Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


40th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2014

Event Details

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Poster Session #299
Sunday, May 25, 2014
7:00 PM–9:00 PM
W375a-d (McCormick Place Convention Center)
123. Social Skills Training for Children with ASD: Examining Naturalistic Teaching Procedures in Analog School Settings
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LORI BETH VINCENT (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Jennifer M. Asmus (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Gregory L. Lyons (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Tiffany Born (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Vanessa Schwartz (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Megan Willes (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
Abstract: Previous research has suggested that applied behavior analysis (ABA) based social skills training for children with ASD is more effective and produces increased generalization of skills when implemented in natural versus analog school settings. It is unclear, however, if this difference in effectiveness is a result of the setting or the intervention procedures commonly used in each setting. The current study utilized a multiple baseline across participants design to examine whether social skills intervention practices commonly employed in natural environments are effective when conducted in analog school settings. Five students with ASD who were included in general education classrooms within public elementary schools (kindergarten through 2nd grade) participated. Observation data were collected on the social interactions of each student with ASD and general education peers in the analog setting and three generalization settings within the school. Following training and with ongoing coaching, special education teachers and assistants implemented the intervention daily for ten weeks. Results from the current study provide evidence related to the effectiveness of naturalistic behavioral intervention strategies when implemented in analog settings. Fidelity of implementation and social validity as reported by stakeholders will also be presented.
124. Speak Up! Shaping Vocal Volume in Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SHERRY FORZLEY (Partnership for Behavior Change; Ball State University), Sorah Stein (Partnership for Behavior Change)
Abstract: Children mastered vocal skills more rapidly when they learned through shaping (Newman et al., 2009). Vocal volumes that are too loud or too quiet impair communication in social and academic settings, thus are less likely serve the function of accessing needs & wants. We identified three males diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder with fundamental mand, tact, and intraverbal repertoires (Skinner, 1957) whose volume was either too loud or too quiet for functional, social interactions and to further enhance their verbal behavior. Using the app, Decibel 10th to measure volume, we established a range for communicative speech (70db - 90db) and then collected baseline data, which indicated that one child consistently vocalized below 70dB, the second child vocalized between 45dB and 85dB, and the third child vocalized using appropriate volumes, however, he reads, and at times, speaks at volumes greater than 90dB, therefore we included him in the intervention. The treatment phase incorporated imitating familiar sounds, tacting familiar items, using familiar intraverbals and reading aloud with visual feedback provided by the app, displayed on the therapists smartphone. Once mastery criteria are reached, progress will include generalization into home, social, and educational settings.
125. On Establishing Response Diversity in Leisure and Daily Routines in an Individual With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AIMEE KIDDER (New England Center for Children), Jessica L. Sassi (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: One of the defining characteristics of autism spectrum disorders is difficulty tolerating variations in established routines (Hertzig & Shapiro, 1990). This study evaluates the use of lag reinforcement schedules and a training procedure to promote response variability in a 17 year-old male diagnosed with autism. During baseline, reinforcement was delivered contingent on trial completion, regardless of response topography (variability). During lag reinforcement sessions, reinforcement was delivered contingent on the task arrangement differing from that of the previous trial. A multiple baseline across responses design was used to assess the effects of treatment and possible generalization across responses. Data show that during all baseline sessions, response topography was invariant. Introduction of the lag schedule alone was ineffective in promoting response diversity until a training procedure that consisted of a pre-session forced exposure (physical guidance to complete varied topographies of the target response) was introduced in conjunction with the lag schedule. To date, the lag schedule with training has resulted in increased variability for the two targeted responses and generalization to one alternate task has been noted; topographies of two other responses are unchanged. Interobserver agreement data have been collected for 36.9% of sessions and equals 100%.
126. Establishing Stimulus Control: A Component Analysis
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMI J. ROURKE (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Kari J. Adolf (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Nitasha Dickes (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Nicole M. Rodriguez (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Multiple schedules have been used as a means of decreasing the amount of functional communication responding during periods in which reinforcement is not available without compromising the strength of the response-reinforcer relation. Despite these advantages, limited research has been aimed at identifying which componentsaside from schedule-correlated stimuliare necessary or sufficient to establish discriminative control over mands. As a notable exception, Betz, Fisher, Roane, Mintz, and Owen (2013) showed that gradual schedule thinning was not necessary to maintain discriminated responding under lean multiple schedules. These authors hypothesized that repeated exposure to shifts in the contingencies with their correlated stimuli (e.g., 10 alternations between 45-s periods of reinforcement and 15-s periods of extinction) may be important for establishing stimulus control. In the current study, we used a multiple baseline design across signals to evaluate the effects of rapid alternations of the signals as well as other procedural variations on the establishment of stimulus control. One participant diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder and a history of excessive manding participated. Despite repeated exposure to sessions consisting of 60 s of reinforcement in the presence of an Sd and 240 s of extinction in the presence of an S^, stimulus control was not established until the components of the multiple schedule were rapidly alternated within session. Like Betz et al., once discriminated responding was obtained at shorter durations gradual thinning was not necessary.
127. Training and Evaluation for Reporting with Three-word Utterances in a Student With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SAWAKO KAWAMINAMI (Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sceinces), Fumiyuki Noro (University of Tsukuba)
Abstract: The present study examined procedures of teaching functional reporting with three-word utterances in a boy with autism spectrum disorder.Following an instruction of a listener,the boy was required to walk to the display monitor,observe a video picture,walk back,and report it.After he was able to report what he saw with three-word utterances,generalization probes across persons,stimuli,and settings were assessed.In addition,for the purpose of evaluating communication functions of his reporting,we designed to provide opportunities to repair communication breakdowns by introducing Nonacknowledgmentconditions.Five months later,we re-examined the effect of these training.The result indicated that he was able to report what he saw with three-word utterances in generalization and maintenance probes,and he also showed spontaneously attention-getting behaviors to the listener during attention-getting conditions.Moreover,we found that he tried to look other trainer to share his attention without training.We discussed the effectiveness of training procedures to facilitate reporting as functional communication skills.
128. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Rumination in a Child With Autism Using DRI and NCR
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
COREY MILES COHRS (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Keith D. Allen (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Ray Burke (The Prevention Group)
Abstract: Rumination is characterized by the regurgitation, rechewing, and reswallowing of previously ingested food. Although the prevalence of chronic rumination remains relatively low, if left untreated chronic rumination may lead to serious health concerns and complications. In the current study a functional analysis conducted in a school setting suggested that rumination exhibited by a young child diagnosed with autism was multiply maintained by attention and automatic reinforcement. Next, teachers were trained to deliver social reinforcement contingent upon incompatible behavior for a forty five minute period following lunch. Following which, a preference assessment with various edibles was conducted, in order to identify one suitable for a variable time delivery. Subsequent conditions compared the effectiveness of DRI relative to DRI with an NCR schedule. The effects were replicated and finally, the effects of an NCR schedule alone were assessed. The combined DRI and NCR intervention and the NCR schedule alone resulted in the most stable reduction of rumination.
129. An Evaluation of Existing and Novel Mands Used During Functional Communication Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ASHLEY MATTER (University of Maryland, Baltimore County), Jennifer R. Zarcone (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Rebcca Getachew (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: When selecting an alternative response to reinforce during functional communication training, clinicians may prefer to select an existing response rather than a novel response, given that training the former likely results in more rapid acquisition (Winborn et al., 2002). However, previous studies have demonstrated higher rates of problem behavior are associated with existing responses (Derby et al., 1998; Winborn et al., 2002). In the current study, participants were two boys diagnosed with autism admitted to an inpatient unit for the assessment and treatment of severe problem behavior. The participants were first taught to communicate for a toy or attention using an existing response (i.e., vocal) and three novel responses (e.g., a vocal output device) via a brief 20-trial assessment. The novel response that the participants could communicate with the least amount of prompting was chosen for further evaluation. The existing and novel responses were then assessed using a reversal design. Afterward, the schedule of reinforcement was thinned for both responses. Preference for either response was identified using a concurrent schedules design. Results of the study demonstrated that for both participants, problem behavior decreased significantly with both responses and that both participants preferred the novel response over the existing response.
130. A Comparison of the Influence of Instructions on Vocal Stereotypy and Immediate Echolalia With a Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANDREA CLEMENTS (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center  ), Wayne W. Fisher (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center), Amber R. Paden (Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: Many children with autism spectrum disorders engage in vocal stereotypy, including echolalia. Engaging in these behaviors may interfere with a childs performance on academic tasks (e.g., intraverbal training), by affecting the childs ability to attend to discriminative stimuli and controlling prompts. In the current investigation an antecedent manipulation was evaluated to determine the influence of instructions on vocal stereotypy. For this participant, vocal stereotypy appeared to be evoked when the therapist instructed him to display ready behavior (i.e., hands in lap, quietly looking toward the therapist). Vocal stereotypy and latency to ready behavior were compared across two conditions. In the vocal instruction condition, the child was prompted using a least-to-most prompting procedure following the vocal instruction, Show me youre ready. In the non-vocal instruction condition, the child was prompted using non-vocal cues (e.g., leaning forward, gesture prompts, physical guidance). Results indicated that the participant displayed lower levels of vocal stereotypy and shorter latencies to ready behavior in the non-vocal relative to the vocal instruction condition. This evaluation may be useful for other children that exhibit vocal stereotypy evoked by similar environmental stimuli.
131. Use of a Group Picture Activity Schedule to Teach Interactive Play Skills
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMIE I. HAHN (BEACON Services), Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services)
Abstract: Interactive play is a challenge for many children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). A variety of interventions have proven effective in teaching these skills to children with ASD, however, meaningful interactions with peer models are often absent (Partington & Sunberg, 1999). The current study expanded on the literature regarding activity schedules (McClannahan & Krantz, 1999, McClannahan & Krantz, 2005) by using a modified activity schedule to support interactive play between a child with ASD and a neuro-typical peer. The two participants were simultaneously taught to follow an activity schedule designed to support cooperative play and reciprocal interaction between two individuals. The target actions included; greetings and farewells, making eye contact, commenting, playing within a close proximity to one another, and cooperatively playing (turn taking) with a shared toy. A multiple baseline design across three activity scenarios was used to evaluate the effects of the group activity schedule. The results indicated that social interactions, eye contact, and play skills increased and generalized to novel activities.
132. The Effects of Preference Assessment Type on Problem Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SARA BETH RAWLINGS (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Jeanne M. Donaldson (Texas Tech University), Casey L. Allen (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Kristi E. Jeffery (Kennedy Krieger Institute), SungWoo Kahng (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare three common preference assessment procedures to determine which results in both identification of a reinforcer and low rates of problem behavior during the assessment, while controlling for the duration of access to the items. This study was conducted with four participants admitted to an inpatient hospital for the treatment of severe problem behavior. Past research has shown that individuals with problem behavior maintained by access to tangible items may engage in higher rates of problem behavior during paired stimulus (PS) and multiple-stimulus without replacement (MSWO) preference assessments. A multielement design was used to compare problem behavior during the PS, MSWO, and free operant (FO) preference assessments when the time with access to the item was kept constant across all assessments. A second observer collected data for 48% of sessions, with an average of 97.67% (range 80%-100%) interobserver agreement. Results indicated that the PS and MSWO preference assessments produced higher rates of problem behavior than the FO and required more time to achieve the same preference hierarchy.

Successful Inclusion of Non-Verbal Students with ASD in a Classroom: Literature review

Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
SHRADDHA MACWAN (Hofstra University Alumni)

Federal laws require schools to provide research-based practices to students within the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE). It inevitably becomes the classroom teachers responsibility to ensure that students with ASD are provided with education derived from research-based interventions. When it comes to learning, all children have unique needs and different styles of learning. Children with ASD (particularly non-verbal students) present needs that may be particularly challenging for teachers to deal with, especially when they lack the skills and experience needed to overcome these challenges. As all students have the right to quality education, all teachers must be well equipped for the job of teaching these young minds. It is important that successful evidence-based techniques for teaching students, reach the teachers so that they may be able to implement these for a better working classroom. The poster presentation will be a literature review that will provide teachers with a list of techniques (technology, instruction methods, students self-management skills etc.) that have been used successfully for non-verbal students with ASD within an inclusion classroom, with minimal intrusion.

134. FMRI Imaging Results for Adolescents Who Received Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention for Autism as Preschoolers
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TAMLYNN DIANNE GRAUPNER (Adler School of Professional Psychology), Glen O. Sallows (Wisconsin Early Autism Project, Inc.), Richard Davidson (Waisman Center for Brain Imaging and Behavior, Uni)
Abstract: Although many early intensive behavioral treatment studies have found large improvement in about half of autistic children, there is little information on whether this improvement is reflected in normalized brain functioning. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging data was collected at age 16 for 15 adolescents who had received intensive behavioral treatment from age three to seven. Data for six typically developing adolescents, and a group of 11 untreated high functioning adolescents with autism with similar age and IQ served as controls. All children were scanned during a facial emotion recognition task to examine patterns of brain activation in areas known to function abnormally in autism during this particular task: fusiform gyrus, amygdala, frontal and occipital lobes. Diffusion Tensor Imaging was used to examine connectivity, also found to be abnormal in autism. Results showed that adolescents who had shown large improvement during treatment had brain activation and connectivity patterns similar to those of the typically developing group and different from those in the untreated group. These findings suggest that early intensive behavioral treatment and processes underlying brain plasticity may result in remediation of abnormal brain functioning, at least for children who show large improvement during treatment.
135. Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing: A Comparison of Two Procedures to Increase Spontaneous Vocalizations in Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
DANIEL GELARDI (Eden II Programs), Geoffrey D. DeBery (Eden II Programs)
Abstract: The ability to communicate through language production is one of the main deficits in young learners with autism. There is evidence to support Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing (SSP) as an effective tool in early speech acquisition (spontaneous vocalizations, echoics, mands) in people with autism who demonstrate non-existent to low verbal repertoires. Previous studies have contained several variations of Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing procedures. In the current study, participants were exposed to two different variations of Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing (Primed Delivery Pairing & Simple Delivery Pairing) using a multiple schedule design. Results of each procedure were compared to determine which procedure produced greater immediate and subsequent increases in the rate of spontaneous vocalizations. Data analysis was conducted for each procedure on an individual basis. Results for Participant 1 portray an immediate decrease in spontaneous vocalizations within both procedures, with a greater decrease in spontaneous vocalizations in Primed Delivery Pairing when compared to Simple Delivery Pairing. Participant 1 results also show an increase of spontaneous vocalizations subsequent to intervention for both procedures, with a higher increase in spontaneous vocalizations for Primed Delivery Pairing when compared to Simple Delivery Pairing.
136. Modification of Articulation Errors in a High-Functioning Child With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
KELSEY BALLEW (Florida State University), Kassi J. VanderPloeg (Florida State University)
Abstract: Previous studies have suggested that vocal imitation training alone is insufficient in modifying articulation errors and must be accompanied by trainings during more natural speech to achieve sufficient improvement in the overall speech of an individual (Eikeseth & Nesset, 2003; McReynolds, 1981). A treatment package was used to modify the incorrect pronunciation of the /th/ phoneme in a high functioning 9 year old boy with autism. Vocal imitation training was utilized and involved oral motor modeling, immediate feedback, prompt fading, and differential reinforcement of responses more properly blended within the word or phrase. Two reinforcement criteria were used to shape responses. Articulation of the /th/ phoneme in all positions of the words and within sentences significantly improved, generalized to untrained words within sentences and maintained at a 3-month follow-up. Correct articulation within incidental speech was targeted using an error correction procedure for every incorrect emission of the /th/ phoneme and obtained an averaged improvement from 17% accuracy to 96% accuracy that maintained post- vocal imitation training. The efficacy of the combined procedures on the articulation improvement of the /th/ phoneme in natural speech was exhibited.
137. Using a Mirror to Teach a Girl With Autism to Imitate in the Natural Environment
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
MARIA DEMAURO (The David Gregory School), Maridsa Reyes (The David Gregory School), Gladys Williams (Centro de Investigacion y Ensenanza del Lenguaje), Stephen John Wuensch (David Gregory School)
Abstract: The purpose of this intervention was to teach generalized imitation to a 3 year-old non-verbal girl with autism. We used the mirror protocol by Longano and Greer (2006) to teach this skill. The procedure was implemented in the students pre-K special needs classroom. It consisted of an initial probe of 20 motor imitations without the use of a mirror. We proceeded to teach gross motor movements in groups of 4 that were not on the probe list. Every time the student met criterion the initial probe was re-assessed to determine acquisition of generalized imitation. We stopped teaching when the student acquired 90% correct responses from the untrained initial probe. The results indicated that this procedure was effective to teach generalized imitation to this 3 year-old non-verbal girl with autism.

A Comparison of Video Based Training Components as Professional Development Early Intervention Teachers Working With Children With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Amy D. Wiech (University of Hawaii/Autism Training Solutions/ABC), Mary Jo Noonan (University of Hawaii), EMALEY BLADH MCCULLOCH (Autism Training Solutions)

Professional development is the crux of training teachers and staff in evidence based interventions for teaching students with autism (SWA). Mand training is an effective procedure for increasing functional language and decreasing problematic behavior associated with autism. This dissertation examined the effectiveness of a video-based professional development program to teach mand training to early intervention teachers. Teacher-student dyads included two early intervention teachers and one speech pathologist who participated with SWA. Intervention phases included (1) OTV, (2) feedback, and (3) modeling/coaching sessions. Outcomes in terms of student achievement, specifically the frequency of student manding, were recorded during baseline. Baseline occurred prior to teachers' completion of online self directed training videos (OTV), and during each intervention phase. The teacher implementation of four-step manding procedure was also evaluated. Measuring both the student and the teacher behavior evaluated interventionists� competency improvement following and/or during different training components and concurrently measured student behavior change (manding) across each training component. Results indicated that student manding increased slightly when OTV alone was used for one participant, and with more significance when components of feedback and coaching/modeling were added. These results and data from social validity measures support the hypothesis that feedback and modeling and coaching are all essential for teachers to learn to use mand training to increase communication with their students with ASD. Keywords: autism, verbal behavior, online training, self directed learning program, teachers, teacher development, professional development.

139. Teaching a Child With Autism Generalized Imitation Skills Across Goal-less Imitation and Goal Directed Tasks
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BETHANY SCHILLING (A Block Above Behavior Consulting), Alexia Stack (A Block Above Behavioral Consulting)
Abstract: Developing a repertoire of generalized imitation skills is a common goal in Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention programs for children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Research indicates that weak imitators at a young age (ie: 2 years of age) are more likely to demonstrate slow acceleration or deceleration in their learning across the acquisition of various skill domains, are less likely to develop vocal verbal behavior, and often demonstrate an increase in the severity of their Autism symptoms across the lifespan when compared to those individuals with autism who are described as being strong imitators. Three imitation tasks: manual and postural movements, actions on objects and oral-facial movements have shown to be impaired in learners with Autism Spectrum Disorder. An individualized curriculum was designed for a 2.8 year old boy diagnosed with Autism, considered a weak imitator to teach generalized imitation skills via goal-less and goal-directed imitation tasks. Initial programs developed to teach generalized imitation skills included: Gross Motor Imitation, Object Imitation, Block Imitation, Sound Imitation, and Play Imitation. Data-based decision and modifications were made on a weekly basis.
140. Adult Contingent and Extended Vocal Imitation Increased Social Interaction During a Conversation Between Adult and Children With ASD
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
YUKA ISHIZUKA (Keio University), Natsumi Ishikawa (Keio University), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Keio University)
Abstract: Previous studies have showed that adult's contingent imitation is effective for facilitating social behavior (e.g., eye contact) in children with ASD. However, it was not clear that adult contingent and extended contingent vocal imitation is effect for children's spontaneous speech during conversation with experimenter. In this study, we examined the effect on children's spontaneous speech during conversation using ABABAB design. Each condition implemented in 3-4 sessions. One session lasted 3 minutes. This study implemented in two conditions which were non-imitative adult contingent vocal response (CR) and adult contingent. In CR condition, the experimenter didn't imitate but responded with contingent response for children's speech. In CEI condition, the experimenter did imitate and extended all children's speech. The results demonstrated that adult contingent and extended vocal imitation increased the rate of child's spontaneous vocal imitation. In Addition, the total numbers of vocal turn taking between children and experimenter also increased in CEI condition. These findings suggest that using adult contingent and extended vocal imitation become positive social interaction between adult and children with ASD.
141. The Effects of Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Behavior (DRL) on Motor and Vocal Stereotypy
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TYLA M. FREWING (University of British Columbia), Sara Boisselle (Private Practitioner), Sara White (Sendan Center)
Abstract: The effects of a differential reinforcement of low rates of behavior (DRL) with response cost and stimulus control procedures on stereotypy were evaluated using an ABA reversal design replicated across two settings in the elementary school environment. A nine-year-old boy diagnosed with autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) participated. A DRL with response cost procedure was implemented such that contingent on engagement in stereotypy, one block was removed. If at least one block remained at the end of a timed interval, the participant was provided with access to reinforcement. Intervals were initially short (e.g. 2-minutes), then systematically increased. Results showed stereotypy was variable and high in baseline, immediately reduced to zero-rates when the DRL was implemented and immediately increased again with a return to baseline. Following the initial assessment, the initially short (e.g., two minute) intervals were extended and results were replicated across two environments in the school setting.
142. Increased Speech Production in Two Participants With Autism Following SGD Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ROCHE LAURA (Student), Jeffrey S. Sigafoos (Victoria University of Wellington)
Abstract: It is estimated that over 25% of children diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder will fail to develop an appreciable amount of speech. Originally, Alternative and Augmentative Communication (AAC) systems have been implemented as functional communication tools to aide in the replacement of speech for non-verbal children. In this study, two children with ASD and emerging speech were taught to mand for preferred toys using an iPad-based Speech Generating Device (SGD). Following intervention, the SGD was removed as a communication device and the frequency of verbal manding for the same items were recorded. The data indicates that SGD training had a positive effect on the participants speech production as both children began verbally requesting the preferred items following the removal of the SGD. These results suggest that in addition to replacing functional communication, AAC systems may help promote speech development in children with ASD. The educational implications of these results are discussed.
143. How are Tablets and Other Devices Being Used With Children With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAURA J. DANTONA (Beacon ABA Services), John Claude Ward-Horner (Beacon ABA Services), Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services)
Abstract: Research indicates that the use of electronic devices, such as tablets and iPads, is a practical tool for children with disabilities (Kagohara et al., 2013). These devices may serve multiple purposes for children with autism, which includes communication, education, and leisure activities. One concern with the use of electronic devices is that they may limit social interactions, which is a skill deficit of children diagnosed with ASD. Additionally, if students have unrestricted access to games and leisure activities, it may hinder their use of the device as a communication tool and may serve to diminish the value of the device as a reinforcer. The goal of the present study was to conduct a survey of how children with autism use electronic devices. Parents of children with autism completed the survey that included both open-ended and closed ended questions regarding the use of electronic devices. Preliminary data indicate that non-verbal students use electronic devices for both communication and leisure and that they spend a greater portion of their day using electronic devices than their verbal peers.
144. Improving Social Skills, Inferencing, and Motor Skill in Children With Autism Within the Context of a Fitness Class
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
TAMARA S. KASPER (The Center for Autism Treatment)
Abstract: Many children with autism lack the social interaction/social communication, and fitness skills needed to participate in recess, gym class, community sponsored sports offerings, and games played at family gatherings. The purpose of this study was to measure the effectiveness of a behaviorally-based treatment package to improve social skills, inferencing, and motor skills for children with autism age 6-11 within the context of a fitness based social communication group: Friends and Fitness. The treatment package included brief explanation, video/actual model, role play, guided practice, and feedback during application exercises. Specific skills in three domains: social communication skills, logical inferencing, and motor skills were selected for treatment. Training was provided by a BCBA and a certified personal trainer in the context of an integrated group of 8-14 participants. Target skills were measured in baseline, after 30 hours of intervention, and during a follow up probe three months later. Results revealed improvement from baseline in all areas for all participants in post-treatment and follow up probes. Parent report indicated generalization of skills to other environments. Results suggest that this treatment package may be effective in improving social interaction/ social communication skills, and fitness, and may promote greater community integration in athletically-oriented social activities.

Sibling-Mediated Interventions for Children With Autism

Area: AUT; Domain: Theory
LINDSAY MORIN (Michigan State University), Carolyn Shivers (Michigan State University), Josh Plavnick (Michigan State University)

Extensive research has shown that peer-mediated interventions for children with autism are highly effective (e.g. Sperry, Neitzel, & Englehardt-Wells, 2010). Far less, however, is known about how well children with autism perform when taught by a typically developing sibling. For years, researchers have incorporated typically developing siblings into interventions as models or instructors for the child with autism. However, there have been no reviews consolidating the evidence regarding siblings' teaching ability. Research in the field of Autism spectrum disorders focuses mainly on the individual diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and rarely on the capability of the interventionist. Therefore, it is not known how effective siblings are overall as interventionists for children with ASD, nor what type of interventions are best suited for sibling involvement. The purpose of this poster is to review the existing literature, to summarize the types of interventions in which researchers involve siblings, and to discuss whether typically developing siblings are adequate intervention practitioners for their family members with autism spectrum disorder.

146. Evidence-Based Comprehensive Treatment Approaches for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of the Literature
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SOYEON KANG (The University of Texas at Austin), Christina Fragale (The University of Texas, The Meadows Center for the Prevention of Educational Risk), Mark O'Reilly (The University of Texas at Austin), Terry S. Falcomata (The University of Texas at Austin)
Abstract: This study systematically reviewed empirical studies to identify the key elements (i.e., service delivery, treatment modalities, assessments, and outcomes) associated with effective comprehensive treatments for individuals with ASD. The inclusion criteria were as follows: a) all participants were diagnosed with ASD between age 3 and10; b) the treatment program consisted of multiple components designed to address multiple developmental domains (e.g., cognitive ability, language, adaptive behavior, social-emotional area, and severity of ASD); c) the study employed a rigorous experimental design (e.g., randomized controlled trials or pre/post-tests with a control group); and d) the study was published in peer-reviewed journals in English between 1964 and 2013. A total of 40 studies were identified for inclusion. The studies treatment programs were categorized into four types of theoretical framework: an applied behavior analysis (ABA), a developmental approach, a hybrid that combined ABA and developmental approaches, and an idiosyncratic approach. They were analyzed according to the effective key elements. The results provide evaluative information for a comprehensive autism program that helps parents, service providers, advocates, and relevant government entities select or revise treatment programs, or adopt the future direction of a program for individuals with ASD.
147. Fading of Multiple Dimensions of Interaction to Increase Tolerance of Social Attention for An Individual Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SHARI M. PINCUS (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Griffin Rooker (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Faris Kronfli (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Meghan Deshais (Kennedy Krieger Institute), SungWoo Kahng (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Steven Hudkins (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: A primary diagnostic criteria for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is deficits in social communication and interaction (DSM-V). One potential reason for this deficit is that some individuals with ASD find interactions with others aversive (Hagopian, Wilson, & Wilder, 2001). This is evidenced by the fact that these individuals will avoid or escape social interactions by engaging in severe problem behavior (Hagopian et al., 2001; Taylor & Carr, 1992). Typically, in these cases, a treatment where the child is taught an appropriate skill (either compliance or communication) to gain access to escape is used. However, this type of treatment is not always practical and teaching these individuals to tolerate interactions is essential to treating deficits in social communication and interaction. In the current study, multiple dimensions of social interaction were faded into a context where socially-avoidant problem behavior occurred to increase tolerance of interactions for one individual diagnosed with ASD. Results indicate that the fading procedure was successful teaching tolerance to interactions. Future studies may look at pairing positive reinforcement with social interactions to increase enjoyment of social interactions.
148. Decreasing the Frequency of Inappropriate Verbalizations Using a Stimulus Control Package and Differential Reinforcement
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MEAGAN FRIEL (Devereux Pennsylvania's Center for Autism Research and Educational Services), Tara Deuso (Devereux Pennsylvania's Center for Autism Research and Educational Services)
Abstract: This study examines the effect of a stimulus control package and differential reinforcement of diminishing rates of behavior on inappropriate verbalizations using a reversal design. The participant is a 21 year old male who attends an approved private school for individuals with autism. His inappropriate verbalizations include speaking in a deep voice, yelling or screaming, laughing above a conversational level and laughing in response to peer redirections. The stimulus control package includes the use of color coded wristbands, a color coded daily schedule and written rules to signify appropriate vs. inappropriate tasks and activities in which to engage in inappropriate verbalizations. Frequency data on inappropriate verbalizations was collected daily by classroom staff and used to determine specific criteria for reinforcement. Anticipated results will show that the wristbands gained stimulus control over the inappropriate verbalizations and that reinforcement for diminishing the behavior led to the participants ability to more successfully function in both the school and community environments.
149. Comparing the Effects of Video Model Content on Vocal and Motor Imitation
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
VICTORIA SADLER (Beacon ABA Services), Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services)
Abstract: Video modeling has been shown to effectively teach pretend play to children with autism (Reagon, Higbee, & Endicott, 2006; MacDonald, Sacramone, Mansfield, Wiltz, & Ahearn, 2009). The purpose of the current study is to compare two types of video models to determine if one version more reliably produces vocal and motor responses across 10 children with autism. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the two video model conditions (Play scene video and Repetitive video). Participants assigned to the play condition viewed a video containing 6 motor actions and 6 vocal responses that all related to a train play theme (i.e., pushing the train on the track with the vocal “choo choo”). Participants assigned to the repetitive play condition viewed a video containing 2 motor actions repeated across 3 items (i.e., touching a train, a dog, then a tree) and a vocal response describing the motor action being preformed (i.e., “touch train”). Prior to and following video modeling experimenters measured participants’ motor and vocal responses during a 30-s session in which the participants engaged with the items depicted in the video model. The results indicate that acquisition of responses varied across participants
150. Effects of Point of View and Scene Video Modeling on Imitation of Vocal and Motor Responses
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KIMBERLY FLINT (Beacon ABA Services), Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services)
Abstract: Video modeling (VM) has been used to teach individuals with developmental disabilities and autism to complete various tasks such as play (Hine & Wolery, 2006), self-help (Shipley-Benamou, Lutzker, Taubman, 2002) leisure (Stromer, Kimball, Kinney, & Taylor, 2006) and academics (Charlop & Milstein, 1989). However, there are many variations of video modeling and little data on differences in skill acquisition from one form of modeling versus another. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of the presentation of two common forms of video modeling (Point of View VM and Scene VM) on the imitation of vocal and motor responses depicted in the videos. In baseline, play items were presented to the participant and data were collected on vocal and motor responses for 60 seconds. In the treatment condition, participants viewed either the point of view VM or the scene VM of a play routine, then the play items were presented and again data were collected on the target responses. The results suggest that little difference in demonstration of motor responses were seen across video types, however imitation of vocal responses occurred more frequently in the point of view VM condition.
151. A Comparison of Video Modeling Procedures That Do and Do Not Depict Reinforcement Delivery
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARISSA MURPJHY (Beacon ABA Services), Robert K. Ross (Beacon ABA Services)
Abstract: Video modeling is considered an effective technique for teaching a wide range of skills to individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Video modeling is an instructional procedure which involves the participant viewing a video of a model engaging in the target behavior and then imitating the actions as seen. However, no studies to date have addressed whether or not depicting the model receiving reinforcement contingent upon engaging in the targeted response as part of the video being presented affects the rate at which the skill is acquired. The current study was designed to compare video modeling procedures that do and do not depict reinforcement delivery. An alternating treatments design was used. In one condition the participant was shown videos that depicted the model correctly performing the target behavior and receiving reinforcement. In the other condition the participant was shown videos that end immediately after the model performs the target behavior. Preliminary data suggests that there is little difference in rates of acquisition between the two treatment conditions.
152. Decreasing Off-Task Challenging Behavior in a Boy with Autism Using Video Feedback and Self-Monitoring
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
WHITNEY GILLILAND (Texas A&M University)
Abstract: Off-task behaviors in children with autism often present a unique challenge for teachers because they interfere with quality instruction. People with autism have a tendency to think in terms of visual stimuli. Therefore, a combination of video feedback and video self-monitoring may be useful in the reduction of off-task behaviors in children with autism. The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of video feedback and video self-monitoring in the off-task behavior of an individual with autism. This intervention was successful in reducing his off-task behavior as indicated by statistical and visual analysis. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed.
153. Functional Analysis to Determine Function of Perseverative Speech in an Adolescent Diagnosed With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MIRANDA DEPOY (Partnership for Behavior Change), Delainey Barkes (Indiana University South Bend and Partnership for Behavior Change), Sorah Stein (Partnership for Behavior Change)
Abstract: Individuals with autism often display stereotyped or repetitive use of language, such as perseverating on the same subject (Rehfeldt & Chambers, 2003). Perseveration is defined as repetitive engagement in a behavior i.e., repeating a word over and over (Newman et al., 2003). Thus, we defined vocal perseveration as repeated vocalization of any word, combination of words, or sounds. The present study examined vocal perseverations of a fifteen-year-old boy, diagnosed with autism. Baseline was determined by review of data (daily-per-minute, standard celeration chart). Brief (five-minute) functional analysis conditions were run (attention, alone, tangible, demand). Sessions were videotaped and watched later by three observers. Incidents of vocal perseveration were graphed on a timings chart by count per minute, which indicated vocal perseveration is maintained by attention, with the highest frequency in the attention condition and even higher when an audible clicker for tracking incidents of vocal perseveration was used in combination with attention, and lowest frequency in an ignore condition. Results informed treatment, such that in addition to teaching socially appropriate conversation exchanges, an audible clicker is no longer used and a planned ignore, similar to that used in the functional analysis condition is the consequence for vocal perseveration.
154. The Use of Fading and Punishment Procedures to Decrease Spitting Behavior for An Individual Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
FARIS KRONFLI (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Meghan Deshais (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Steven Hudkins (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Shari M. Pincus (Kennedy Krieger Institute), SungWoo Kahng (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may exhibit behaviors that serve no function and are possibly detrimental to their well-being. These are behaviors that occur independent of environmental manipulations. Spitting is one example that could impact the individuals health and prevent the intake of appropriate caloric needs. Treatments that target these automatically reinforced behaviors may include punishment procedures (Vollmer, 1994). In the current study, an individual with ASD was taught to spit into a designated cup and an overcorrection procedure was implemented for spitting behavior that occurred outside the cup. Once spitting was under the stimulus control of the cup, fading of the cup was implemented until it was only available for thirty seconds of the session. This was generalized to meals with success, decreasing the frequency of spitting behavior.
155. Using Preference/ Avoidance Assessment of Sounds to Identify Potential Punishers for Treatment of Vocal Stereotypy
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Jaimie Decker Mulcahy (Douglass Developmental Disability Center, Rutgers University), MATTHEW L. EDELSTEIN (Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center, Rutgers University  ), Katelyn Selver (Douglass Developmental Disability Center, Rutgers University  ), Kimberly Sloman (Douglass Developmental Disability Center, Rutgers University  )
Abstract: Vocal stereotypy can interfere with student progress in acquiring new skills and may also be socially stigmatizing, yet reducing stereotypy can pose a challenge. The present study includes a 10-year-old male participant with autism who engages in vocal stereotypy at high levels throughout the school day (averaging over 40% engagement during sample intervals). A preliminary assessment was conducted of auditory stimuli that may be included as potential punishers in a proposed treatment involving contingent presentation of non-preferred auditory stimuli (alarms, musical tones, etc.). To assess the student's relative preference for/ aversion to various sounds, the sounds were presented one at a time on a Mini-Me recording device. The evaluator first played the sound for the student and then prompted the student to press the Mini-Me and play the sound twice. The Mini-Me was then placed in front of the student for 2 minutes, during which time the number of independent presses and aversion responses (e.g., throwing the Mini-Me) were recorded. Both potential aversive sounds and sounds suspected to be preferred by the student, as reported by classroom teachers, were included. Of the 21 sounds included, 9 sounds were identified as low preference and will be included in the proposed intervention.
156. Using Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO) to Reduce Vocal Stereotypy of a Teenager With Autism Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
YU-HSUAN CHEN (SEEK Education, Inc., Taiwan), Shu-Hwei Ke (SEEK Education, Inc.), James King (SEEK Education, Inc.)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) in reducing the vocal stereotypy at work. Functional analysis was conducted to identify the function. The result of FA indicated that the vocal stereotypy was likely maintained by positive social consequences. After the assessment, DRO was implemented to reduce the vocal stereotypy. The results indicated that DRO was successful in reducing the vocal stereotypy.

Teaching Social Skills to Adolescents With Autism and Intellectual Disabilities Using Video-based Group Instruction

Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
TIFFANY KAID (Michigan State University), Josh Plavnick (Michigan State University), Mari MacFarland (Michigan State University), Annie Bernacki (Michigan State University)

Very few studies exist that examine social skills instruction for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disabilities (ID) (Reichow & Volkmar, 2010). Studies examining the effectiveness of interventions implemented within the public school setting, where a majority of adolescents with ASD and ID receive instruction, are still needed. The current investigation evaluated the effects of a social skills training program designed for adolescents with ASD, video-based group instruction (VGI), on the acquisition of more complex social skills by five high school aged students with ASD or ID in the public school setting. VGI was implemented daily for 45 to 50 min by a classroom teacher. A multiple probe across behaviors design was used to examine the effectiveness of VGI to train and increase the targeted social skills. The data collected to date (see attached) suggest VGI leads to the acquisition and reliable performance of many targeted social skills.

158. Effects of Serial and Concurrent Teaching on Generalization During Discrete Trial Instruction
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARIE-MICHÈLE DUFOUR (Université de Montréal), Marc J. Lanovaz (Université de Montréal)
Abstract: To promote generalization during discrete trial instruction, practitioners often teach each training target using multiple exemplars. The practitioner may introduce these exemplars either serially (i.e., one at a time) or concurrently (i.e., all at once). The results of some studies have suggested that concurrent training may be preferable (Ferguson & McDonnell, 1991; Schroeder & Baer, 1972), but these effects were not replicated with young children with autism spectrum disorders. To this end, the purpose of our study is to compare the effects of serial and concurrent teaching on the generalization of three children with autism spectrum disorders during discrete trial instruction. For each participant, we taught three pairs of concepts, which we introduced sequentially within a multiple baseline design. Within each pair, one target was taught using serial teaching and the other using concurrent teaching. We alternated teaching sessions within a multielement design and measured correct responding on taught and untaught exemplars. Data collection is still ongoing, but our preliminary results suggest that concurrent teaching may produce correct responding on untaught exemplars more rapidly than serial teaching. The results will be discussed in terms of improving teaching procedures during discrete trial instruction.
159. Effect of Least-to-Most Prompting on Teaching Symbolic Play Skills to Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
Serife Sahin (Anadolu University), Arzu Özen (Anadolu Universty)
Abstract: Teaching play skills is among the priority targets in establishing appropriate peer interaction for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (Dunlap, 2009; Lovaas, 2003). Analyzing literature, it is seen that children with ASD have limited symbolic play skills. Symbolic play which is a kind of cognitive play, is an important play skill that supports childrens perception of their environment, helping them understand how to interact with their environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Least-to Most Prompting in teaching symbolic play skills to children with ASD. Three male children with ASD, whose age from 4 to 5 participated in the study.This study was conducted by changing-criterion design which is a model within single subject research model. The changing-criterion design is comprised of three phases. The changing-criterion design is comprised of three phases. The first phase of the study comprises functional play skills, while the second phase comprises one symbolic play behavior and the third phase comprises two symbolic play behaviors. Social validity of the study will be determined by the data collected from the mothers of participants. Since this study is still in progress, results will be shared during the presentation.
160. Effects of Fluency Training on Endurance and Retention of Assembly Tasks in an Adolescent With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HYEJIN SHIN (Kongju National University), Suyoun Jeung (Kongju National University), Youngeun Kim (Kongju National University), Seunghack Choi (Kongju National University), Eunhee Paik (Kongju National University), Jung Yeon Cho (Daegu Cyber University), Munbong Yang (Milal Special School)
Abstract: The present study tested effects of fluency versus accuracy training on performance and endurance of assembly tasks. The participant was 16-year old male student with autism who was attending special education high school. The study was conducted during job training class. Using alternating treatment design, rate of production of task performance under fluency training condition and under accuracy training condition were tested. During the fluency training condition , the participant was required to complete the task within a specific time period in order to gain an access to reinforcers. During the accuracy condition, there was no time limit for completion of the task in order to gain an access to the reinforcers. Two separate assembly tasks with same number of steps and with similar level of difficulty were assigned for each condition. Following the training sessions, the participant performed each task during 10- and 20- minute work sessions to assess endurance and retention of the trained skills by measuring number of products per 10 minutes and number of cessations per 10 minutes. The results showed that the fluency training produced greater rate of production, endurance, and retention. Key words: fluency, accuracy, retention, endurance, assembly task
161. Teaching Applied Behavior Analysis Tutors to Assess The Treatment Integrity of Discrete-Trial Teachings Sessions
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JADE WIGHTMAN (University of Manitoba), Ashley L. Boris (University of Manitoba), Garry L. Martin (University of Manitoba)
Abstract: The current study evaluated a self-instructional package for teaching applied behavior analysis (ABA) tutors to use the Discrete-Trials Teaching Evaluation Form (DTTEF) to assess the treatment integrity of discrete-trials teaching sessions. Three participants were assessed in a multiple baseline design which was replicated. At baseline, participants evaluated the DTT accuracy of a confederate role playing a teacher using DTT to teach three tasks to a confederate role-playing a child with autism. Teaching accuracy was manipulated to be either poor, moderate, or high across the three tasks, and was assessed using the DTTEF. During training, participants read the DTTEF instructional manual, answered study questions, and practiced using the DTTEF to score videos of a teacher using DTT. At post-training, participants taught the same three tasks as in baseline, however the accuracy of teaching a task differed from what the participant was exposed to during baseline. Results indicated that the manual was effective in teaching ABA tutors to evaluate the treatment integrity of a DTT session using the DTTEF. This finding is important as treatment integrity is an important component of effective early intensive behavioral interventions.
162. Discounting of Monetary Rewards and Treatment Outcomes by Caregivers of Children With Autism Using Visual Approximation
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANDREA R. REAVIS (Marcus Autism Center), Nathan Call (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Research has shown that as the delay to an outcome increases, the subjective value of that outcome decreases, or is discounted (Lattal, 2010). Most studies of delay discounting in humans have presented participants with choices between hypothetical monetary rewards (Rachlin et al., 1991). Call et al. (2012) has also found that delay discounting may be a useful way of conceptualizing the influence of delayed treatment outcomes on the choices caregivers make regarding behavioral treatments for their child's problem behavior. Call et al. conducted two delay discounting assessments which included the commodities of hypothetical monetary rewards and hypothetical treatment outcomes using procedures consistent with those of other studies on delay discounting. One limitation of the Call et al. study was that the procedures implemented were quite lengthy, with each delay discounting assessment taking approximately 30 min. In the current study, the procedures used in Call et al. were replicated with seven participants. Each participant was also given two brief questionnaires that assessed delay discounting using fill-in-the blank and visual approximation methods. Results showed that participants discounted similarly during in vivo and questionnaire formats, suggesting that the shorter assessment may be a viable replacement for the more lengthy assessment.
163. Assessing a Comparative Evaluation Procedure of ProLoQuo 2 Go Versus PECS as Primary Modes of Communication in Non-Verbal Learners With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CATHLEEN M. ALBERTSON (Devereux CARES), Christa Schoen (Avon Grove School District), Lucas Cepeda (Devereux CARES), Christin Venable (Devereux CARES), Elizabeth Smith (Devereux CARES)
Abstract: We examined ProLoQuo2Go and PECS as modes of communication in three students with autism. Participants were male students ages 17, 8 and 8 in two different education settings for individuals with autism. Each participant was trained in the use of both modes of communication prior to these trials, although ProLoQuo2Go was the more novel mode for each participant. An alternating treatments design was utilized to examine students total mands per minute, length of utterance, latency between initiating and completing the mand, and prompts needed (1) to initiate request and (2) to exchange message for both PECS and ProLoQuo2Go (PLQ). Inter-observer agreement data were not collected formally. During each set of trials there were two or more researchers present (range: 50-100% of trials across participants) to monitor treatment and data collection integrity. Results demonstrate that for each of the responses assessed across all three participants skills were comparable using both modes to communicate. Interdisciplinary teams reviewed these data and concluded that PLQ on an iPad or iPod Touch device was the best choice for mode of communication due to its generality and social validity. The researchers suggest this procedure as a method for objectively assessing a communication mode for non-verbal learners.
164. The Effect of a Backward Chaining Procedure to Increase Transitioning Behaviour in a Child With an Autism Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DANIELLE LYONS (Irish Centre of Behavioural Support and Research), Louise Heffernan (Irish Centre of Behavioural Support and Research)
Abstract: The current intervention was implemented with a 3 year old with a diagnosis of autism who displayed severe challenging behaviour in the form of physical aggression, self injury, and severe tantrum behaviour and non-compliance with instructions and transitions. A functional analysis was conducted under the following conditions: 1) Alone, 2) Toy Play, 3) Escape (from transition), 4) Escape (from instruction), 5) Escape (from peer), 6) Attention. The results of the functional analysis indicated that the primary function of the client's behaviour was to escape from transitioning between daily activities. A potential secondary function of escape from demand and to gain attention were also noted in the analysis. As part of the individualised behaviour support plan a transition program was implemented which employed backward chaining and an adapted visual schedule to promote independent transitioning between daily activities. Baseline data indicated significant duration and frequency of challenging behaviour during transitions between activities. Intervention data indicates a decrease to zero levels in the duration of independent transitions Functional Communication Training and other environmental changes were also introduced to support the client during their daily routine.
165. A Component Analysis of Procedures That Facilitate Computer-Assisted Reading for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KARA CONSTANTINE (Michigan State University), Lindsay Morin (Michigan State University), Dana Billings (Holt Public Schools), Josh Plavnick (Michigan State University), Troy Mariage (Michigan State University), Carol Sue Englert (Michigan State University)
Abstract: Despite evidence-based programs focused on language, behavioral, and social skill training, there is a paucity of research that explores how to improve early literacy skills for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). MimioSprout Early Reading (MSER) is a behavior analytic reading program that combines web-based and teacher-led instruction to teach children to read. However, the supports needed for children with ASD to access the instructional program are unclear. The present studies examined the sequential and combined application of behavioral and instructional supports on the correct response rate of 8 children with ASD. In Study 1, a multiple baseline design was used to assess whether behavioral supports improved rate of correct responding, and if the addition of teacher-delivered instructional supports further improved response rate for 4 children with ASD. In Study 2, a multiple baseline across participants design was used to evaluate the effects of the combined intervention package on the rate of correct responding for 4 novel participants. Preliminary results suggest both components are necessary for effective reading instruction. This poster will provide: (1) graphical displays revealing intra and inter-individual differences over time, (2) specific behavioral and instructional supports used, and (3) video exemplars of students participation across intervention phases.
166. Using Video Prompting to Teach Food Preparation Tasks to Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities Using iPad Technology
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMANDA GULD FISHER (Melmark), Meghan Kane (Melmark), Kylee Merendino (Melmark ), Jennifer Croner (Melmark)
Abstract: There has been a growing trend in the research of teaching self-help, leisure, and vocational skills using video technology, as demonstrated by the recent number of research studies investigating video modeling and video prompting (e.g., Cannella-Malone et al., 2006; Goodson, Sigafoos, O’Reilly, Cannella, & Lancioni, 2007; Sigafoos et al., 2005; Sigafoos et al., 2007; Van Laarhoven, Johnson, Van Laarhoven-Myers, Grider, & Grider, 2009). Video technology allows for the teaching of skills that consist of response chains with less reliance on caregiver prompting (Cannella, O’Reilly, & Lancioni, 2005). The purpose of this study is to draw on previous research to demonstrate the effectiveness of a video prompting procedure delivered via an iPad, to teach food preparation skills to adolescent individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities. A multiple probe design across behaviors was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the video prompting procedure. The results will be presented and discussed in terms of the effectiveness of the video prompting procedure, the strengths and benefits, and the implications for subject selection.
167. Small Group Instructional Procedures for Teaching Children and Youth With Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
NANCY K. WARREN (Shining Through Centre), Karla Khoury (Shining Through Centre)
Abstract: Children and youth with autism often struggle with participating appropriately in group-based instructional activities, and many are unsuccessful with learning new skills in the context of group instruction. Despite well-documented deficits in this area, there has been very little research aimed at evaluating instructional procedures that may be useful in improving the productivity of group instructional efforts children and youth with autism. The first study examines the use of Behavioral Skills Training to teach Instructors to apply well-documented behavioral procedures in small group instruction settings. The second study examines the use of well-documented behavioral procedures (e.g. well-timed reinforcement, pacing of instruction, stimulus control transfer procedures, task difficulty manipulation, etc.) on the client's acquisition of repertoires that are necessary for learning in group instruction activities. The studies take place at a community-based autism treatment clinic. It is expected that Behavioral Skills Training will be an effective Instructor-training methodology, and that basic behavioural intervention procedures may be applied successfully to improve performance and the ability to benefit from group instruction activities for children an youth with autism.
168. Measuring Outcomes of Parents Teaching Functional Skills to Their Son With Autism Using the Assessment of Functional Living Skills (AFLS)
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JAMES W. PARTINGTON (Behavior Analysts, Inc.), Lisa Squadere Watson (Bevavior Analysts, Inc.)
Abstract: Children with a diagnosis of autism frequently have major deficits in their ability to perform a wide range of skills necessary for routine daily activities. These deficits in functional living skills often limit the individual’s options to participate in many family and community activities. The present study demonstrates the effectiveness of a parent-based intervention to teach functional living skills to a 10-year-old boy diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. Data were collected on the Basic Living Skills, Home Skills and Community Participation Skills protocols of the AFLS assessment. The boy’s parents then implemented a teaching program to develop their son’s skills in each of those areas. Data are presented following 10 months of intervention. The data demonstrate that the boy made significant progress in many skill areas of the assessment. Follow-up data will also be presented that will demonstrate that those new skills were maintained and that additional functional skills continue to be acquired.
169. Using an Acceptability Questionnaire to Improve Integrity of Behavioral Intervention
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
BENJAMIN R. THOMAS (Claremont Graduate University), Michael Lafasakis (Hospital Clinic Home Center, Inc.)
Abstract: Many children with developmental disabilities engage in maladaptive behaviors that require management with behavioral intervention procedures (Smith, Vollmer, & St. Peter Pipkin, 2007). The effectiveness of these behavioral interventions however, is directly influenced by the integrity with which they are implemented (Gresham, 1989; St. Peter Pipkin, Vollmer, & Sloman, 2010). Proper implementation of behavior interventions is critical for producing desirable changes in student behavior. Unfortunately, many educators do not find certain intervention components acceptable and as a result fail to use them consistently. This study evaluated the effects of using an acceptability questionnaire as a tool for rating and choosing behavioral intervention components that may lead to greater treatment integrity. Prior to using the questionnaire, four trained educators in a public special education classroom rarely used the recommended procedures to manage the problem behavior of one child with autism, despite evidence of the effectiveness of the procedures with that child (M = 8.25%, range = 0-33%). Following the questionnaire and subsequent inclusion of components rated as most acceptable, three of the four educators greatly improved their use of intervention procedures (M = 70.24%, range = 50-75%), resulting in a substantial reduction in the childs problem behavior during those sessions. Implications for practice and future research will be discussed during the poster session.
Keyword(s): poster session



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