Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


31st Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2005

Event Details

Previous Page


Invited Symposium #10
A Tribute to Ogden Lindsley: Precision Teaching for Fluency and Celeration
Saturday, May 28, 2005
1:00 PM–2:20 PM
Stevens 1 (Lower Level)
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
Chair: Kent Johnson (Morningside Academy)
CE Instructor: Kent Johnson, Ph.D.
Abstract: This symposium will pay tributes to the late, great Ogden R. Lindsley by focusing upon several key aspects of his work. Carl Binder will discuss the importance of frequency as the basic datum for science and education. Michael Fabrizio and Alison Moors will focus upon the standard celeration chart as the basic tool for Precision Teaching. Kent Johnson and his colleagues will discuss the application of Precision Teaching as the core methodology at Morningside Academy, and share lots of charted student data. And Elizabeth Haughton will present mottos that Lindsley lived by when educating teachers and offer her own history as an example of how he changed many teacher's work-lives.
Rate of Response: A Legacy for Teachers and Students from Skinner Through Lindsley
CARL V. BINDER (Binder-Riha Associates)
Abstract: Skinner identified rate of response and the cumulative response recorder as his two most important contributions. Indeed, most groundbreaking advances in the history of science have emerged with innovations in measurement. Lindsley inherited from Skinner the use of response rate, which he termed “frequency,” and extended the principle of standard graphic display, derived from Skinner’s cumulative response recording with its standard step sizes and paper speeds, with the Standard Celeration Chart. Lindsley’s chart gives us a uniquely powerful means of representing and quantifying learning with a standard graphic display and standard units of measurement (celeration values). Precision Teaching, much like Skinner’s science of behavior, has often been misunderstood as a collection of procedures and discoveries. Indeed, like Skinner’s science, Lindsley’s technology of teaching is, at its core, a measurement innovation of unsurpassed sensitivity. By replacing the ubiquitous use of percent correct, a dimensionless quantity, with count per minute measures of correct and incorrect responding and celeration as a measure of learning, Precision Teaching provides a radically more sensitive means of making instructional decisions. This presentation illustrates the power and sensitivity of response rate measures for instructional decision-making while demonstrating the remarkable insensitivity of percentage correct.
Carl Binder entered Behavior Analysis as a graduate student at Harvard with B.F. Skinner who introduced him to B.H. Barrett. Between 1973 and 1982 he was Associate Director in Barrett’s Behavior Prosthesis Laboratory, conducting laboratory research, managing a research classroom for students with developmental disabilities, training M.Ed. students in Precision Teaching at local colleges and consulting to dozens of schools and agencies throughout New England and North America. He was fortunate to meet and learn from colleagues that included Ogden Lindsley, Eric and Elizabeth Haughton, Hank Pennypacker, and Jay Birnbrauer, each of whom influenced him deeply. Introduced to standard celeration charting and Precision Teaching by Barrett, mentored by Lindsley and Haughton, and influenced by hundreds of charts from many learner populations, he committed in 1976 to development and dissemination of frequency-based instruction. With Lindsley’s encouragement he moved from education to corporate performance improvement in 1982 and has made his living there, introducing the FluencyBuilding(TM) training and coaching methodology, standard celeration charting, and accomplishment-based performance improvement methods into corporations. He maintains involvement with and writing about children’s education, his choice for the area of our work with the greatest potential for cultural impact. Download his articles and presentations at
The Contributions of the Standard Celeration Chart to Intervention Programming: Moving Data from Post Hoc Rationale to Elegant Measurement, Assessment, and Evaluation
MICHAEL FABRIZIO (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Alison L. Moors (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting)
Abstract: Because of its mathematical properties, its physical properties, and its widely adopted graphic conventions, the Standard Celeration Chart (SCC) offers many advantages over non-standard graphs for its use in behavior analytic instructional programming. Through the quick, easy, and simultaneous analysis of all three features of charted human performance data—frequency, celeration, and bounce—clinicians’ behavior may be controlled readily by the performance data of the children whose programs they supervise. Thus, rather than serving as a post hoc rationale for clinical action, children’s data can guide intervention and serve as a source of discriminative control over the behavior of those who work with them. This paper will discuss the features of the SCC that contribute to its unique power in informing data-based decision making in intervention programs.
Michael Fabrizio received his Bachelor’s Degree in Psychology and Master’s Degree in Educational Psychology/Applied Behavior Analysis from West Virginia University. He is a Board Certified Behavior Analyst and doctoral student in Special Education at the University of Washington where he is specializing in behavior analysis, autism, instructional design, and technical communication. Michael has worked with children with autism and other special needs throughout his career, serving as a Senior Educational Specialist for the West Virginia Autism Training Center at Marshall University, a Clinical Specialist for the Spectrum Center for Educational and Behavioral Development in Berkeley, California, Head Teacher for Morningside Academy in Seattle, Washington, and Lead Trainer for Morningside Academy’s Public School Improvement Project. Michael currently resides in Seattle, Washington, where he is a full partner in Fabrizio/Moors Consulting, an educational and behavioral consulting private practice specializing in fluency-based instruction for learners with autism. Michael has presented his applied research work with children with disabilities at a range of state, regional, and national professional conferences including the Autism Society of America, the West Coast Special Education Conference, the Association for Behavior Analysis, the Association for the Severely Handicapped, the Association for Science in Autism Treatment, and the International Precision Teaching Conference. He has published his work in the Behavior Analysis Digest, the Journal of Precision Teaching and Celeration, and the European Journal of Behavior Analysis. He received the 2000 New Contributions Award presented by the Standard Celeration Society, serves as a contributing editor for the Journal of Precision Teaching and Celeration, teaches as an adjunct faculty member in the Department of Behavior Analysis at the University of North Texas, and serves as a member of the Organization for Autism Research’s Scientific Advisory Council.
Precision Teaching at Morningside Academy, Morningside Teachers' Academy, and Headsprout Early Reading
KENT JOHNSON (Morningside Academy), Abigail B. Calkin (Morningside Academy), Kristine F. Melroe (Morningside Academy), Elizabeth M. Street (Central Washington University), T. V. Joe Layng (Headsprout)
Abstract: Kent Johnson will discuss Precision Teaching as the core methodology at Morningside Academy and how it integrates with the Morningside Model of Generative Instruction. Abigail Calkin, Kris Melroe, and Elizabeth Street will present charted data from students at Morningside Academy, and 2 schools in the Bureau of Indian Affairs national school district that are in partnerships with Morningside Academy: Pierre Learning Center in South Dakota, and Riverside Indian School in Oklahoma. Joe Layng will present data showing how rate and celeration determine success or additional instruction and practice in the internet-based interactive early reading instructional program, Headsprout Early Reading.
Dr. Kent Johnson founded Morningside Academy in Seattle, Washington in 1980, and currently serves as its Executive Director. Morningside is a laboratory school for elementary and middle school children and youth. Morningside investigates effective curriculum materials and teaching methods, and has provided training and consulting in instruction to over 80 schools and agencies throughout the USA and Canada since 1991. Dr. Johnson has served in all the positions at Morningside, including classroom teacher for 10 years, financial manager, administrator, teacher trainer, school psychologist and school consultant. He has published several seminal papers, chapters and a book about The Morningside Model of Generative Instruction: A general framework for teaching, and a blend of research-based curriculum and teaching methods. Prior to founding Morningside, Dr. Johnson was professor at Central Washington University, director of staff training at the Fernald School in Massachusetts, and instructional designer at Northeastern University in Boston. He received his M.S. (1974) and Ph.D. (1977) in psychology at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst under the mentorship of Drs. Beth Sulzer-Azaroff, Ellen Reese, and John Donahue. He received his B.S. in psychology and sociology from Georgetown University (1973), under the mentorship of Dr. J Gilmour Sherman. He also counts Drs. Fred Keller, Charles Ferster, B. F. Skinner, Susan Markle, John Dewey, Robert Gagne, Siegfried Engelmann, Ogden Lindsey, Israel Goldiamond, Arthur Whimbey, and colleague Joe Layng as major influences on his work. Dr. Johnson is also co-founder of Headsprout, Inc., a Seattle-based company funded by investors to develop web-based, interactive, cartoon-driven instructional programs in reading and other foundation skills. Dr. Johnson enjoys reading philosophy, mysteries, ancient history, psychology, and books about teaching and children. He also enjoys rock, electronic downbeat and ambient music; and talking about politics and public policy.
Science and the Big Heart
ELIZABETH HAUGHTON (Haughton Learning Center)
Abstract: The measurement and decision making tools I learned from Dr. Ogden Lindsey changed my professional life. Learning to pinpoint precise outcomes, collect frequency based measures, record data on a Standard Celeration Chart and use data to make decisions has greatly benefited my students. The Child Knows Best and Care Enough To Chart are two of Og’s slogans that gave me guidance when working with challenging learning situations. Here are some of the things I learned by using Og’s measurement technology (then provide descriptions and examples).
Elizabeth Haughton has been an educator for over 35 years, serving students in general education classrooms in public schools, as well as students with special needs at Haughton Learning Center, which she founded in Napa California and serves as its Director. Elizabeth is also a special education consultant to schools and agencies, a professional teacher trainer, and author of several Precision Teaching and fluency-building instructional programs, including phonological coding, rapid automatic naming, mathematics tool skills, and handwriting.



Back to Top
Modifed by Eddie Soh