Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.

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34th Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2008

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Poster Session #94
#94 Poster Session (CBM)
Saturday, May 24, 2008
6:00 PM–7:30 PM
South Exhibit Hall
54. Preventive Behavioral Parent Training: Immediate and Long-Term Impact on Observed Parenting Skills and Maternal Report of Conduct Problems.
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
ANDREW ARMSTRONG (Utah State University), Jessica Malmberg (Utah State University), Clint Field (Utah State University), Rebecca Scharton (Utah State University), Angie Dahl (Utah State University), Rachel Duchoslav (Utah State University), Alexis Bolton (Utah State University )
Abstract: Children exhibiting conduct problems (CP) comprise the largest source of referrals to children's mental health services in this country. The treatment for CP that possesses the greatest amount of empirical support is referred to as behavioral parent training (BPT). Data indicate that CP often represents well-rehearsed extensions of disruptive behaviors of early childhood. This study focused on identifying young children at-risk for developing CP and the implementation of a preventative BPT (PBPT) that could prevent development of CP. Positive outcomes of PBPT in decreasing rates of child CP have been previously documented. Presented here are data for ten families (six treatment, four control) documenting immediate and maintained changes in maternal parenting behavior that resulted from PBPT. This presentation utilizes single-case methodology in displaying pre-, post-, and longitudinal data describing the effectiveness of PBPT in altering 1) maternal attending (DRA of child pro-social behavior), and 2) maternal implementation of prescribed behavioral consequences contingently linked to CP display. This project contributes to our understanding of the positive effects of PBPT by documenting functional changes in parenting behavior due to exposure to PBPT. The impact of PBPT on parental behavior is discussed in relation to it’s effectiveness in preventing display of child CP.
 
55. Preventive Behavioral Parent Training: Immediate and Long-Term Outcomes on Observed Rates and Maternal Report of Conduct Problems.
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA MALMBERG (Utah State University), Andrew Armstrong (Utah State University), Clint Field (Utah State University), Rebecca Scharton (Utah State University), Rachel Duchoslav (Utah State University), Alexis Bolton (Utah State University ), Angie Dahl (Utah State University)
Abstract: Children exhibiting conduct problems (CP) comprise the largest source of referrals to children's mental health services in this country. The treatment for CP that possesses the greatest amount of empirical support is referred to as behavioral parent training (BPT). Data indicate that CP often represents well-rehearsed extensions of disruptive behaviors of early childhood. This study focused on identifying young children at-risk for developing CP and the implementation of preventative BPT (PBPT) that could prevent development of CP. Previously, data was presented documenting positive immediate and long term outcomes of PBPT with four families. Presented here are results from an expanded data set (six treatment, four control families) demonstrating the effectiveness of PBPT. This presentation utilizes single-case methodology in displaying pre-, post-, and longitudinal data describing the effectiveness of PBPT in (1) immediately altering reported and observed rates of CP across multiple settings, and (2) the long-term maintenance of reported and observed rates of CP across multiple settings. This project extends initial findings establishing the effectiveness of a brief version of BPT as a primary prevention strategy that targets young children at risk for developing CP. The value of PBPT as a primary prevention of CP is discussed.
 
56. Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Children Following a Residential Fire.
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
KATHRYN SCHWARTZ (Virginia Tech), Russell T. Jones (Virginia Tech)
Abstract: Following a residential fire, children exhibit a variety of behavioral and emotional problems. These problems include behavior problems such as attention problems, rule-breaking behavior and aggressive behavior; as well as emotional problems such as anxiety and depressive symptoms. While extensive research exists on the incidence of PTSD and other internalizing disorders following natural disasters, there is only limited research available on the prevalence of externalizing behaviors. This study investigated the effects of a residential fire on children’s competences and emotional state. Using the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach, 2001), parents and other significant adults observed the children’s behaviors and then answered 118 questions about the observed behaviors. These behaviors were analyzed in respect to Aggressive Behavior, Anxious/Depressed Mood, Attention Problems, Rule-Breaking Behavior, Social Problems, Somatic Complaints, Thought Problems, and Withdrawn/Depressed Mood. In addition, children’s emotional states, as reported by their parents, were categorized into Affective Problems, Anxiety Problems, Somatic Problems, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Problems, Oppositional Defiant Problems, and Conduct Problems. Findings of the current study can be used to inform parents and educators of behavioral and emotional impacts of residential fires. Results regarding the frequency of these behaviors will be discussed as well as implications for future interventions following a disaster.
 
57. Current Perspectives on TIME-OUT: An Examination of the Last 24 Years of Research.
Area: CBM; Domain: Theory
WILLIAM J. WARZAK (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Michael J. Kellen (University of Nebraska Medical Center)
Abstract: A comprehensive review by Brantner & Doherty (1984) provided a conceptual and procedural review of Time-Out (TO), highlighting various areas of TO including isolation TO, exclusion TO, and nonexclusion TO. Nothing as all-encompassing has been published since. We review of all of the TO research available on PubMed from 1983 to present. The majority of studies focused on children rather than adults; and, have been conducted in outpatient settings as opposed to inpatient, psychiatric, or rehabilitation institutions. Recent trends reveal somewhat of a decline in TO research. Of particular note has been the lack of publications that compare the efficacy of the various types of TO identified by Brantner and Doherty, particularly in inpatient settings. A significant amount of research conducted on TO has involved the use of restraint and seclusion, variables that are accompanied by legal, ethical, and administrative concerns. This presentation will explore in depth the trends of TO research over the past 24 years and make recommendations on ways to implement TO across populations and settings, with an emphasis on those that do not require restraint, spanks, or put backs.
 
58. Preference Assessments for Children and Adolescents: Examining Developmental, Diagnostic and Ethnic Differences.
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
CLAYTON R. COOK (Girls and Boys Town), Jennifer L. Resetar (Girls and Boys Town)
Abstract: Many children and adolescents engage in dangerous or disruptive behaviors that necessitate the use of behavior analytic interventions. The identification of powerful reinforcers is often a critical component of effective behavior analytic interventions that result in behavior change. In order to identify potential reinforcers, a preference assessment may be utilized. Studies have shown that preference assessments can identify preferred stimuli that function as reinforcers. The purpose of this poster presentation is to describe the results of a preference assessment study examining developmental, diagnostic, and ethnic differences for preferred stimuli. To date, no study has examined developmental, diagnostic, or ethnic differences for preferred stimuli. Such research is important to aid behavior analysts in the design and implementation of behavior analytic interventions. This poster will benefit participants by describing developmental, diagnostic, and ethnic differences in preferred stimuli and directions for future research in the area of preference assessments for typically developing children and adolescents.
 
59. Functional Analysis of Noncompliance in Typically Developing Preschoolers.
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
NICOLE M. RODRIGUEZ (The New England Center for Children), Rachel H. Thompson (The New England Center for Children), Lindsay C. Peters (The New England Center for Children), Devon Ezell (Firefly Autism House), Tanya Baynham (University of Kansas)
Abstract:

Few studies have attempted to identify the functions of noncompliance, and common interventions for noncompliance (e.g., 3-step prompting) assume that noncompliance is maintained by escape. In the present study, we describe a method for conducting a functional analysis of noncompliance. Two typically developing toddlers, aged 2 and 4 years old, participated. The functional analysis consisted of two conditions, which were evaluated in a multielement design. In the escape condition, noncompliance resulted in a break from the task. If the child complied with the demand, the experimenter physically guided him to complete the demand while providing verbal praise. The contingencies were reversed in the attention condition; noncompliance resulted in attention (e.g., encouragement) and continuation of the demand, and compliance resulted in a break with no attention (escape). Interobserver agreement was collected for a minimum of 30% of sessions, with equal distribution across conditions, and was above 90%. For both participants, noncompliance was maintained, at least in part, by social attention. Functional analyses of noncompliance such as the one described here may be valuable for treatment development.

 
60. Biopsychosocial Aspects of Deletion 14Q (Q24.3Q31) Syndrome: A Multimodal Behavioral Treatment Approach.
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
TARA R. SNYDER (Midwestern University), Richard Ney (Midwestern University)
Abstract: As with many genetic disorders in children, interstitial deletions of 14q in which band 14q31 is deleted are rare. Only three cases have been reported with this condition. However, a common shared feature of many of these genetic disorders is the Biopsychosocial aspects of the cases which often mirror features of more common disorders such as those in the autism spectrum. The importance of this study is the development of a multimodal behavioral treatment plan that can ameliorate some of the social deficits in the individuals across a variety of genetic disorders. This study assessed the utility of a multimodal Social Story intervention to improve peer social interactions and social acceptance of a child diagnosed with Chromosome 14 (q24.3q31) deletion. A pre/post test experimental design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the multimodal approach using the Adaptive Behavior Inventory. The results indicated that the visual/auditory presentation of social stories improved the child’s ability to establish and maintain peer friendships. Also the treatment approach increased the child’s ability to make appropriate comments during social conversations within the social skill elements. Future areas of investigations of the potential benefits and limitations of the multimodal approach are discussed.
 
61. Descriptive Analysis of Parent-Child Interactions: An Evaluation of Inappropriate Mealtime Behaviors.
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
AARON D. LESSER (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Carrie S. W. Borrero (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Elizabeth A. Masler (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: The current study examined the various events following food refusal (e.g., turning head, pushing spoon, gagging, etc.) during parent directed meals. Descriptive analyses were conducted for 5 children who were admitted to an intensive inpatient or day treatment program designed to treat severe food refusal. Previous research has shown that descriptive analyses may be useful in describing the extent to which events which commonly provided follow other forms of problem behavior (e.g., aggression) also follow inappropriate behavior during meals. This study was designed to determine if events commonly provided during functional analyses of food refusal were observed during parent-child interactions. For each participant, three meal observations were conducted immediately following admission, before the parents had the opportunity to observe therapist-conducted meals or receive parent training. Parents were instructed to conduct each meal as they would at home, and no additional instructions were provided. Conditional probabilities (p) of events following food refusal were calculated, such as escape (i.e., spoon removal, termination of meal, and leaving the area), attention (e.g., reprimands, coaxing, statements of concern), and access to tangible items (e.g., access to preferred items, food, or drinks). Results indicated that: (1) events observed during functional analyses were observed during the descriptive observations, (2) some events may be more likely to occur following a specific topography of food refusal, and (3) events not typically tested during functional analyses were observed (e.g., possible punishment procedures, and threats to remove preferred items). While the functional analysis method of behavioral assessment remains both useful and valid, suggestions for potential modifications to existing functional analysis procedures are described.
 
62. Assessing the Durability of Parent Training for Food Refusal: A Preliminary Investigation Using Descriptive Analysis Methods.
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
JULIA N. WOODS (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Carrie S. W. Borrero (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Elizabeth A. Masler (Kennedy Krieger Institute), John P. Rock (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Rachel Avery (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Descriptive analyses were used to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral parent training outside of the training context for a child who refused many foods. The participants included an 18-month-old girl admitted to an inpatient program for the treatment of severe pediatric feeding problems, and her mother and father. Previous research has shown that behavioral parent training can be effective to increase parents’ responses to both appropriate and problem behavior, and may also result in increases in child appropriate behavior. Descriptive observations were conducted at various times throughout the admission: (a) immediately following admission, (b) after observing at least 10 meals with a trained therapist but prior to formal training sessions, and (c) after meeting the criteria for completing parent training. Parent training procedures included observation of meals, verbal review of procedures, data collection training, role plays, and having the parent feed (direct) the meals. Results showed that the parent training procedures were effective during training sessions and increased the parents’ correct responses. Increases in correct responding were also observed during the pre-training and post-training observations.
 
63. Variables Predicting Treatment Outcome of Children with Tube Dependence in Kennedy Krieger Institute’s Feeding Disorders Program.
Area: CBM; Domain: Service Delivery
MELISSA LUKE GONZALEZ (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Rinita B. Laud (Louisiana State University/Kennedy Krieger Institute), Charles S. Gulotta (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Pediatric feeding disorders are serious conditions that greatly impact a child’s growth and development. The Kennedy Krieger Institute’s (KKI) Pediatric Feeding Disorders Program offers inpatient and day treatment services for children with feeding related difficulties. These children present with a variety of difficulties including food selectivity and/or varying degrees of food refusal. One hundred and forty-four of the children admitted to KKI’s intensive feeding disorders program from 2001 to 2006 were dependent on a Gastrostomy or Nasogastric-tube at admission. Given the large number of children with tube dependence admitted to this program, the purpose of this study is to examine if there are factors that predict this group’s treatment outcome. Factors examined as predictors of outcome include a child’s age, medical complexity (i.e., number of medical diagnoses), percentage of tube dependence at admission, primary caregiver’s score on the Children’s Eating Behavior Inventory (CEBI), and the type of service (day or inpatient). Treatment outcome measures include percentage change in tube dependence from admission to discharge and follow-up, inappropriate behaviors (i.e., head turns, swatting at spoon, covering mouth, and crying) during meals at discharge, and the number admission goals achieved.
 
64. Teacher Training for Children with Co-Occurring Hyperactive and Defiant/Aggressive Behavior.
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
JEFFREY DANFORTH (Eastern Connecticut State University)
Abstract: A treatment program called the Behavior Management Flow Chart (BMFC) was designed for children with co-occurring hyperactive and defiant behavior (Danforth, 1998a). The target behaviors of the BMFC are noncompliance and disruptive behavior such as aggression. Danforth (2007) details differences between the BMFC and other widely distributed behavior management programs. Four previously published parent-training outcome studies reveal the success of the program (Danforth, 1998b; 1999; 2001; 2006). In this study, the effects of behavior management training with the BMFC on teacher behavior and the behavior of four children (ages 6–10) with co-occurring hyperactive and defiant/aggressive behavior are evaluated in a series of ABAB designs in a school setting. Teacher training includes didactics on the features of hyperactive behavior and its functional relationship with defiant/aggressive behavior, as well as behavior management skills that are modified to meet the demands of hyperactive and impulsive behavior in the classroom. Outcome data show that training reduced children’s hyperactive, defiant, and aggressive behavior, and improved teacher behavior management skills. These data are comparable to previous outcome research evaluating the efficacy of home-based parent training with the BMFC. The advantages of using the same program in home and school settings are discussed.
 
65. Evaluation of a Treatment Package for Bruxism in a Young Child with Autism.
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
EMILY BARNOY (Center For Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Adel C. Najdowski (Center For Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Jonathan J. Tarbox (Center For Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Arthur E. Wilke (Center For Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Megan D. Nollet (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: Bruxism consists of forcefully grinding one’s own teeth together. “Chronic bruxing has been linked to severe destructive effects including abnormal wear on the teeth, damaged gum and bone structures surrounding the teeth, facial pain and tooth sensitivity” (Glaros & Rao, 1977). Little previous research has been published on treating bruxism in children with autism. In this clinical treatment evaluation, we measured the effects of a multicomponent treatment package for the reduction of bruxism in a young girl with autism. Treatment was implemented in the context of her everyday ABA therapy sessions and produced significant reductions in her bruxism.
 
66. Child Maltreatment: Program of Training to Parents to Reduce the Indiscrimination and Maternal Unpredictability.
Area: CBM; Domain: Applied Research
MANUEL MORALES (Universidad del Estado de México), Ariel Vite Sierra (Universidad Nacional de Mexico)
Abstract: In recent times in the field of child physical abuse, two explanatory hypotheses have arisen in this respect which have guided further empirical studies: the compliance hypothesis and the predictability hypothesis. While the compliance hypothesis suggests that coercive child behavior functions to facilitate escape from parent-imposed demands and limitations, the predictability hypothesis suggests that coercive child behavior functions to reduce child exposure to interpersonal uncertainty. Therefore the interest of the present study was to evaluate the effect that interactional parent training has to reduce compliance and unpredictability responses in mother-child dyads with a history of physical abuse. Six mother-child dyads participated with this problem, the ages of the children fluctuate between 3 and 9 years, and the ages of the mothers between 20–35. A single-case experimental design was used and during the intervention such procedures of behavioral change were applied as shaping, visual feedback and instructions. The dyads were filmed and observed by trained observers, using the System of Capture of Observational Data SOI-I (Vite, García & Rosas, 2006). The results showed a reduction of the indiscriminative and compliance maternal responses and an increase in prosocial child behavior. The discussion is centered on this strategy effectiveness to the restructuring of the interactions in mother-child dyads with antecedents of physical abuse.
 
 

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