produced slight improvements for the student but stabilized at around 30% independence. Both the iPad App and paper schedule produced a significant increase in rate of independence. The iPad App showed a higher increasing trend toward independence; after only three trials, these data suggested over 90% independence. Implications of these results will be presented.
159. Evaluating Reinforcer Density in Multiple Schedules During Functional Communication Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ASHLEY NIEBAUER (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center  ), Scott A. Miller (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Brian D. Greer (University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Multiple (Mult) schedules of reinforcement have been successfully used within functional communication training (FCT) to decrease excessive rates of functional communication responses (FCRs) while decreasing destructive behavior (Hanley, Iwata, & Thompson, 2001). Betz, Fisher, Roane, Mintz, and Owen (2013) found discriminative stimuli associated with Mult FCT to facilitate FCRs when Mult FCT was compared to a condition in which discriminative stimuli were removed (i.e., during Mixed-FCT sessions). The current study contributes to research on Mult FCT by examining the effects of two schedules of reinforcement (dense or lean) used with separate schedule-correlated stimuli in separate contexts. Decreased levels of destructive behavior were observed in both contexts, regardless of whether dense or lean reinforcement schedules were used. These data replicate Study 3 results from Betz, Fisher, Roane, Mintz, and Owen (2013) and suggest future research should further investigate the role of stimulus control within the context of Mult FCT.
160. Increasing Variety of Foods Consumed by Children With Autism and Severe Food Selectivity
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
STEPHANIE MILLER (Clinic 4 Kidz), Meeta R. Patel (Clinic 4 Kidz), Sherrene B. Fu (Clinic 4 Kidz), Aida Miles (Clinic 4 Kidz)
Abstract: Feeding problems are frequent among children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), in particular food selectivity. Food selectivity is categorized by type, texture, type and texture, and total refusal and may be as specific as brand, temperature, and even color. Behavioral programs have been utilized in clinical settings to treat food selectivity including texture fading, blending, stimulus fading, differential reinforcement, escape extinction, simultaneous presentation, sequential presentation, and choice arrangements. The purpose of this study was to increase variety of food in 2 boys diagnosed with ASD through a home program. Jack was a 6-year-old male who was referred to intensive feeding therapy for severe food selectivity. His treatment included escape extinction, positive reinforcement, texture fading, and a choice arrangement. Matt was a 12-year-old male diagnosed with ASD and was referred for severe foods selectivity and nasogastric tube dependence. His treatment included noncontingent reinforcement, response cost, and escape extinction. Results showed that both participants successfully accepted a larger variety of foods at age-appropriate portions. In addition, Matt was no longer dependent on supplemental tube feedings upon discharge.
161. Teaching Functional Communication Skills to a Child With Autism Within a Group Treatment Setting
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SHEELA RAJARAM (The Etobicoke Children's Centre), Erica Laframboise (The Etobicoke Children's Centre), Emily Zaltz (The Etobiocke Children's Centre)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to decrease problem behaviour through Functional Communication Training (FCT), for a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in a group setting. Research has demonstrated the effectiveness of FCT in decreasing problem behaviour by teaching alternative responding (Carr & Durand, 1985). The participant in this study was taught to request help as an alternative response to engaging in problem behaviour (such as; crying, property destruction and flopping to the floor). The intervention was conducted within a regional ABA group Treatment Program. The group consisted of 4 boys with ASD between the ages of 4-6yrs and 2 ABA facilitators. The participant was a 5 year old boy with limited verbal skills, who frequently engaged in problem behaviour that was hypothesized to be maintained by access to adult assistance in order to assemble preferred toys during structured play activities. Data was collected on a per opportunity basis. The participant learned to exchange the help icon with the ABA facilitator within the group setting. The results indicated that FCT was effective in increasing the use of an alternative adaptive response that resulted in the same class of reinforcement.
162. Training Adults with High Functioning Autism to Use Incidental Teaching to Increase Language Acquisition for Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LYNN HAWKINS (University of Houston-Clear Lake), Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston-Clear Lake), Amy Terrell (University of Houston-Clear Lake)
Abstract: Using a multiple baseline design, this study evaluated a program to teach adults with autism and no intellectual disabilities (aged 20 to 23 years) how to implement incidental teaching with young children with autism. Three adults participated in the study. The dependent variable for the adults or trainers was the percentage of 15 steps of incidental teaching implemented correctly to promote language acquisition in the children (in the form of picture exchange, signs, or vocalization). Training consisted of written instructions, modeling, role-play, and feedback. Each adult trainer mastered incidental teaching with a confederate and with two children within a few sessions. The mean inter-rater reliability score for trainer behavior was 91%. Most of the children increased their language skills with average independent responses ranging from 0-87%. The mean inter-rater reliability score for child behavior was 91.8%. These results demonstrated the success of adults with high functioning autism using incidental teaching with children with autism, expanding the possible vocational opportunities for this population.
163. The Effects of Behavioral Momentum on the Compliance Rates of an Adult With ASD
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DONNA C. CHANEY (Behaviour Institute), Joel P. Hundert (Behaviour Institute and McMaster University), Marie-Sjaan Berends (Behaviour Institute)
Abstract: Non-compliance can be a major challenge and significant barrier in teaching new skills to children and adults with ASD. Behavioral momentum is a strategy that has been demonstrated to increase generalized compliance in individuals with ASD and other disabilities. This procedure involves creating a hierarchy of behaviours which the individual has either high, medium or low probabilities of performing when instructed. Instructions are then systematically sequenced so that the introduction of increasingly difficult tasks are gradual and are embedded with easier tasks. The instructions used represented complex, multistep tasks (e.g. Time to shave. Let's go for a walk. Make a sandwich.). This poster describes the results of the application of this strategy with a 22 year old man with ASD, who presented with high rates of non-compliance, using an AB design. Compliance rates to a combination of low, medium and high probability instructions that were originally low were significantly higher when delivered by parents and staff, according to probe data. To ensure reliable and valid data was collected, inter-observer agreement and procedural fidelity was examined.
164. An Analysis of Specific Skill Acquisition, Rate of Acquisition, and Problem Behavior as Indicators for Placement in Desirable Academic Settings for Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
JOSEPH T. SHANE (Western Michigan University), Jennifer Lynn Mrljak (Western Michigan University ), Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) has become widely accepted as a highly efficacious treatment option for children with autism. A substantial number of studies have shown significant improvements in participants who received Discrete Trial Training (DTT). However, studies with large numbers of participants consistently report a proportion of students who fail to make much progress with the standard EIBI treatment package. A concern, therefore, of everyone providing early intervention should be to determine why these children do not make adequate progress. Theories and rationales for slow progress are numerous. Some children may have lower cognitive abilities, some may exhibit high rates of interfering problem behaviors, and some appear to lack effective reinforcers, along with other barriers to learning. This poster will discuss the authors’ attempts to isolate certain characteristics that may be indicative of long-term success or failure in an EIBI program. Data were analyzed from children who were placed into desirable academic settings following graduation from a DTT classroom, and compared to data from children who transitioned to less desirable, more restrictive settings. Discussion of the key differences, and further research into this area, should allow the field to determine how to best help the typical “low performers.”
165. Reducing Nighttime Wakefulness in Children With Autism: A Treatment Package Approach
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KARINA M. KOENIG (Central Michigan University), Carl Merle Johnson (Central Michigan University)
Abstract: An empirically-supported, non-invasive, and parent-approved sleep treatment package was applied to reduce settling difficulties and night wakings in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Participants included six families with children that ranged in age from 3 to- 6 -years -old. The treatment package included circadian rhythm management (CRM), positive bedtime routines (PBR), limit setting by parents, and 40-60 dB of white noise played continuously throughout the night. After intervention, a follow-up was conducted that included an additional week of sleep diary data and a treatment satisfaction survey. A non-concurrent multiple baseline across participants design was used to analyze the effectiveness of the treatment package. Data were divided and graphed into three groups by dependent variables: duration of settling at bedtime, frequency of night wakings, and duration of night wakings. Not all six participants had both night waking and settling difficulties. A reduction in length of settling was found during treatment for all four children with settling difficulties. Follow-up data showed that settling time increased from treatment levels for three of the four children with settling difficulties. Two of these three had settling times that were still below pre-treatment levels. The third child went back to pre-treatment levels; however, he still showed a reduction in night waking frequency and duration. The fourth child showed even further reduction in settling time from treatment to follow-up. Frequencies of night wakings were reduced during treatment for three of the five children with night waking difficulties. Four of these five children showed a decrease in the duration of night wakings during treatment. The fifth child also showed a decrease when data with special circumstances were removed. During follow-up, all five children with night waking difficulties showed further reductions in duration of night wakings. Follow-up data also indicated less fragmented sleep patterns for all participants. All parents reported satisfaction with treatment results, and indicated that administering the treatment package was within their skill level, and was worth the effort.
166. Training Intraverbal Responding in an Individual With Autism Using Text Prompts Embedded in Conditional Discrimination Tasks
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JOELLE KRANTZ (Nova Southeastern University), Kenneth Shamlian (Nova Southeastern University), Brenna Cavanaugh (Nova Southeastern University), Jillian Benson (Nova Southeastern University), John Borgen (Nova Southeastern University), Danielle Tarver (Nova Southeastern University), Stephanie Trauschke (Nova Southeastern University)

Intraverbals are responses that have no point-to-point correspondence or formal similarity with the verbal stimuli that evoke the response (Cihon, 2007). Children with autism spectrum disorders often have difficulty acquiring language skills; of particular relevance, those that involve answering questions related to their safety or well-being. While text prompts (i.e. presentation of the written target word) have proven to be an effective method for training intraverbal responses, it has been recommended that conditional discriminations be incorporated to ensure correct responding regardless of the formal similarity to the initial or ending part of the discriminative stimulus. An eleven-year-old boy with autism was exposed to two training conditions consisting of a progressive prompt delay using either (a) text prompts or (b) text prompts embedded within a conditional discrimination task. The conditions were presented in an alternating treatment design. Results showed that text prompts embedded in conditional discrimination tasks were more efficient in establishing accurate responding to personal/safety information questions, were associated with lower levels of problem behavior during training, and moreover, were more efficient in establishing accurate responding to personal/safety information questions across novel staff and settings.

167. Environmental Coordination and Guidance for Children With Autism to Encourage Voluntary Activities
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AYAKO OKA (Kwansei Gakuin University Graduate School of Humanities)
Abstract: Many children with autism prefer not to participate in a schools voluntary activities related to learning situations and real-life issues. Power to participate in activities themselves does not grow in care and guidance of the individual. Therefore, it is necessary to provide support and guidance to children with autism in group living situations so that they can more fully engage in such voluntary activities. In this study, we provided a coordinated environment and guidance to increase childrens involvement in voluntary activities during the morning meeting of a special-needs school, and we instructed the children them the distribution of the meetings goods among themselves and to use host cards with their photos. As a result, the children were able to work proactively to take advantage of the provided clues in the morning meeting. In addition, the children were able to interact among themselves in other situations. Therefore, environmental coordination and guidance is an effective way to encourage children to take part in voluntary activities.
168. Teaching an Adult With Autism Self-Advocacy Responses Using a Time Delay Procedure
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DANIELLE SCHATZ (Alpine Learning Group), Erin Richard White (Alpine Learning Group), Bridget A. Taylor (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract: Little research has explored procedures for teaching adults with autism to make self-advocacy statements. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effects of using a text prompt and time delay procedure on the acquisition and generalization of self-advocacy responses. A twenty-five year old adult with autism is participating in the study. A multiple probe design across stimulus categories is being used to examine the effects of a time delay procedure on the use of self-advocacy responses. During sessions, the participant will be presented with situations that require a self-advocacy response (e.g., she asks for a soda and the instructor gives her water instead). During baseline, if the participant responds correctly, the instructor corrects the situation, and if the participant errors, the instructor does not correct the situation. During intervention, a text prompt will be used to prompt a self-advocacy response for each situation, and upon a correct response, the instructor will correct the situation and provide reinforcement on the participants motivational system. Across subsequent sessions, the text prompt will be faded using a time delay. Correct situations (e.g., she asks for a soda and the instructor gives her a soda) will be intermixed in order to ensure discrimination of situations in which the self-advocacy statements are appropriate, versus inappropriate. For each situation, generalization will be assessed throughout intervention.
Keyword(s): poster session



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