Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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40th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2014

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Poster Session #209
AUT Sun Noon
Sunday, May 25, 2014
12:00 PM–2:00 PM
W375a-d (McCormick Place Convention Center)
124. Increasing Food Acceptance in the School Setting for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Using High Probability Requests Sequences
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARISSA CONGDON (CSUSB)
Abstract: Behavioral feeding difficulties occur at a high rate in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and can have a serious impact on their overall health and development. Although there are a number of studies demonstrating effective strategies for addressing behavioral feeding difficulties in children with ASD, the majority of them have been conducted in clinical settings. High probability (high-p) request sequences have been used as an antecedent intervention to increase compliance, appropriate behavior, social interactions, decrease stereotypy, self injurious behavior, increase compliance to academic tasks, increase communication skills, and in interventions to increase food acceptance and consumption. This evidence-based intervention has been demonstrated to be effective in both clinical and applied (e.g., school) settings. The current study investigated the efficacy of high probability request sequences, an easy to implement, school-based behavioral feeding treatment. In the study food related and non-food related high probability requests sequences were compared for efficacy. The participants in the study were three children with ASD that had parent and teacher reported feeding difficulties. Results suggested that school-based high probability response sequences were extremely effective for 2 of the 3 participants. Consumers were very positive about the intervention.
 
125. Comparing the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Error Correction Procedures
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SAMANTHA MOBERG (University of Oregon), Tiffany Kodak (University of Oregon), Vincent E. Campbell (University of Oregon), Tom Cariveau (University of Oregon), Traci Elaine Ruppert (University of Oregon), Kristin Rush (University of Oregon), Eva Kurtz-Nelson (University of Oregon)
Abstract: We extended McGhan and Lerman (2013) by evaluating the efficiency of several error-correction procedures commonly used in practice. We compared differential reinforcement without prompts, demonstration, time delay, single practice, and multiple practice to identify the most efficient and least intrusive procedure(s) to teach sight words and tacts using an adapted alternating treatments design. Two students, Cam and Mitchell, diagnosed with an ASD and Fragile X (Cam only) participated. Our dependent variables included sessions to mastery, exposures to mastery, and session time (seconds). Cam’s results showed that the demonstration procedure was the most efficient (2862 s of training), least intrusive, and required the fewest exposures (414) to reach the mastery criterion. Mitchell achieved the mastery criterion after only five sessions of both time delay and multiple practice with 45 and 91 total exposures, respectively, although time delay was less intrusive and required less instructional time (724 s). This study provides recommendations for clinical practice as well as future research on the use of error-correction procedures.
 
126. Effects of Automatic Reinforcement on Basic Receptive Discriminations in Children Within Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HEGE AARLIE (Norway ABA), Kristine Berg Titlestad (Bergen Kommune), Sigmund Eldevik (Oslo and Akershus University College)
Abstract: Background: Despite extensive efforts some children within autism spectrum have difficulties in establishing basic receptive discriminations. Aim: Can automatic reinforcement procedures facilitate receptive discriminations? Methods: Six children within autism spectrum disorder (39-65 moths) completed the project. They had no receptive language, but all had matching and some imitations skills. An automatic reinforcement procedure was compared to a reinforcement procedure in an alternating treatment design. In the automatic reinforcement condition, the reinforcer follows the response (e.g., Sd: Chips, R: Eats chips). In the other condition reinforce is arbitrary and varies (e.g., Sd: Horse, R: Touches horse) and reinforcement can be a grape. Results: Our results show that two children learned basic receptive discriminations much faster in the automatic reinforcement condition. For one child there was no difference between the conditions. During the project three children did not learn through any of the procedures. Conclusions: Automatic reinforcement may facilitate basic receptive discriminations for some children with autism.
 
127. Evaluating Single-Operant and Paired-Stimulus Free-Operant Reinforcer Assessments for Social Stimuli
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANDRESSA SLEIMAN (Florida International University), Anibal Gutierrez Jr. (Florida International University), Jessica Weber (Florida International University)
Abstract: It is theorized that children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) prefer non-social tangible reinforcers as compared to socially based reinforcers. The current study is based on pilot data from a previous study, which showed that reinforcer assessments similar to those used for nonsocial reinforcers may be effective in determining social reinforcers. This study compared single-operant and paired-stimulus free-operant assessments to evaluate their utility in identifying social reinforcers. The results showed that both procedures may be utilized in identifying possible social reinforcers. Implications and future directions will be discussed.
 
128. Training a Parent to Teach their Child Three Qualitatively Different Skills Using Behavioral Skills Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LEIGH COOPER (New York Center for Autism Charter School), Emily Nickerson (New York Center for Autism Charter School), Kyle Roberts (New York Center for Autism Charter School), Jessica Seeman (New York Center for Autism Charter School), Julie Fisher (New York Center for Autism Charter School)
Abstract: The current literature suggests that behavioral skills training (BST) is an effective and efficient method to teach both professionals and parents to work more effectively with individuals with developmental disabilities. A limited number of these studies, however, have assessed tactics to promote skill generalization across a wide domain of behavior analytic teaching strategies. The purpose of this study was to expand the current literature and investigate whether BST can be used to teach a parent a variety of behavior analytic teaching skills. A multiple baseline design across skills was used to train one parent to teach her son diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) three qualitatively different skills. The parent acquired all three target skills in a total of 13 training sessions. The parent also showed reliable generalization to novel targets across two of the three skill domains. These data suggest that BST can be used to train parents of individuals with ASD to effectively implement a variety of teaching strategies.
 
129. Assessment of Staff Affect on the Challenging Behavior of a Student With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MATTHEW L. EDELSTEIN (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University      ), Rebecca Schulman (Rutgers University), Kyung Mo Nam (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University), Kimberly Sloman (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University)
Abstract: Research has shown that quality of attention (e.g., tone of voice, physical interaction) can affect rates of problem behavior (e.g., Fisher, Ninness, Piazza, & Owen-Deschryver, 1996; Kodak, Northup, & Kelley, 2007). For example, Gardner, Wacker, and Boelter (2009) showed that escape maintained problem behavior was higher in low quality attention conditions than high quality attention conditions. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of high intensity and low intensity staff affect on problem behavior during academic demands. The participant was a 10-year old student with autism referred for the assessment of challenging behavior, including aggression, property destruction, and pica. Classroom staff anecdotally reported that the student was more likely to engage in challenging behavior with specific staff members. Staff members alternated both mastered programs and target demands with either heightened or low intensity affect. Intensity was defined by volume and changes in facial expression (i.e., high intensity affect was delivered with volume above conversational level and involved changes in facial expression and body position). Results indicated that, for mastered skills, low intensity affect produced higher levels of challenging behavior for 3 out of 5 staff members. For target skills, low intensity affect produced higher levels of challenging behavior for 3 out of 4 staff members. Implications for staff-student interaction and academic programming will be discussed.
 
130. Evaluation of an Abolishing Operation Manipulation During Activity Transitions
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
WILLIAM SULLIVAN (Syracuse University), Brian K. Martens (Syracuse University), Joseph E. Underberg (Syracuse University), Stephanie J. Long (Syracuse University), Michael Patrick Mullane (Syracuse University)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorders often engage in problem behavior during activity transitions. The present study compared use of a picture schedule to a picture schedule coupled with an abolishing operation (i.e., a 30-s fixed-time schedule of interruptions during the final 2 min of a pre-transition activity) at decreasing transition latency and transition-related problem behavior. Two preschool-aged boys with autism spectrum disorders who engaged in problem behavior during transitions participated. An adapted alternating treatments design was used to evaluate the effects of a picture schedule alone and in combination with the abolishing operation across two equivalent high- to low-preferred activity transitions. The number of interruptions was then faded (e.g., 4 interruptions to 1 interruption) followed by a reversal to the 30-s schedule. Results showed decreases in transition latency during the abolishing operation condition but not with use of the picture schedule alone for both children. Implications for the use of abolishing operations to temporarily decrease the reinforcing properties of high-preferred activities are discussed.
 
131. Assessment and Treatment of Rumination Displayed by a 10-year-old Male Diagnosed With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA MOLLOY (Arizona Centers for Comprehensive Education and Life Skills), Rebecca Renee Wiskirchen (Western Michigan University), Michelle Reed (Arizona ABA)
Abstract: The current study addresses the assessment and treatment of rumination displayed by a 10-year-old male diagnosed with autism. All assessment and treatment conditions were conducted in a special education private day school. The descriptive assessment indicated rumination might be maintained by non-social reinforcement. A functional analysis was conducted to further investigate the possible contingencies reinforcing rumination. Results showed low, but varied, rates of rumination for all conditions and no differential responding across conditions. A multiple-treatment reversal design was selected to assess a variety of previously researched treatments (Sharp, Phillips, & Mudford, 2012; Lang et al., 2011) for automatically maintained rumination behavior. Three interventions were assessed: reduced liquid at mealtime, gum chewing, and non-contingent food delivery. Results from the treatment analysis show rumination rates decreased to near zero levels. Over time, variability increased significantly, leading to the introduction of the second intervention, gum-chewing. A changing criterion design was used to teach Cody how to chew gum, however, this was not successful, possibly due to his developmental level. Non-contingent food delivery on a fixed time schedule was introduced. The analyses showed that this was an effective treatment for reducing rumination with this individual.
 
132. A Brief Assessment to Predict Multiple-Schedule and Response-Restriction Performance During Functional Communication Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DANIEL R. MITTEER (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center  ), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Brian D. Greer (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Functional communication training (FCT) is widely used to reduce problem behavior while teaching an alternative form of communication (Tiger & Hanley, 2008). However, high rates of requesting reinforcement during FCT schedule thinning may be impractical (Hagopian, Boelter, & Jarmolowicz, 2011). Multiple (Mult) schedules of reinforcement have proven effective during FCT (Hanley, Iwata, & Thompson, 2001). However, the efficacy of Mult FCT may be limited if individuals are unable to discriminate multiple-schedule components (Betz, Fisher, Roane, Mintz, & Owen, 2013). Response restriction (RR), or removing access to communication materials during periods of extinction, can also reduce high levels of requesting while treating problem behavior (Roane et al., 2004) and may prove useful for children unable to discriminate Mult-FCT components. The current investigation was designed to evaluate childrens simple- and conditional-discrimination abilities prior to evaluating Mult FCT and RR. Results for one child with an autism spectrum disorder suggest the assessments can accurately predict responding during subsequent Mult FCT and RR sessions.
 
133. Treatment of High-Risk Elopement Across Clinic, Home, and School Settings
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TIMOTHY EDWARD GRAY (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Jaclyn Brande (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Melissa F. Pohl (Calvert County Public Schools), Huna Yim (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Theodosia R. Paclawskyj (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Elopement, defined as running more than 2 feet away from the proximity of a caregiver, is a challenging behavior to treat with individuals with intellectual disabilities. Caregivers may find it difficult to anticipate the behavior and prevent it from occurring (Kodak, Grow, & Northrup, 2004). In the present study, differential reinforcement of other behaviors (DRO), in combination with a response cost and criterion to re-earn reinforcers was used to decrease high risk elopement to near zero levels. The participant was an 8-year-old female diagnosed with Autistic Disorder and Disruptive Behavior Disorder NOS. A functional analysis for elopement was conducted and the results suggested that the participant would engage in elopement to obtain caregiver attention. Baseline sessions were implemented by staff in a pairwise design, followed by an attention analysis comparing noncontingent attention and moderate attention provided intermittently. Treatment components consisted of differential reinforcement of other behaviors, a response cost, and criterion to re-earn reinforcers, which resulted in a 100% reduction in elopement in the clinic setting. Because of ethical and safety concerns, a reversal to baseline was not conducted. However, a significant decrease in elopement was observed across home and school settings as treatment was implemented in a successive manner across settings. These treatment components were generalized to caregivers in the home, school, and community settings, and the efficacy of the treatment was maintained throughout all environments as evidenced by data collection. The current study successfully thinned the schedule of tangible reinforcement to 1 hour, allowing the treatment to be implemented with ease in the community. The primary caregivers continue to conduct the treatment without the assistance or supervision of clinical staff in home, school, and community settings, while the reductions in rates of elopement behaviors have continued to remain at or near zero levels after 5 months of follow-up data.
 
134. A Review of Hand and Object Mouthing Interventions for Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
HAILEY ORMAND (The University of Texas at Austin)
Abstract: Mouthing behaviors, including the mouthing of hands and other objects, occur in more than 10% of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and can have negative effects on health, social functioning, and adaptive behavior. Previous research indicates that mouthing behaviors are an important area for early intervention, as they are incompatible with most forms of communication and may restrict functional use of the hands. The current presentation provides a systematic review of the literature on interventions for mouthing behaviors in young children with ASD and other developmental disabilities, with a focus on the efficacy, feasibility, and social validity of those interventions. In contrast to the large body of literature describing mouthing interventions for adults, results of the present review revealed a paucity of research describing interventions for young children, especially children with ASD. Each of the seven studies included in the review is described and evaluated. Limitations of previous research are discussed, including the use of outdated and aversive techniques no longer considered appropriate for young children. Implications for treatment and promising future directions are considered.
 
135. Efficacy of an Early Intervention Program for Children With Autism: Evaluation of Initial Outcomes
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
LAURYN M. TOBY (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Although autism typically results in lifelong impairments in functioning, researchers have demonstrated that applied behavior analysis delivered early in life may improve intellectual and communicative functioning in many children with ASD (Anderson et al., 1987; Harris et al., 1991; Lovaas, 1987; Sheinkopf & Siegel, 1998). Whereas lawmakers have recommended that educators use evidence-based practices, there is a lack of consensus regarding appropriate service models for educating young children with autism (e.g., Simpson, 2003). The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of a developmentally focused and behaviorally-based early childhood intervention program for 8 children ages 3-5 years with ASD. In the current study, changes in childrens communicative, cognitive, adaptive, social and autism-related functioning over a 9-month period of enrollment were assessed using standardized measures, rating scales, and direct observations of behavior at baseline and follow-up. Data were analyzed to assess whether the children made measurable gains in the areas of communication, social skills and adaptive functioning that exceed what would be expected given their developmental trajectories at the start of the intervention. Additionally, measures of the programs treatment fidelity and treatment acceptability were collected. Results indicated high levels of treatment fidelity and significant gains in the majority, but not all of the children after 9 months of intervention.
 
136. Effects of Fluency Training on Textual Responding to Words on Reading Comprehension in Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KI SOON HONG (Kongju National University), Hyeim Kim (Kongju National University), Eunhee Paik (Kongju National University), Hye-Suk Lee Park (Kongju National University), Youngmo Yang (Kongju National University), Sukhee Kim (Kongju National University), Hyejin Shin (Kongju National University), Sungbong Lee (Baekseok University)
Abstract: The present study tested if fluency training on textual responding to words would improve reading comprehension with an 8-year old boy with autism. The dependent variables were numbers of correct answers to the questions which were given after the participant read a paragraph.. A paragraph composed of 110 to 130 Korean words was given during each trial and the paragraphs used in the study were similar in the level of difficult. A delayed multiple baselines across the following behaviors was utilized: answering questions after hearing a paragraph read by the experimenter, answering questions after reading a paragraph aloud , and answering questions after reading a paragraph silently. During the baseline, the participant was required to read 20 words which were selected from a paragraph with 90% of accuracy for two consecutive sessions. During the intervention condition, the participant was required to read 20 words selected from a paragraph for 1 minute twice. IOA was obtained for 30% of experimental sessions and the mean IOA was 93.3 with a range from 87.5 to 100%. The results demonstrated that fluency training improve reading comprehension of the participant. Key words: fluency, accuracy, reading comprehension, textual responding
 
137. Effects of Echoic Training on Listener Training and the Emergence of Speaker Relations
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
PAULO AUGUSTO COSTA CHEREGUINI (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos  ), Gardenia de Oliveira Barbosa (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos), Nassim Chamel Elias (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos), A. Celso Goyos (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos)
Abstract: The issue regarding the functional independence of speaker and listener behaviors is still not totally clarified. Although there are evidences that it is best to start tact training to yield the emergence of listener behaviors the reasons why this is a possibility is still open to scrutiny. In the present study we considered that in listener training procedures whether or not the participant is behaving as a speaker during the task is not clear. A task, which required the participant to emit an echoic response in the presence of the sample stimulus, was used. Two conditional discriminations were taught (A1B1/A2B2) with an observation response consisting of pointing to the sample with two six- to seven -year-old children with autism. Speaker relations (B1A1/B2A2) were introduced next as a probe. Next, after the presentation of the spoken verbal sample stimulus the participants were instructed to emit the correspondent echoic, and this phase was also followed by the B1A1/B2A2 probe condition. Finally, common naming was introduced for A1B1 and A2B2. Results showed that participants did not master conditional discrimination relations. Common naming also did not improve performance. Behavior prerequisites may be needed to yield emergence of listener and speaker relations.
 
138. Use of a Pause Procedure to Teach Appropriate Echoic Responding Following the Instruction, "Say"
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MEGAN ASHLEY LEVESQUE (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center  ), Nicole M. Rodriguez (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Jessica Niemeier (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often engage in indiscriminate echoic responding such as echolalia of the instruction "say" when prompted to repeat a word or phrase. Despite the prevalence of echolalia in ASD and its potential to interfere with the acquisition of functional language, few studies have addressed echolalia of instructions during language training (Ingvarrson, 2011; Kodak, 2012). In the present study, we used a nonconcurrent multiple baseline to evaluate a procedure in which a pause was introduced between the say prompt and the echoic prompt and then systematically shortened in duration on inappropriate echolalia of the word "say" and appropriate echolalia of the echoic prompt. Two children diagnosed with an ASD and one diagnosed with Unspecified Adjustment Reaction Disorder participated. For all participants, zero or near-zero levels of correct responding were observed during baseline in which there was differential reinforcement for correct echoic responding but no pause. Appropriate echoic responding increased for all participants following the pause procedure, although some participants required an additional blackout procedure to produce desirable outcomes. Appropriate echoic responding maintained across new words, therapists, and settings.
 
139. Increasing Vocal Manding Through Assessment and Training Procedures
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KARI J. ADOLF (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Amber R. Paden (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center  ), Megan Ashley Levesque (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center  ), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often lack socially appropriate vocal mands repertoires and may rely on specific echoic prompts provided by adults. This study examined the efficacy of a treatment package designed to train initial manding skills consisting of (a) a descriptive assessment to identify vocal sounds that could be shaped into recognizable mands, (b) a preference assessment to identify potential reinforcers for mands, and (c) the vocal mand assessment developed by Bourret, Vollmer, and Rapp (2004). Two participants diagnosed with ASD with no consistent mands or tacts at the start participated. The vocal mand assessment was comprised of four prompting levels, with progressively shorter reinforcement intervals associated with each successive prompt. Results indicated that novel, appropriate mands emerged during the assessment for both participants, but one participant (Hank) required nonspecific prompts and the other (Gilbert) required modeled prompts. These results suggest that this assessment package may be used to develop initial mands, but additional prompt fading procedures may also be needed to encourage independent manding. Bourret, J., Vollmer, T. R., & Rapp, J. T. (2004). Evaluation of a vocal mand assessment and vocal mand training procedures. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, (37), 129-144
 
140. Using a Chaining Prompt Within Matrix Training to Evaluate Acquisition and Recombinitive Generalization of Tacting Two-Digit Numbers
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANDREA CLEMENTS (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Tamara L. Pawich (Scott Center for Autism Treatment at Florida Tech), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center  ), Jennifer Felber (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Children with autism spectrum disorders are characterized by deficits in expressive language. Matrix training is a procedure that has been used to teach expressive language and evaluate re-combinative generalization of targets. In the current investigation, a child with autism was taught to tact two-digit numbers. The matrix consisted of the tens position on the first axis (20 - 90) and ones position (2 - 9) on the second axis producing 64 two-digit numbers. A pre-treatment baseline resulted in zero levels of independent responding for all numbers. Eight two-digit numbers were taught using chaining and progressive prompt delay procedures. The chaining prompt involved presenting flashcards with each the two-digit and one-digit number (e.g., 20 and 3 for 23), while simultaneously vocally modeling the correct number. A post-treatment baseline showed correct responding for all untrained two-digit numbers except for two numbers in the matrix. Standard prompt delay procedures were used to teach the two unlearned numbers. This treatment procedure will be evaluated with this participant to teach three digit numbers.
 
141. Using an Alternate Approach to Toilet Train Students with Autism in Public School: A Replication of Wilson's Generic Habit-training
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KATHLEEN MCCABE-ODRI (Partners in Learning, Inc.), Lauren DeGrazia (Partners in Learning, Inc.), Jennifer Cornely (Partners in Learning, Inc.), Nicole M. Rzemyk (Partners in Learning, Inc.), Nicole Pease (Partners in Learning, Inc.)
Abstract: Toilet training is an important life skill that many educators and/or parents struggle with teaching learners with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current study applied protocols from Wilsons Generic Habit-training (1993) to toilet train five subjects diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder: two school-aged boys, one preschool-aged boy, and two nursery-aged boys. Subjects in this study were tracked during baseline phase in order to calculate high frequency wet/soiled target intervals. During treatment phases, those subjects were only given the opportunity to void into the toilet during target intervals. Once subjects were voiding successfully within 3-5 minutes per opportunity for 80% (i.e., 4/5 days during that interval) criteria, a new target high frequency void interval is added. After approximately three target high frequency intervals achieve 80% success criteria, and voids outside of the toilet are reduces to 5% or less, the self-initiation of toileting needs and bowl training phases are introduced. Three subjects achieved success during the three target intervals for daytime continence during the study and are in the self-initiation and bowl phase. The other two subjects are beginning the three target intervals for daytime continence phase. Subjects 1 and 2 are also successfully voiding in the home setting.
 
142. Parent Training of Nail Cutting of a Phobic Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KARA REAGON (Reagon Behavioral Consulting and Rider University)
Abstract: Few empirically validated studies have been published on the treatment of phobias in children with developmental delays (Jones & Friman, 1999; Love, Matson & West, 1990; Ricciardi, Luiselli & Camare, 2006; Shabani & Fisher, 2006;). Only one study trained mothers to effectively treat their childs fear (Love, Matson & West, 1990). A multi-component treatment and parent-training package was implemented in the home for nail cutting of a 10 year old boy diagnosed with autism who exhibited phobic responses. The treatment package consisted of the use of escape extinction, noncontingent reinforcement, and shaping. Parent training consisted of written and didactic instruction, modeling, and fading. Efficacy of treatment packages was assessed using a changing criterion design. Maintenance and social validity data were also collected. The treatment package was effective in producing compliance with nail cutting with the experimenter. Parent training procedures produced effective parent implementation of procedures that maintained and generalized across nail clippers, fingernails and toenails. The study included interobserver agreement, procedural fidelity, and social validity measures. This is a data-based poster presentation. Results will be presented in graph and table formats.
 
143. Using a Post Reinforcement Expanded Language Model to Increase Language Production in Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LACIE BEATON (BEACON ABA Services, Inc), Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services)
Abstract: This study was a replication and expansion of research conducted by Smith and Ross in 2011, who attempted to replicate a paper presented in 2010 by Olive, Cage, Tarbox, and Chiang entitled The Effects of Expansion at the End of Discrete Trials. The current study evaluated the effects of an expanded language model on the subsequent production of language following the occurrence of a correct targeted response. Olive et al. found an increase in language production for all three subjects during discrete trial teaching when provided with an expanded language model. Additionally these expanded language performances were noted to occur in non-training settings. In contrast, Smith and Ross were unable to replicate the same findings with their participants. This study evaluated the effects of the procedure on three participants under the age of three. Only one of the three demonstrated expanded language while the other two did not. These results are consistent with those of Smith and Ross, but conflict with those found by Olive et al.
 
144. Effect of a Lag Schedule of Positive Reinforcement on Sharing Toys by a Boy With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BRYANT C. SILBAUGH (The University of Texas at Austin), Terry S. Falcomata (The University of Texas at Austin)
Abstract: A recent review (in preparation) of applied studies of lag and lag-like schedules of reinforcement on verbal and non-verbal behavior of children with developmental disabilities (e.g. Lee & Sturmey) suggests lag schedules may increase variant responding in individuals with autism. Sharing leisure items is an important skill for young children that sets the occasion for enjoyable interactions with, and learning from, other children. Lag schedules may have clinical utility in the treatment of restricted interests by children with autism manifested as a reduced tendency to relinquish preferred items to others in social activities (i.e. sharing toy cars). Using an ABAB design, we examined the effects of a lag 1 schedule of reinforcement in the form of attention on sharing toys by a boy with Autism. Preliminary data showed increased variant responding in the form of sharing different toys concurrent with the presence of the lag schedule. Implications and other potential uses of lag schedules for behavior intervention are discussed. Key words: Lag schedule, variability, Autism, sharing
 
145. Assessment of Motor and Vocal Imitation
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ELAINE ESPANOLA (Florida International University), Anibal Gutierrez Jr. (Florida International University)
Abstract: Imitation has been established as being vital in both the social and intellectual domains of development and the general acquisition of skills throughout the lifespan. Appropriately, researchers have focused on understanding the development of these skills and have been able to tentatively identify the natural trajectory by which imitative skills are acquired throughout the first and second year of life. These studies have also identified imitation deficits in overall imitation abilities, oral-facial imitation, and imitation of gestures in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. However, to date, findings from imitation scales have not been used to inform clinicians in the formulation of interventions that target imitation skills. Consequently, clinicians do not have clear protocol for choosing appropriate target imitative behavior. Emphasizing the lack of an experimentally validated protocol for arranging imitation tasks in a hierarchal order. The present study expects that Motor and Vocal Imitation Assessment (MVIA) will provide: an empirically validated procedure for ordering imitation tasks by difficulty, and an understanding of the correlation between imitation and other developmental areas.
 
146. Anxiety Presentation and Assessment in Nonhuman Primates: Implications for Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
HEATHER GONZALES (The University of Texas at Austin), Mark O'Reilly (The University of Texas at Austin), Russell Lang (Texas State University), Jeffrey S. Sigafoos (Victoria University of Wellington), Giulio Lancioni (University of Bari), Michelle Kuhn (The University of Texas at Austin), Laura Rojeski (The University of Texas at Austin), Deanna Longino (The University of Texas at Austin)
Abstract: Anxiety is increasingly being recognized as an issue for many individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Current instruments for assessing anxiety rely largely on verbal report, making them difficult or impossible to administer to individuals with ASD who can have significantly limited language development. Developing instruments for assessing anxiety that are created specifically for people with ASD and that emphasize nonverbal behaviors could improve the ability of clinicians to recognize, and thereby treat, anxiety in this population. Elements of nonhuman primate research on anxiety, including methodologies used to provoke anxiety and the behavioral indicators used to identify it might prove relevant to the study of anxiety in individuals with ASD who have limited verbal repertoires. This poster will summarize experimental research on anxiety involving nonhuman primate subjects since the year 2000. Within the 67 studies included, 18 unique types of experimental protocols and 58 behavioral indicators of anxiety were identified. The possible relevance of these experimental protocols and behavioral indicators to the assessment of anxiety among individuals with ASD with significantly limited language development will be discussed.
 
147. Emotion Regulation in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Review of the Current Literature and Future Directions
Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
KENDRA THOMSON (York University), Lisa Chan (York University ), Jonathan Weiss (York University)
Abstract: Emotion regulation (ER) difficulties are a common factor underlying the presentation of multiple emotional and behavioral problems in typically developing individuals and those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The goal of this systematic review was to provide an overview of how ER has been studied in individuals with ASD. We reviewed the past 20 years of ER research in the ASD population, using established keywords from the most comprehensive ER literature review in the typically developing population to date. Twenty-four studies were determined to be eligible for review, out of an initial sampling of 244. The types of methods used to assess ER in individuals with ASD included self-report, informant report, naturalistic observation/behaviour coding, physiological, and open-ended. Results indicated that naturalistic observation/behavioral coding methods were used in over 50% of the studies, but lacked consistency in terms of operational definitions of ER and measures of reliability and validity. Findings suggest that further research is needed to determine how to best define and assess ER in children with ASD, which will also have important clinical implications in terms of effective treatment of emotional difficulties in this population.
 
148. The Effects of Free and Restricted Access to Stereotypy on Subsequent Teaching Sessions of a Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MEGAN E VOSTERS (UW-Wisconsin-Milwaukee), Jeffrey H. Tiger (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee), Marshall L. Dermer (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee), Tamara S. Kasper (The Center for Autism Treatment)
Abstract:

Engaging in motor or vocal stereotypy often prohibits learning among children with autism. Recent literature suggests that allowing free access to stereotypy immediately prior to instructional periods may result in temporary satiation of sensory reinforcers associated with stereotypy. This results in greater engagement in teaching sessions relative to sessions preceded by periods in which stereotypy is restricted. This study replicated those procedures by comparing a childs responsiveness to a play intervention preceded by periods in which stereotypy was either permitted or restricted. Results indicate that allowing access to stereotypy may increase sensitivity to instructional programming.

 
149. Parent-Implemented Behavioral Interventions for Stereotypy: Some Long-Term Effects
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
Marc J. Lanovaz (
Université de Montréal
), John T. Rapp (Auburn University), MALENA ARGUMEDES (
Université de Montréal
), Isabella Maciw (
Université de Montréal
), Catherine Dorion (
Université de Montréal
), �milie Pr�gent-Pelletier (
Université de Montréal
)
Abstract: Prior research on using behavioral interventions to reduce engagement in stereotypy in children with autism and other developmental disabilities is limited insofar as researchers generally used personnel with formal training in education, psychology, or behavior analysis (e.g., clinical staff, paraprofessionals, research assistants) to assess their effects. Thus, the purpose of our study was to replicate and extend previous research on using multi-component behavioral interventions designed to reduce engagement in stereotypy by examining their long-term effects when implemented by parents. We alternated probe sessions within a single-case experimental design and measured the effects of parent-implemented behavioral interventions for stereotypy in 4 children with autism and other developmental disabilities. The parent-implemented interventions reduced at least one form of stereotypy in all 4 participants and increased engagement in an appropriate behavior in 3 participants. These effects persisted up to 24 weeks following the parent training sessions. Altogether, the results support (a) the involvement of parents as behavior change agents to reduce engagement in stereotypy and (b) the scheduling of regular, but infrequent (i.e., weekly to monthly), follow-up meetings to monitor the effects of behavioral interventions in outpatient and home-based service delivery models.
 
150. Evaluation of Matched Stimulation in the Treatment of Self-Injury: Matching by Type and Location
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JILLIAN E. MCCANCE (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee), Caitlin Shea Peplinski (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee  ), Jeffrey H. Tiger (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)
Abstract: Providing access to matched forms of stimulation can effectively reduce automatically maintained SIB. However, access to stimulation is likely insufficient to reduce SIB unless that stimulation is consumed in a similar manner to SIB (e.g., providing a vibrating massager to compete with head hitting is likely to be effective only if the individual applies that massager to the same location on their head as SIB is typically directed). The current study evaluated the importance of matched "location" of stimulation with an 11-year-old girl with autism who was referred for self-injurious body hitting. We compared rates of body hits during conditions in which location-matched stimulation was provided (i.e., continuous physical contact to her elbow) relative to conditions in which location-not-matched stimulation was provided (i.e., continuous physical contact with her head) and no stimulation. The location-matched stimulation resulted in the complete elimination of body hits whereas the non-matched stimulation was identical to no-stimulation. We then evaluated the effects of location-matched stimulation under extended noncontingent reinforcement conditions then taught the participant to vocally request the relevant stimulation.
 
151. Assessment and Treatment of Chronic Rumination Emitted by a Young Boy With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JULYSE MIGAN-GANDONOU (Florida International University), Yanerys Leon (Florida International University), Janice Coronel (Florida International University), Melissa Almario (Florida International University), Genevieve Macia (Florida International University)
Abstract: Rumination is reported to occur in 6-10% of individuals with developmental disabilities. Previous research has demonstrated the effectiveness of contingent oral hygiene on rumination of individuals living in an institutional setting (Foxx et al., 1979). This study extends previous research by a) incorporating a stimulus-avoidance assessment, b) fading the intrusiveness and decreasing the duration of the intervention, and c) evaluating transfer of treatment across settings and caregivers. The participant was a 9-year-old boy with autism. We conducted a functional analysis screening (Querim et al., 2013); results of which indicated rumination was maintained by automatic reinforcement. Next we conducted a stimulus avoidance assessment (Fisher et al, 1994) to identify a hierarchy of potential punishers. Tooth-brushing with toothpaste produced the highest avoidance-index. During treatment, rumination resulted in contingent tooth-brushing for 30 s and resulted in a 98% decrease relative to baseline. Following this phase, we evaluated the effect of the item that produced the lowest avoidance-index (Listerine spray) and rumination remained at near zero levels. Finally, rumination remained at near-zero levels during transfer of treatment across two settings and four caregivers. Results are consistent with previous research in demonstrating the effectiveness of contingent oral hygiene for the treatment of chronic rumination.
 
152. An Evaluation of Sensory Breaks With and Without Differential Reinforcement to Reduce Stereotypy in an Applied Setting
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KAITLIN BALKA (The Ivymount School), Sara L. Kuperstein (The Ivymount School)
Abstract: Sensory Integration Therapy is one of the most common interventions delivered to children with autism spectrum disorders; however, there are few studies that employ methodological rigor that support the effectiveness of Sensory Integration Therapy. The purpose of the current study was to experimentally evaluate the effectiveness of Sensory Integration Therapy (sensory breaks) with and without differential reinforcement to reduce stereotypy maintained by automatic reinforcement for an 8 year-old boy with autism. The setting was a self-contained classroom for students with multiple learning needs. After conducting an evaluation, the occupational therapist recommended several options for sensory breaks that were hypothesized to match the stimulation the student was seeking by engaging in stereotypy. A reversal design was employed to evaluate rates of stereotypy with no intervention in place, with scheduled sensory breaks, with differential reinforcement of other behavior, or with sensory breaks plus differential reinforcement of other behavior. Rates of stereotypy with sensory breaks revealed rates of stereotypy that were similar to no intervention. Data revealed that differential reinforcement of other behavior alone was effective in reducing stereotypy to low, stable rates. This study provides empirical research regarding the efficacy of sensory breaks in a classroom setting.
 
153. Identifying and Assessing Treatment Stimuli for the Treatment of Stereotypy
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANALISE A. HERRERA-MINTEER (St. Cloud State University), John T. Rapp (Auburn University), Stephanie Sheridan (Applied Behavior Consultants, Inc. ), Michelle L. Anderson (Florida Institute of Technology), Sarah Hardison (Advanced Behavioral Concepts)
Abstract: This study extended the research on the selection of treatment stimuli for the treatment of stereotypy. The participants in this study were 3 children with autism. Experiment 1 extended the research on the functional assessment of stereotypy and methods for selecting suitable treatment stimuli. We demonstrated the persistence of the target behavior in the absence of social reinforcement and the impact of the availability of toy stimuli on levels of stereotypy using reversal methodology. Access to toy stimuli reduced stereotypy slightly but the availability of toy stimuli was not sufficient to reduce stereotypy to socially acceptable levels. Experiment 2 evaluated the immediate and subsequent effects of environmental enrichment (EE) and EE plus response cost (EE+RC) procedures on stereotypy using a two-component multi-element design. Environmental enrichment alone was effective for one participant and EE+RC was also effective for the same participant with different materials. During the second component of the EE+RC sequence, engagement in stereotypy was higher than in the control sequence for two participants. The results of this study demonstrated the importance of selecting treatment stimuli based on both preference and impact on stereotypy, as well as the utility and limitations of EE and EE+RC as treatments for stereotypy.
 
154. Function-Based Behavior Intervention for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders in Japan:A Pilot Study
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
KOHEI TOGASHI (Individual), Sakurako Sherry Tanaka (Mutlicultural Alliance of Behavior Analysts)
Abstract: Function-based behavior intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are demonstrated to be effective for reducing problem behavior and for increasing desirable behavior. The purpose of the study was two-fold: 1) to review the published studies on functional behavior assessment (FBA) and experimental functional analysis (EFA), and 2) to conduct a pilot survey on practitioners who work with children with ASDs about their use of EFA in Japan. Single case studies throughout 2013 from four Japanese academic journals were included in the literature review. 45 professionals participated in the pilot survey. The results of the literature review indicated that although there is increasing number of single case studies that adopt FBA, only few studies utilize EFA. The pilot survey indicated 13.3% of the practitioners reported that they have experience conducting EFA. The participants in the pilot survey were not selected in a manner that ensures random selection or representative of the Japanese professionals who work with children with ASDs. Hence, the use of EFA in applied field remain in an exploratory stage of investigation.
 
155. Using Differential Reinforcement to Replace Problem Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ALICE M. WALKUP (Florida Institute of Technology)
Abstract: Children with autism often receive intervention in which there is a ratio of one instructor per learner. When it is time for services to be reduced, dependency on this individualized attention and prompting to remain engaged often becomes apparent. It is suggested that learners gradually increase their ability to wait for assistance and learn to rely on other cues to remain engaged in independent activities and tasks. This study involves a seven year old student with autism who did not consistently display an ability to independently engage in tasks or semi-structured activities. When faced with a task component he found challenging, and adult assistance was not immediately available, he would engage in problem behavior. Appropriate replacement behaviors were identified and data was collected on the interreponse time of the occurrence of problem behavior. Data analysis indicates that the differential reinforcement (DRO) procedure was successful in increasing the duration of time the student was able to remain actively engaged in independent tasks.
 
156. Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviour for the Reduction of Severe Nail Biting
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LOUISE HEFFERNAN (Irish Centre of Behavioural Support and Research), Danielle Lyons (Irish Centre of Behavioural Support and Research)
Abstract: The effects of a differential reinforcement procedure were investigated for the treatment of severe self-injurious nail biting in an individual diagnosed with autism. A Functional Behaviour Assessment identified that the behaviour was maintained by automatic reinforcement. A comprehensive preference assessment was also conducted in order to identify possible sensory reinforcers that would provide the individual with similar, competing sensory stimulation as the nail biting. The results indicate that the nail biting was successfully reduced, and maintained near zero levels following the implementation of a rule following procedure for having calm hands (DRO) and access to preferred competing sensory stimuli. The sensory stimuli were presented in the form of choice between different containers filled with sensory materials that the individual could access for a pre-determined amount of time. Further research on the application of differential reinforcement procedures and sensory reinforcement for self-injurious nail biting maintained by automatic reinforcement is warranted in order to further evaluate this studies effectiveness.
 
157. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Non-Contextual and Idiosyncratic Speech for a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ASHLEY MACKALL (Virginia Institute of Autism), Emily Huber Callahan (Virginia Institute of Autism), Erin Bland (St. Cloud State University)
Abstract:

Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often display inappropriate social behaviors including repetitive, non-contextual, or idiosyncratic speech. These behaviors can be disruptive, and can have a negative impact on an individuals ability to integrate in social and community settings (Koegel, Koegel & Frea, 1992). If the variables maintaining inappropriate social behaviors (e.g., non-contextual speech) can be identified, this information could help in the development of interventions to improve social outcomes. Previous research has demonstrated that functional analysis methodology has been successful in determining the maintaining variables of such speech patterns. (Rehfeldt & Chambers, 2003). This poster describes an analog functional analysis and subsequent intervention to address non-contextual and idiosyncratic speech for a nine-year-old boy with ASD. During the functional analysis, five conditions were alternated in a multielement design, after conducting an initial probe to determine relevant conditions. Treatment includes DRA + Extinction, and subsequently, the addition of differential reinforcement of low rates of behavior.

 
158. A Comparison of Staff Training Procedures Using Teacher Performance and Rate Accuracy (TPRA) and TPRA Paired With Video
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Matthew C. Howarth (Verbal Behavior Associates), GRETCHEN S. GRUNDON (Verbal Behavior Associates)
Abstract: Repetitive, stereotypic behaviors often interfere with or replace appropriate toy play for children with autism spectrum disorders. In order to reduce and limit stereotypic behavior and increase appropriate play, toy conditioning procedures have been effective. It is imperative that staff working with children using toy conditioning procedures understand and have the ability to implement the strategy with fidelity. This study tested the effectiveness of two training and coaching models for teaching interventionist level staff to implement toy conditioning procedures. Six behavior interventionists delivering instruction to learners with autism in their homes were participants for this study. All participants were observed implementing toy conditioning procedures with a preschool aged child with autism while a supervisor recorded data using the TPRA (Teacher Performance and Rate Accuracy) on the childs appropriate play and the participants correct implementation of reinforcement or correction procedures during 20 5-second intervals, using whole interval recording. Three of the participants were given feedback using data from the TPRA as a guide for coaching. Three additional participants were given feedback with TPRA and also observed themselves implementing the procedure on video. The study compared the effectiveness of feedback with the TPRA alone and feedback with TPRA paired with video coaching.
 
159. The Effects of a Peer-mediated Intervention on Social Competence of Children with ASD
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JOSE MARTINEZ (University of Florida), Maureen Conroy (University of Florida), Brittany Werch (University of Florida), Kaycee Reese (University of Florida), Kathryn Marsh (University of Florida)
Abstract: Social competence is a critical developmental feature essential for succeeding in life as it allows one to effectively carry out interpersonal goals. As children interact with others, social competence skills begin to develop early and continue to evolve throughout their lives. Although many individuals develop social skills without explicit instruction, for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) the acquisition of social skills can be quite challenging. Without learning the skills needed to successfully interact with others in their environment, children with ASD are at a distinct disadvantage in accessing critical learning opportunities required for success later in their lives. This poster will present findings from an assessment-based peer-mediated intervention designed to increase social competence skills in children with ASD in school settings. The overall aim of the intervention is to increase the ability of children with ASD to engage in reciprocal social interactions with their peers in school-based environments. In order to achieve that goal, four children with autism were paired with a socially competent peer in order to form four dyads. Peers were taught to use evocative socials skills (e.g., comment) that effectively engage in reciprocal social interactions with the children with ASD. Data are currently being collected and findings will be presented and discussed in terms of implications for peer-mediated school-based interventions.
 
160. The Effects of a Self-Management System, I-Connect, on Escape-Motivated Behavior of a Secondary Student With Autism in a High School Classroom
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LACHELLE CLEMONS (Missouri State University), Linda G. Garrison-Kane (Missouri State University), Howard P. Wills (Juniper Gardens Children's Project), Ben A Mason (The University of Kansas)
Abstract: Many studies have indicated that self-management is an effective strategy for teaching individuals with autism to manage their own behaviors (Strain, et al., 2011; Todd & Reid, 2006; Wehmeyer, Yeager, Bolding, Agran, & Hughes, 2003). Furthermore, self-management strategies have been shown to increase student engagement when applied in both clinical and natural settings (Southall & Gast, 2011; Strain, Wilson, & Dunlap, 2011). An ABAB withdrawal design was employed with a secondary student diagnosed with autism in a public school to assess the effects of a self-monitoring package, I-Connect, during academic sessions. The results of the intervention on the students on-task behavior were: baseline data of the percentage of intervals on-task behavior ranged from 55-71% across all sessions, with a mean percentage of intervals off-task at 63%. When the intervention was implemented, on-task behavior increased to 97-99% of intervals recorded with a mean of 98.2%. During the return to baseline phase, on-task behavior decreased to 63-75% with a mean of 71.6%. Intervention was reintroduced to determine if there was a functional relationship between the increase in on-task behavior and the independent variables. During the second phase of intervention, on-task behavior increased to 93-100%, with a mean of 98%.
 
161. The Effects of a Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing Procedure on the Acquisition of Conditioned Reinforcement for Observing Book Stimuli in Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Matthew C. Howarth (Verbal Behavior Associates), MATTHEW CARBONE (Verbal Behavior Associates), Gretchen S. Grundon (Verbal Behavior Associates)
Abstract: We tested the effects of a stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure on the acquisition of conditioned reinforcement for observing book stimuli. We used a multiple baseline design across three children with autism. The study was conducted in self-contained special day classrooms located in a school district within a major metropolitan area. Pre-intervention probes revealed that none of the participants observed books during a five-minute free play session. Next, a stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure was implemented to condition observing books stimuli as a reinforcer. Following mastery of the stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure, all three participants acquired conditioned reinforcement for observing book stimuli. The results of this study support prior research that children can acquire conditioned reinforcement for books using a stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure (Nuzzolo-Gomez, R., Leonard, M.A., Ortiz, E., Rivera-Valdes, C.L., & Greer, R.D., 2002; Tsai, H., & Greer, R.D., 2006).
 
162. Teaching Games to Young Children With Autism Using Video Modeling and Restricted Interests
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SUNHWA JUNG (Otterbein University), Diane M. Sainato (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: Teaching play skills can enhance appropriate play skills and positive social interactions with peers, and decrease inappropriate behavior of children with ASD. This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a video modeling intervention with the use of special interests on increasing the engagement with games and with peers for three young children with autism. A multiple-probe design across three subjects was employed. The children's restricted interests were embedded into a video modeling intervention and games. The results indicated that all three children with autism demonstrated increased engagement with the games and social engagement with their peers. In addition, the inappropriate behavior of these children dramatically decreased with the intervention as a collateral effect. The effects were maintained during follow-up and generalized to a novel game. IOA data were collected for average 40.3 % of the sessions throughout all conditions and the mean agreements were 96 %. Social validity data indicated that the study was meaningful and the intervention was feasible and effective. This study supports the use of the special interests of children with autism and that strength-based interventions may be an effective means for teaching play skills and facilitating spontaneous and interactive play.
 
163. An Analysis of the Effects of Antecedent Exercise on Maladaptive Behaviors
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DIANE MELICK (The Aurora School), Laura Cwynar (The Aurora School)
Abstract: Previous research has shown that exercise used as an antecedent condition is associated with a reduction of maladaptive behaviors, such as aggression and stereotypical behavior, of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Maladaptive behaviors can interfere with learning and lead to more restrictive educational and residential placements. This study used a parametric research design to examine the effect of exercise on the behavior of three students ages 14, 17, and 19 years old, having a diagnosis of ASD. Students walked on a treadmill while wearing a heart rate monitor to track their level of exertion. Results will be analyzed to determine the effect of different durations of exercise, as well as the effect of varying the level of intensity of exercise. If a reduction in maladaptive behavior is observed, the duration of the effect will be reported. Implications for the use of antecedent exercise in schools and community-based programs will be discussed.
 
164. Comparing the Effectiveness of Social Stories and Video Modelling on Social Skills
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CEYDA TURHAN (Uludag University), Sezgin Vuran (Anadolu University Egitim Fakultesi)
Abstract: The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of social stories and video modelling while teaching social skills to three children with autism spectrum disorders. The skills of playing independently were targeted to be increased in this study. Participants were 6 years old in this study. An alternating treatment desing was used to compare social stories and video modelling. Further more, social validities of the study was investigated by asking opinions of the children's mothers.The results of the study showed that video modelling is a more effective model while teaching social stories.
 
165. The Effects of Ipad Based Video Modelling for Teaching Self-Care Skills to a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Esin Pektas (Anadolu University), ELIF TEKIN-IFTAR (Anadolu University)
Abstract: Visual support and tools have been used effectively for teaching various skills and regulating daily lives of children with autism spectrum disorders. Videomodelling as a one of the visual support strategies has been used commonly in teaching children with autism spectrum disorders. Literature also has shown the effective use of ipad (Kagohara et al., 2013). Technologies for teaching children with autism spectrum disorders. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of iPad based videomodelling in teaching three self-care skills to children with autism spectrum disorders. A four-year-old boy with autism spectrum disorders is the participant of the study. The study was designed with a multiple probe design across behaviors. Baseline, intervention, maintenance, and generalization sessions were conducted in the study. In addition to that, the social validity of the study was investigated by conducting interview with the mother s of the participant. The study is still in progress and the findings will be shared with the audience during presentation.
 
166. Utilizing a Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) Model of Assessment and Progress-Monitoring for Supplemental Class-Wide Academic Interventions in an Autism Support Program.
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SANDRA F. KOKOLIS (ABC Consultants at Rowan University), Philip L. Concors (ABC Consultants at Rowan University)
Abstract: Behavior Analyst Consultants administered survey-level Curriculum-Based Assessments (CBA) to determine baseline fluency measures across multiple academic skills including Early Literacy, Oral Reading, Reading Comprehension, Mathematics Computation, Spelling, and Written Expression, and to inform focused supplemental academic support programming. Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) data collected to evaluate the selected evidence-based interventions suggested notable improvement for all students in most targeted curricular domains. Treatment Acceptability measures suggested high levels of satisfaction by educators and parents.
 
167. A Peer Mediated Social Interaction Intervention For Toddlers With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ROBYN MATSUMOTO (Applied Behavior Consultants, Inc. )
Abstract: For children with autism, acquiring the skill set and knowledge necessary for interacting positively and successfully with peers is a challenge. Previous research has shown that peer mediated approaches have been one of the most effective types of social intervention for school age children with autism. The present study examined the effectiveness of a peer mediated play intervention for increasing socialization skills in 3 toddlers, under the age of three, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There were three male participants diagnosed with autism and each were paired with a typical peer model, either of the same age or slightly older. By creating an intervention that teaches children the topography and function of play, the opportunities to interact with their peers may increase and lead to more positive peer interactions and promote more opportunities of appropriate play for the future. The data indicate that toddlers with autism can increase their joint attention, social behavior and vocalizations when paired with typical peer models who have been coached as play partners.
 
168. A Comparison of Different Error-Correction Procedures on Skill Acquisition During Discrete Trial Instruction
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Regina A. Carroll (West Virginia University), BRAD JOACHIM (West Virginia University), Claire C. St. Peter (West Virginia University), Nicole Robinson (West Virginia University)
Abstract: A variety of error-correction procedures exist for educators to implement during discrete trial instruction (DTI) with children with autism. Research examining the relative effectiveness of different error-correction procedures, however, is sparse. In the current study we compared the effects of four commonly used error-correction procedures on skill acquisition for two children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder and two children who engaged in chronic and severe problem behavior. The results showed that for each participant multiple error-correction procedures were effective; however, for each participant one or two specific error-correction procedures led to more efficient skill acquisition. In general, participants acquired the target skills in the fewest number of teaching sessions during an error-correction procedure that consisted of re-presenting a trial following an error until the participant engaged in a correct independent response. Overall, the findings of the current study suggest that it is important to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of different error-correction procedures for an individual learner during DTI.
 
169. How Can Video Modeling be Used to Increase Independence and Decrease Prompt Dependency in Students With Autism?
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JILL SCIONTI (Eden II The Genesis School)
Abstract: Video modeling is an effective and evidence based instructional strategy that positively supports the improvement of independence, generalization and maintenance of skills and reduction of prompt dependency. Created in the image of Albert Banduras observational learning techniques, observers imitate the positively reinforced behaviors of the models in recorded videos, even when a reinforcer is not present. Target behaviors and skills in areas of academics, daily living, social, communication and many others can be addressed and improved through observational learning in video modeling. Various video modeling strategies such as peer, adult and self-models as well as point of view and mixed models can be implemented to support individual learning preferences. Utilizing various sources of technology as well as a single stimulus will reduce distractions and support the advancement of positive behaviors and skills. Video models can be used for skill acquisition, antecedent based strategies, self-regulating and as interactive schedules tools. Observational learning and imitating appropriate behaviors and skills through video modeling is a highly effective instructional technique that supports student learning, independence, generalization and overall success.
 
170. Video Self-Modeling as an Intervention to Increase the Social Skills of a Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAUREN SANTALY (Hofstra University), Mary Ellen McDonald (Hofstra University)
Abstract: There is a growing body of research depicting the effectiveness of Video Self-Modeling (VSM) as an intervention in improving various areas of functioning for children with autism spectrum disorders, particularly in the area of social and communication skills. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of VSM in improving the social skills of a child with autism spectrum disorder and to expand upon previous research on VSM by measuring successful social interactions with peers and adults. This study found that VSM was successful in significantly improving the social skills of a student with autism.
 
 
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