Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


40th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2014

Event Details

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Poster Session #95
Saturday, May 24, 2014
5:00 PM–7:00 PM
W375a-d (McCormick Place Convention Center)
45. Consumer Behavior of Public Managers Responsible for Sustainable Buying: Individual and Organizational Patterns
Area: CSE; Domain: Basic Research
Hugo Leonnardo Gomides do Couto (Universidade Federal de Goiás), CRISTIANO COELHO (Universidade Catolica de Goias)
Abstract: One of most important differential in Behavioral Perspective Model on behavior is its focus on the influence of context on consumer behavior. Considering that Brazilian legislation has increasingly adding environmental features for governmental bidding, this paper investigates public manager behavior, in order to identify the critical factors that undergo the decision-making of a sustainable consumption, both in individual (or housing) and governmental contexts of consumer behavior. Based upon questionnaires responded by 15 public managers enrolled in bidding conduction, there was determined the similarities and differences between their response in those two contexts. It was observed differences related to the consumer behavior context, especially those involving price, legislation, and time spending to specify the products to be purchased. Moreover, it was noted that some environmental friendly behaviors are well established in governmental shopping, as result of campaigns developed in the institution, but not in housing shopping, due to specific legal prescriptions. Those results were interpreted as related to the more closed scenario in governmental shopping, the more opened scenario in housing shopping, and the control by stimuli that indicate utilitary consequences. In the housing shopping this pattern did not show a high control by stimuli that pointed to informative consequences.
46. Family Violence in General Population: Comparative Study Mexico-Spain
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
MARIA ANGELA GOMEZ PEREZ (To come), Josue Marcial Navarro Carlos (To come), Pilar Matud Aznar (To come)
Abstract: Abstract Introduction Family violence involves an important threat to people's health and welfare. This study takes place based on the increasing violence, especially in the family environment because of previous unsuccessful actions to prevent it. Objective Recognize violence in the family environment of general population, analyzing it's effects in health and life satisfaction. Materials and methods Instruments: Goldberg general health questionnaire (GHQ-28, Goldberg y Hillier, 1979). Satisfaction with life scale (SWLS, Diener, Emmons, Larsen y Griffin, 1985). Self-esteem inventory (Self-EsteemInventory, SEQ; Rector y Roger, 1993). Sociodemographic data collection. Method: Cross-sectional study with 559 people on general Mexican population with an average age between 16 to 59. Conclusions Family violence is a problem that affects an important percentage of people and it's associated with a lower satisfaction with life and an even worst mental health.
47. Factors Related to the Sexual Harassment Against the Women
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
ALFONSO AGUSTIN VALADEZ RAMÍREZ (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Laura Abril Ríos Rivera (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México)
Abstract: Violence is always a way of exercising power through the use of force (physical, psychological, economic, political), it implies the existence of hierarchies, expressed in certain roles: male-female. The aim of this study is to explore differences in the perception of a small sample of men and women, about the "myths " of rape, sexual harassment, the type of avoidance and self-protection strategies used in situations perceived as unsafe and its possible implications on the welfare and quality of life of individuals, some of the consequences caused by these stressful situations were also explored. The instruments used were, the Acceptance of Rape Myths Scale, the Perceived Insecurity Scale, Identification of consequences, Avoidance and Self-protection Scale, Previous experience, places and people of victimization. Significant differences were found particularly related to the sex of the participants, being women the ones that perceive a higher level of insecurity, use a greater number of avoidance and self-protection strategies, refer higher stress levels and suffer a greater number of adverse physical and psychological consequences to sexual harassment.

An Analysis of the Metacontingency in a Juvenile Offender's Family

Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos
), Ramona Houmanfar (University of Nevada, Reno), Bailey Wilcox (University of Nevada, Reno), Almir Del Prette (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos), Zilda Aparecida Del Prette Pereira (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos), Marcelo Frota Lobato Benvenuti (Universidade de Sao Paulo)

This descriptive study aimed to demonstrate the utility of metacontingency as a unit of analysis for determining the effect of family support on the juvenile offenders' success in meeting treatment goals. One juvenile offender (male), one sibling (male), and their mother were included as participants. Analysis of the juvenile's institutional records and interviews were employed. The records indicated that the quality of the family interactions, return to school, and making new friends (considered as aggregate products), were achieved as intervention goals. The analysis of the interviews was based on the recurrence of coordinated behaviors. The results indicated that: a) most of the interlocking behavioral contingencies were related to the aggregate products, b) most of the interlocking behavioral contingencies associated with the parent and juvenile interactions demonstrated instances of rule establishment and mutual support, c) most of the IBCs associated with juvenile and sibling interactions demonstrated instances of the two having fun together and sharing information about their daily activities. The results suggested that the parameters of multiple measures of aggregate products, produced by the recurrence of coordinated behaviors were useful in the analysis of family interactions that contributed to juvenile offender's treatment goals.

49. An Evaluation of Free-pour Training Procedures for College Students
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
TYLER NIGHBOR (University of the Pacific), Emily Metz (University of the Pacific), Audrey Campbell (University of the Pacific), Katrina Bettencourt (University of the Pacific), Katie Uhlhorn (University of the Pacific), Nicole Schultz (University of the Pacific), Carolynn S. Kohn (University of the Pacific)
Abstract: Student violators of campus alcohol policies are often mandated to attend alcohol-training courses with the expectation that they will learn to recognize and pour a standard serving of alcohol. However, research suggests students are generally inaccurate when asked to demonstrate this skill. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of different training methods on college students’ (N = 11) ability to free pour standard servings of beer. Participants were randomly assigned to verbal feedback, superimposition, or stimulus fading training procedures in an ABA or ABACA design. Immediately following baseline pours and successful training, participants completed two post pours. One week and 30-day follow up pours included a “generalization” probe (i.e., a different shaped cup). Overall, five of 11 participants required a second pour training. Although results maintained for five of 11 participants one week from the initial training, only three of 10 participants accurately poured one month following the initial training. Furthermore, training for eight of 11 participants generalized to pouring in the novel 18 oz. square red Solo® cup. These results suggest that students may be trained to pour standard servings of beer, but these training effects may not maintain or generalize to similar stimuli.
50. Fair Prices for Fair Trade Tariffs: Insights from Behavioral Economic Demand Curves
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
ANDREA PHILLIPS (The University of Kansas), Amel Becirevic (The University of Kansas), Brent Kaplan (The University of Kansas), Derek D. Reed (The University of Kansas)
Abstract: First world countries demonstrate excessive demand for commodities produced by developing countries (e.g., fruit, coffee, sugar). Fair trade tariffs have subsequently been utilized to protect the sustainable agricultural and labor practices in these developing countries. Such tariff policies impact the vast majority of Americans, as well as laborers in developing countries, constituting an incredibly large issue of societal concern. To date, we are aware of no behavioral economic insights on fair trade pricing and policies, despite behavior analysts call for such analyses when policy-level decisions are necessary (Hursh & Roma, 2013). The present study investigated demand for coffee under various levels of tariffs with a college students using a hypothetical purchase task modeled after tasks used for alcohol and nicotine products. Participants were classified into one of three groups (never drink coffee, light coffee consumers [1 cup/day], or heavy consumers [>1 cup/day]). Exponential demand curve analyses suggest that the current levels of fair trade tariffs are well below the price point of elasticity for both light and heavy consumers. These findings highlight the need for empirically derived fair trade tariffs to substantially increase the remuneration to developing countries while simultaneously protecting the coffee market from becoming too elastic.
51. Bicycle Safety: A Call for Intervention
Area: CSE; Domain: Basic Research
MICAH ROEDIGER (Virginia Tech), Cory Furrow (Virginia Tech), Michael Ekema-Agbaw (Virginia Tech), Amanda K. Denson (Virginia Tech), E. Scott Geller (Virginia Tech)
Abstract: In 2010, the Center for Disease Control reported nearly 800 deaths and 515,000 bicycle-related injuries (Bicycle-related injuries, 2013). Not wearing a bicycle helmet is one of the main risk factors associated with bicycle related injuries. Conservative estimates of risk reduction are 45% for head injuries and 29% for fatal injuries while using a bicycle helmet (Fullerton & Becker, 1991). In 2002, the American College Health Association set a goal of 24% for on campus helmet use. Research assistants from the Center for Applied Behavior Systems observed bicycle helmet use at marked locations on the Virginia Techs campus; field observations included helmet use as properly, improperly, or not worn. Of 7227 cyclists observed, 1355 or 18.7% were properly wearing a bicycle helmet. The proportion of cyclists wearing a bicycle helmet on Virginia Techs Campus is lower than the American College Health Associations recommended goal (Z = -10.55, p < .001). This low use of bicycle helmets presents a serious public-health risk. Thus, the Center for Applied Behavior Systems will implement a campus-wide intervention to increase bicycle helmet use. Other students will act as change agents to encourage their biking peers to use bicycle helmets. Discounted helmets will be available for purchase.
52. Job Stress Perception in University Teaching
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
ALFONSO AGUSTIN VALADEZ RAMÍREZ (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Cristina Bravo González (Cristina Bravo González), José Esteban Vaquero Cázares (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Patricia Ortega Silva (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México)
Abstract: Stress is a general problematic situation that impacts several work activities, but specifically in the case of teaching, has alarming evolutionary connotations. In a few years, the educative institution has been affected by numerous changes; these transformations have affected both, the teachers and the conditions in which they exercise their teaching. The main objectives were to identify the sources of stress in university teaching and analyze their impact on university teaching. 418 university professors participated in this study (men, women). They were selected through an intentional non-probabilistic sampling process. 59% of the participants work in the Facultad de Estudios Superiores (FESI -UNAM) and the rest in Universidad del Valle de Mexico (UVM) The Inventory of Perceived Stress in University Teachers (IPEPU) and Stress Effect in University Teachers Inventory were used. The data showed that the mean score of the perceived level of stress is a little stressful. However, about 30% of teachers reported a significant amount of stress. Among the stressful situations, the organizations aspects are the most stressful, and the cognitive area is the one that has most of the effects. Currently it has been observed that stress occurs most often in people who work as teachers. The Teaching, one of the most widespread professions and more in touch with people, is considered a stressful and exhausting occupation.
53. Perception of Ethical Values Training in College Students of Mexico
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
NORMA COFFIN (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico), Lourdes Jimenez Renteria (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico), Ariel Vite Sierra (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico), Angeles Mata Mendoza (Facultad de Estudios Superiores Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México)
Abstract: The methodology of teaching and the teacher's attitude in the subjects of bioethics training must have a content of transmission of values, rather than in other disciplines, and must conform to a strict ethical teaching. The university has, from its origins, the mission of training professionals and specialists in various areas of knowledge, and today should also be responsible for the formation of genuine ethically responsible citizens committed to social reality around them (Morin, 2001; Martinez, 2000, 2001; Martinez- Estrada & Bara, 2002). Method: An instrument of 55 items was applied to 193 students majoring in Psychology (N = 125) and Medicine (N = 65), developed from a Likert questionnaire (a = 0.9660), used by Hirsch (2005). Confidentiality and anonymity of their responses were secured, as well as a group format informed consent. Results: No significant differences in responses (SPSS, 19.0), compared to the academic score variables, gender or career were found. There was no correlation between high or low academic averages and ethical values. Conclusions: Inconsistencies were found between the perception of ethical values reported and variables that determine them. It is necessary to include ethical values within the curriculum of both careers, toward an ethical culture in Mexico.

The Effects of Bin Proximity and Visual Prompts on Recycling in University Classrooms

Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
NEAL MILLER (University of Memphis), James Nicholson Meindl (The University of Memphis), Mallorie Hutton Caradine (University of Memphis)

The EPA estimates that 250 million tons of solid waste were produced in the U.S. in 2010 (EPA, 2011). Although some of this is recovered through recycling, a significant amount of recyclable material continues to end up in landfills and dumps, to the detriment of the environment. Many institutions such as universities, where a large number of people gather on a daily basis, have adopted recycling programs as part of efforts to increase environmental sustainability. The amount of recyclable materials disposed of in trash bins and recycling receptacles was measured in classrooms located on two different floors of a university building. Building on previous recycling research, we evaluated the effects of bin proximity (placing recycling bins in the classrooms) and informational signs (visual cues about what items to recycle) on levels of recycling, using a reversal design. Although the amount of recyclable material being thrown in the trash cans decreased with the introduction of the bins and the signs, the amount of material being recycled was not enough to account for this change. Interpretations of this finding and suggestions for future researchers are discussed.

55. Dog Breed Stereotypes and Effects of Handler Appearance on the Perception of Pit Bulls
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
LISA GUNTER (Arizona State University)
Abstract: Previous research has indicated that dog breed stereotypes exist and that the appearance of a handler alongside a dog can affect perceptions of the dog's temperament. The present study examined 228 participants' perceptions (age range 15-61, mean = 22) of a pit bull-type dog compared with a Labrador Retriever and Border Collie; and whether the addition of a rough adult male, elderly woman or male child influenced the dog's perceived characteristics of approachability, aggressiveness, intelligence, friendliness, trainability or adoptability. A one-way ANOVA indicated that participants viewed the pit bull significantly less favorably in all characteristics when evaluated with the other breeds. When comparing impressions of the pit bull alone versus alongside a handler, perceptions differed significantly between handler conditions with all traits. Tukey HSD post-hoc analysis showed that the elderly woman significantly improved perceived intelligence and adoptability (M=4.24, SD=1.40) while decreasing aggression versus the pit bull alone (M=3.67, SD=1.57). With the male child, perceptions of friendliness increased while aggressiveness decreased (M=2.40, SD=1.30) as compared to the dog without a handler (M=3.00, SD=1.25). These results suggest possibilities for the use of handlers in photographs to positively affect the perceived qualities of pit bull-type dogs among the general population and particularly those who are considering adopting a dog.
56. An Investigation of Factors Influencing Matter Out Of Place (MOOP) Collection at the Burning Man Festival
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
GENEVIEVE M. DEBERNARDIS (University of Nevada, Reno), Molli Luke (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: The Burning Man annual event creates a temporary community of over 60,000 people. The community is based upon ten foundational principles, including “Leaving No Trace” to ensure that at the end of the event, there is no “Matter Out Of Place” (MOOP) and no impact on the environment. Given the increasing importance of increasing green behaviors, this community provides an ideal situation to understand under what conditions people will voluntarily pick up MOOP in community spaces. To evaluate this, an observational study was conducted consisting of a combination of 2 methods of MOOP distribution (dropped or pre-placed) x 3 varieties of MOOP (e.g. piece of cardboard, plastic bottle, feather). The latency to picking up the MOOP, number of people who did and did not pick up the MOOP, basic information (e.g. gender, mode of transportation, group size) and verbal questionnaire for people who did pick up the MOOP within each condition was collected. In general, the results indicated that there were more people that picked up “pre-placed” items; however, the latency to pick-up was significantly longer during the “pre-placed” sessions than the “dropped” sessions. The implications and future research directions will be discussed.
57. How Honorable Honor Crimes Are?
Area: CSE; Domain: Theory
THOURAYA AL-NASSER (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Honor is defined as respect and admiration given to someone who is admired for their noble and moral behaviors. Mediterranean cultures as a unit shares a common definition of honor and what is considered to be honorable and what is shameful which differ from other cultures. Since honor is contingent upon a familys reputation and how a family is viewed by its surrounding community. A family must maintain its honorable reputation as it is a part of a larger tribal culture for its survival. A family honor in the Mediterranean cultures is dependent upon the sexual chastity of its females. A female must stay virgin till she is married, as a woman's sexuality directly correlates to the honor of her family. Families regard a female who dishonors her family and tribe to be a problem that needs to be solved. Honor crime is the answer for this problem where a family male member must cleanse his familys name as well as tribe by publicly killing this unrighteous female to restore the familys honor. In this poster the contingencies maintaing these crimes will be discussed. As these crimes are culturally supported rather than religiously.
Keyword(s): poster session



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