Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


31st Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2005

Event Details

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Poster Session #183
#183 Poster Session - AUT
Sunday, May 29, 2005
12:00 PM–1:30 PM
Southwest Exhibit Hall (Lower Level)
1. Using Precision Teaching to Teach Storytelling to a Young Child with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KRISTIN N. SCHIRMER (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Holly Almon-Morris (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Michael Fabrizio (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Brenda Abrahamson (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Katie Chevalier (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting)
Abstract: This data based poster will show the progress in developing language and story-telling abilities by a preschool child with autism through the use of Fluency-Based Instruction. The poster will present data showing how the student’s language skills and story-telling abilities improved and were taught and monitored using the Standard Celeration Chart (SCC).
2. Using Precision Teaching to Measure Language Development through an Augmentative Communication Device in a Young Child with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMY KING (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Kelly J. Ferris (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Michael Fabrizio (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Katherine Greenberg (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Paula Herrington (Communication, Language, and Speech Services, Inc.)
Abstract: This poster will show the progress in developing language made by a preschool child with autism through the use of an augmentative communication device and Fluency-Based Instruction. The poster will present data showing how the student’s language skills improved and how necessary component skills were taught and monitored using the Standard Celeration Chart (SCC).
3. Treatment of Sleep Problems in a Young Child with Autism Using a Multi-Component Behavioral Intervention
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HANNAH HOCH (The Graduate Center, City University of New York), Mary Ellen McDonald (The Genesis School)
Abstract: Individuals with autism often experience sleep disturbances. These sleep problems may include difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep, and often disturb the sleep of other household members. The purpose of this case study was to examine the effects of an intervention consisting of bedtime fading, standard extinction and sleep restriction on the sleep behavior of a 7-year-old boy with autism. At the time of referral, the student required a parent to be present to fall asleep, and had multiple nighttime wakings. Data were collected by the child’s mother using sleep logs (Durand, 1998). During baseline, the child had nighttime wakings at least 6 nights per week (range 0-4 per night), and the mean latency from bedtime to sleep onset was 30 min. During intervention, bedtime was systematically delayed (to decrease latency to sleep onset), the parents did not remain in the room after the child was put to sleep, and the number of hours the child was allowed to sleep was restricted and systematically increased. Following intervention, the child consistently went to sleep independently, the mean latency to sleep onset decreased to 11 min., and nighttime wakings decreased to less than one per week. The poster concludes with a discussion of the social validity of this intervention.
4. The Development of Verbal Behavior: Predicting Outcome
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
DEBRA RAUSCH-HARRIS (University of California, San Diego), Laura Schreibman (University of California, San Diego)
Abstract: The current study examines the development of Skinner’s verbal operants within the framework of a specific behavioral intervention for children with autism. Pivotal Response Training (PRT) is a naturalistic behavioral treatment based on the principles of applied behavior analysis. Preliminary analyses in our laboratory indicate that PRT is effective in increasing each unit of language (echoic, mand, tact, intraverbal, autoclitic), resulting in language that is functional for the child. Identification of the development of each functional unit of language (e.g. Skinner’s verbal operants) throughout a course of PRT has not previously been researched. Children participating in this study are between the ages of 2 and 4, have a diagnosis of autism, have fewer than 10 functional words, and have not received PRT in the past. Children receive 10 hours of PRT per week over a period of 3-6 months. The current study aims to identify the specific child characteristics that impact the development of each of the verbal operants. More specifically, this study is looking at the relationship between the development of each verbal operant and the child’s behavioral profile. Such information will provide theoretical as well as practical value in further explaining language development, predicting success with specific treatment methodologies, and better individualizing treatment to match the child’s unique profile.
5. Intensive Behavioral Treatment for Young Children with Autism: Four Year Outcome and Prediction
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
GLEN O. SALLOWS (Wisconsin Early Autism Project), Tamlynn Dianne Graupner (Wisconsin Early Autism Project)
Abstract: Several partial replications of the Intensive Behavioral Treatment for young children with autism developed at UCLA have reported that approximately half of the children showed large improvements. While none of these studies reported improvements as large as those reported by UCLA, none provided the intensity of treatment that was provided in the UCLA study. In the present study, 23 children under 3 ½ years old diagnosed with autism (by ADI-R and community psychiatrists) and IQ of at least 35 (Bayley II) received 35-40 hours per week of treatment for two years, followed by two years of gradually reduced hours. Results after four years showed that 11 of 23 children (48%) were "rapid learners", who showed dramatic increases in IQ, from 55 to 104. Scores on tests of language, social and adaptive skills as well as academic achievement increased to the low average to average range, and all 11 children were successfully placed in regular education classes. The best predictor of outcome was the pretreatment ability to imitate. Logistic regression combining verbal imitation and ADI-R Communication score predicted 10 of 11 rapid learners with one false positive and one false positive (21 of 23 correctly identified). Predictive power was .91.
6. The Effects of Video-Based Instruction on Discrimination Training with a Child Diagnosed with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LORI ANN RUSSO (Behavioral Innovations, Inc.), Jessica L. Feger (Behavioral Innovations, Inc.), Tessa Vankirk (Behavioral Innovations, Inc.)
Abstract: The present study systematically assessed the effects of video based instruction on the acquisition rates of receptive and expressive language of a child diagnosed with autism. A multiple baseline across tasks was utilized. During baseline, the child was presented with a receptive and expressive discrimination task across 4 response topographies. Video instruction consisted of the child viewing a video clip of adults performing various actions. After the observation, the child was tested for acquisition across the response topographies. No experimenter-implemented reinforcement (other than “yes that is _____”) or correction procedures were utilized during baseline or intervention. The results suggest that video instruction did not lead to faster acquisition rates; however, it may have increased attention to the stimulus materials and the task itself. The results are discussed in terms of the possible motivating and attention maintaining qualities of video based instruction.
7. Teaching a Child with Autism to Respond to Their Name
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA CHERNE (St. Cloud State University)
Abstract: A program was developed for a 4 year old child with autism who did not respond when his name was called. The program consisted of the therapist saying the childs name while holding a reinforcer to their own face. The program was designed to fade the location of the reinforcer so that eventually the child would look without the prompt. The definition of looking was the child would make eye contact for at least 2 seconds within 3 seconds of his name being called. Interobserver reliability was 100% for baseline and intervention. Because of time constraints the whole fading process was not implemented but the data showed an increase in looking when his name was called.
8. Improving Spontaneous Requesting Message for Children with Autism Using Parent's Cellphone
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
KYONG BONG KIM (Lotus Flowers Children Center), KeeYeon Min (Lotus Flowers Children Center), Yunhee Lee (Lotus Flowers Children Center), Eun Hee Shon (Lotus Flowers Children Center), Jin Hwa Lee (Lotus Flowers Children Center), Jee Hwa Lee (Lotus Flowers Children Center), Soo Ok Shong (Lotus Flowers Children Center), Hae Ree Bark (Lotus Flowers Children Center)
Abstract: The present study examined the effect of educational strategy using parent's cellphone to improve spontaneous requesting words for children with autism. Three of preschoolers with autism and their mothers participated in the study. The study used a multiple baseline design across subjects and ABAB design with each subject's behaviors. The results showed that the intervention improved all the subjects' spontaneous requesting vocabularies, social initiation, prosocial behaviors, and level of participation in a peer group activity.
9. Teaching Autistic Children Generative Questions
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAURA K. BELZ (Eastern Michigan University), Marilyn K. Bonem (Eastern Michigan University)
Abstract: Experiment 1 replicated Williams et al. (2000) using discrete trial training (DTT) to teach two autistic children a three question chain in response to items hidden in boxes. Experiment 2 assessed during DTT and later trained generalization of the three question forms to a less structured play setting, using three types of generalization trials. As in DTT, setting generalization trials involved items in boxes but setup in the freeplay setting. Stimulus generalization trials involved items in other kinds of containers. Response generalization trials required more specific question variations from DTT. Response generalization was measured as both the percentage of correct (unprompted, appropriately used and articulated) question variations from DTT, and included those previously used or prompted as well as true response generalization including only novel, never prompted question variation. Both participants showed spontaneous setting and stimulus generalization soon after DTT training began, rapidly increasing to mastery once that type of generalization training was introduced. Neither participant demonstrated spontaneous response generalization with DTT alone, but upon response generalization training both displayed true response generalization and repeated use of question variations, but not to mastery criteria. The free play setting proved advantageous in collecting generalization data, compared to previously used anecdotal methods.
10. Assessing Generalization from the Computer to 3-D Objects Using the Discrete Trial Trainer Computer Program
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JAIME SCHILLING (Alpine Learning Group), Bridget A. Taylor (Alpine Learning Group), Hannah Hoch (Alpine Learning Group)
Abstract: This study examined if responses learned via the Discrete Trial Trainer computer program would generalize to three dimensional stimuli. The participant, a six-year-old girl with autism, was taught to match pictures to objects via the computer program. Using a multiple baseline probe design across targets, the study assessed generalization to three dimensional stimuli (e.g., was the participant able to match text to real objects during instruction in the classroom). A second observer scored IOA for 30% of the sessions. Baseline measures indicated that the participant was not able to perform the responses prior to training on the computer. Results will be discussed in terms of the applicability of computerized instruction on the generalized responding for some children with autism.
11. Comparison of Early Progress and Outcome for Children with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
VICKI MADAUS KNAPP (Summit Educational Resources), Kathleen B. Honer (Summit Educational Resources), Amy L. Jablonski (Summit Educational Resources)
Abstract: It has been shown that early intensive behavioral intervention with children with autism can produce significant improvement in the children’s level of functioning. Summit Educational Resources’ Early Autism Program provides early intensive behavioral intervention for children with autism and pervasive developmental disorders ages 18-months to 5-years-old. Many children exit our program and enter regular education settings, with and without support. Some of our children continue to required extensive supports and are placed in self-contained special-education settings. This poster will present data from children’s beginning programs, including number of sessions to criterion, for children who did and children who did not show best outcome.
12. Comparing Constant Time Delay and Simultaneous Prompting Procedures on Skill Acquisition for Children with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NICOLE ZEUG (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire), Julie A. Ackerlund (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire), Sara Czekalski (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire), Sarah Tillman (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire), Kevin P. Klatt (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire)
Abstract: Teaching communication, play, social and academic skills to children often involves using procedures to transfer stimulus control from the teacher’s prompt to the discriminative stimulus. A constant time delay procedure has been successfully used to transfer stimulus control in many studies. More recently, a simultaneous prompting procedure has been demonstrated to successfully transfer stimulus control, but in many cases with fewer trials, sessions, training time to criterion and errors than the constant time delay procedure. The purpose of this on-going study is to investigate whether differences exist in using these two procedures when teaching skills to young children diagnosed with autism. Preliminary results have shown little difference between the two procedures.
13. Assessment of Responding to Joint Attention after One Year of EIBI Treatment
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER L. KLEIN (New England Center for Children), Gretchen O'Sullivan (New England Center for Children), Rebecca P. F. MacDonald (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: This paper describes a highly structured assessment protocol with objective behavioral measures for evaluating children’s responsiveness to the joint attention of an adult. The assessment was administered to children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders upon entry into EIBI treatment and after one year of intervention. Children ranged in age upon entry from 2 to 4 years old. Interobserver agreement was high for all behavioral measures. Results showed that responsiveness to joint attention bids improved for some children but remained the same for others. An analysis of response patterns and overall profiles of the children revealed that the position of the target object as well as the functioning level of the child influenced their performance. These results extend previous research and have implications for the behavioral treatment of joint attention.
14. Post-training Discrete-Trial Teaching Performance by Instructors of Young Children with Autism in Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CAROLYN S. RYAN (New York Center for Autism), Nancy S. Hemmes (Queens College, City University of New York)
Abstract: The current study examined instructors’ discrete-trial teaching responses after a performance-based training procedure in which instructors were required to demonstrate criterion-level performance on written and oral quizzes and on performance demonstrations. Twelve discrete-trial teaching responses were labeled and operationally defined. Post-training measures of the target responses were obtained during home-based early intervention teaching sessions with young children with autism. The director provided discrete-trial performance feedback to the instructor after each session. Mean accuracy of performance for the instructors was 85% or above across 10 sessions. These data were contrasted with the substantially lower levels of accuracy from normative data of instructors conducting sessions in a comparable setting. These data suggest the importance of requiring criterion-level performance during training.
15. Comparison of Typical Match-to-Sample and Match "Tacts" in the Acquisition of Tacts
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ELAINE C. JOHNSON (Bay District Schools), H. Allen Murphy (Florida State University, Panama City), Jennifer Fenwick (Florida State University, Panama City), Lisa Gravlee (Florida State University, Panama City)
Abstract: Behavioral interventions for children with autism and others with developmental disabilities frequently include training to discriminate "sameness" by teaching the individuals to match items with similar characteristics. Typically, this is done by having the person place identical pictures or items with the matching item when given an array including the identical item and several dissimilar ones while saying "put with same" or "match". This traditional method was compared to one in which the names of the items was included in the instruction, e,g., "put truck with truck" for five children enrolled in a pre-kindergarten class designed to teach language skills. For all children, correct matching occurred in equally in both conditions but increases in tacts assessed during probes were attained only with the "put tact with tact" procedure.
16. Teaching Tact for Children with Autistic Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
NOZOMI NAOI (Keio University, Japan), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Keio University, Japan)
Abstract: Children with autism have difficulties in tact despite their ability to mand. Tact is a verbal operant in which a response of given form is evoked (or at least strengthened) by a particular object or event or property of an object or event (Skinner, 1957). Few studies, however, have attempted to establish tact as a functional communication skill. The purpose of the present study was to examine the conditions under which children with autism acquired functional and generalized tact. The participants were three children with autism. A multiple-baseline design was implemented to evaluate intervention effects. Animated cartoons or still pictures were used as stimuli. The child was required to walk to see a stimulus, observe it, walk back to an adult listener sitting in the other room, catch attention of the listener, and then tact what they had seen. In baseline, no participants were sufficiently able to tact what they have seen after 1 meter move from the stimulus. Labeling what they have seen was trained first in front of the stimuli and the listener sat next to the child. Then the distance between the stimulus and the listener became longer. Finally, children acquired tact for novel events occured in the other room.
17. Teaching Functional Verbal Behavior using the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) with Low Functioning Children with Autistic Disorders
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KUMIKO YOKOYAMA (Keio University, Japan), Nozomi Naoi (Keio University, Japan), Jun'ichi Yamamoto (Keio University, Japan)
Abstract: Given that only a few empirically based studies have been conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS), we explored whether four children with autistic disorders who were totally mute could acquire functional communication with PECS, using a multiple baseline design. Although most of the previous studies concerned with the emergence of speech with PECS use, none had implemented PECS to the children whose vocalization was limited to one or two phonemes only. Our primary focus was to examine the effect of PECS on the acquisition of non-verbal communication such as initiation of spontaneous mand, expansion of the number of preferred items, and the number of trials to criterion. Probe trials were conducted to evaluate the generalization of learned behaviors to a different setting, communicative partner, and with longer distance. Results indicated that all four children acquired PECS within a short period, and the increased varieties of preferred item correlated with the increased accuracy of exchanging behavior. In addition, our data suggested that tapping on the picture card corresponding number of times of its syllables promoted increased vocalization.
18. Analyzing the Results of the Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills (ABLLS) Given to Siblings of Children Diagnosed with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KRISTIN A. WIER (Early Intervention Center), Jennifer L. Wiessner (Early Intervention Center), Amy Hund (Early Intervention Center)
Abstract: At the Early Intervention Center during the months of June and July in 2004, the ABLLS was given to 6 children between to ages of two and eight years old. These 6 children did not have a diagnosis of Autism. The initial purpose of the assessment results was to begin to get a normative measure for a typically developing child at different ages and developmental levels. We were hoping to get some preliminary comparative measures. From this brief study we were able to deduce that much more sampling is needed, and that the assessment should also be completed on children that do not have a sibling with an autism diagnosis. The results and conclusions will be discussed in this poster.
19. A Comparison of Therapist Versus Spousal Feedback on Parent Training Implementation Fidelity
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
DONNA C. CHANEY (Behaviour Institute)
Abstract: It is typically recommended that parents of children who receive Early Intensive Behavior Intervention should be trained how to generalize the child’s skills to the natural environment. Parents are trained in protocols to promote child skill generalization based on principles of applied behavior analysis and apply those protocols to every day situations. This study compared the use of live feedback from a therapist or from a spousal on parental adherence to the trained procedures for promoting generalization with their child. In both cases feedback consisted of verbal and written information using a checklist of components of the developed protocol. The effect of no-feedback, therapist feedback and spousal feedback on parent correct implementation of training was compared using a multi-element design with two sets of parents. The results indicated that parent correct implementation of training increased under both spousal and therapist feedback with no difference between the two. Increases in parent implementation fidelity continued at one and two month follow-up
20. Intervention Planning in Reducing Inappropriate Verbalizations in a Preschooler Diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMY SOKOL (Crossroads Center for Children), Joanne Tufano (Crossroads Center for Children), Helen Bloomer (Crossroads Center for Children)
Abstract: This study evaluated the effectiveness of a strategy implemented to decrease the occurrence of inappropriate verbalizations in a preschooler diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorders. This student attended Crossroads Center for Children, a preschool utilizing techniques of applied behavior analysis. The results will reflect a reduction in inappropriate verbalizations and discuss the impact relative to appropriate verbal interactions.
21. Behavioral Skills Training for Parents of Children with Autism: Teaching Implementation of the Natural Language Paradigm
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JILL GILLETT (Western Michigan University), Linda A. LeBlanc (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: This study utilizes behavioral skills training to teach parents of children with autism to implement the natural language paradigm. There are four phases in this study: baseline, instruction, modeling, rehearsal, and evaluation. Baseline consists of 10-minute sessions of the parent and child playing together as they normally would. The instruction phase involves use of a PowerPoint presentation to teach parents the steps of the natural language paradigm. Modeling involves parents watching a video tape of the second author implementing the natural language paradigm with a child with autism. During the rehearsal phase, parents practice implementation of the natural language paradigm with an undergraduate assistant acting as the child with autism. Evaluation consists of the parent implementing the natural language paradigm with their child with autism. Data on three sets of children and parents will be presented. Data will be presented and analyzed using a multiple baseline across participants design. Dependent variables that will be analyzed include percent correct parent implementation, frequency of child vocalizations, quality of child vocalizations, and play behavior.
22. The Kindergarten Survival Skills Checklist: Psychometric Properties with Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DANIEL W. MRUZEK (University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry), Tasha Geiger (University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry), Caroline I. Magyar (University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry)
Abstract: The Kindergarten Survival Skills Checklist (Vincent et al., 1980; KSSC) is a criterion-referenced rating scale that measures the child’s use of skills considered necessary for successfully adapting to the demands of the general education kindergarten classroom. The purpose of this study was to measure the psychometric properties of the KSSC for use with typically developing children and children with autism. Satisfactory evidence of reliability was established through test-retest correlations, interrater agreements and internal consistency coefficients. Satisfactory evidence of validity was established through correlation with the Scales for Predicting Successful Inclusion (SPSI), comparison of scores between typically developing children and children with autism, and through correlation of KSSC scores of the children with autism with subsequent classroom placement decisions. In sum, the KSSC appears to be a reliable and valid instrument for the assessment of critical kindergarten classroom skills. This instrument may serve as a valuable tool in the identification of goals in intensive, applied behavior analytic instruction for children with autism, as well as a means of assessing progress across time.
23. Communication and Adaptive Behavior Skills of Preschoolers Receiving Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention: One Year Outcome
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MICHELLE RONE-DEPOLO (Cleveland Clinic Center for Autism), Jocelyn Mills (Cleveland Clinic Center for Autism), Leslie Sinclair (Cleveland Clinic Center for Autism), Aletta Sinoff (Cleveland Clinic Center for Autism)
Abstract: Receptive and expressive language and overall adaptive communication skills were prospectively evaluated in 10 young children (Mean=39.3 months, SD=6.68 months) with autism in a center-based applied behavior analysis preschool. Autism severity was measured by The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). At baseline, average total category rating was in the moderate to severe range of autism (Mean=38, SD=4.90), with 4 children scoring in the mild-moderate range and 6 children scoring in the moderate-severe range. It was hypothesized that overall language and adaptive behavior skills would improve, as would specific receptive and expressive language skills.Data were gathered upon entry into the program and after the initial 12 months of treatment, using the Preschool Language Scale-Third/Fourth Edition-Total Language Score (PLS3/4-TL), Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test (ROWPVT), Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test (EOWPVT), and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS)-Communication (VABS-C), Daily Living Skills (VABS-D), and Socialization (VABS-S) subdomains. All students received a minimum of 25 hours weekly of intensive behavioral treatment targeting communication and adaptive behavior as part of a more broad-based intervention program. T-tests for dependent measures showed significant improvement in standard scores for the PLS3/4-TL (p=.034), ROWPVT (p=.016), EOWPVT (p=.046), VABS-C (p=.014), VABS-D (p=.010), and VABS-S (p=.005).
24. Retrospective Analysis of the Effects of Decreases in Treatment Hours in Early Intervention for Young Children with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
SIENNA WOOTEN (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Rachel S. F. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Doreen Granpeesheh (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Sarah Larsen (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.)
Abstract: Previous studies have evaluated the effects of differing durations of ABA based treatment per week for young children with autism. While previous investigators suggest that 30 to 40 hours per week of therapy results in the greatest treatment gains, often times this recommended level of intervention is not met. Decrements in treatment hours resulting from circumstances such as decreases in funding for services or frequent or prolonged absences from treatment (i.e., for vacation or due to illness) often occur. However, the effects of such circumstances on treatment efficacy have yet to be evaluated. Retrospective analyses of the effects of decreases in number of treatment hours per week on rate of skill acquisition and problem behavior will be presented.
25. Evaluation of Simultaneous Instruction of Receptive by Feature, Function and Class Discrimination Skills with Young Children with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMANDA J. SPITZER (Marlborough Public Schools), Jill E. McGrale Maher (Marlborough Public Schools), Sharon Krendall-Ames (Ashland Public Schools)
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to evaluate a currently popular teaching strategy involving simultaneous teaching of receptive and expressive identification, receptive function, and receptive category identification as an efficient and effective instructional format for young children with autism. Traditional discrete trial teaching requires each skill be taught separately and sequentially. Specifically, we are investigating teaching the above mentioned skills simultaneously rather than sequentially. A variety of materials and instructions are presented for each object/picture, data are collected on the first trial of each training item each session (each session is videotaped), and instructions are presented at a rapid pace. Each session is 20 minutes in length with one to two small breaks. The experimental design is a multiple baseline across sets of words and students. Preliminary data are variable. One student appears to be acquiring skills as sessions progress, with an increase in his percentage of correct responses (range 66-100%), while the other student continues to respond below chance levels as sessions progress (average 33%). In addition, specific incorrect responses vary across sessions.
27. Retention of Expressive Labels Using Video Modeling on a Preschooler with Autism: A Case Study
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ALLISON NEWMAN (Lerner School), Aletta Sinoff (Lerner School), Leslie Sinclair (Lerner School), Jocelyn Mills (Lerner School)
Abstract: This poster will present the findings of an ABA design demonstrating the effect of video modeling on preschool student’s ability to retain expressive verbal labels. Results of a reinforcement survey will be outlined with reference to identification of an establishing operation and the rationale for the selection of video modeling as a teaching procedure. Data will be presented outlining the student’s level of regression of expressive language labels. Data pertaining to the student’s level of retention when video modeling is used will also be shown. Discussion will describe the critical elements of video modeling, including implementation and appropriate fading procedures.
28. Teaching Concepts to Children with Autism Using Incidental Versus Discrete Trial Formats
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JANET A. BUTZ (Collaborative Autism Resources and Education, LLC), Ceri Edwards (Schertz-Cibolo-Universal City Independent School District), Rolando Ocanas (Schertz-Cibolo-Universal City Independent School District)
Abstract: The authors will present the findings of a research project conducted in an early childhood classroom designed for children with autism in a public school district. The authors will describe how two novel shapes were taught to children using a discrete trial format utilizing a receptive identification, verbal imitation, and expressive labeling program and how two additional novel shapes were taught to the same group of children using an incidental teaching approach that occurred during circle time, transition, and at other times throughout the school day. Results will show which teaching format allowed students to master the novel concepts the most quickly and which teaching format caused the students to retain the concepts during maintenance checks that occurred periodically throughout the school year.
29. “Keep Your Clothes On:" A Strategy for a Preschool Student with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JANET A. BUTZ (Collaborative Autism Resources and Education, LLC), Larry R. Combs (Artesia School District), Leslie Wilson (Artesia School District)
Abstract: The authors will present the findings of a research project conducted in an early childhood classroom designed for children with autism in a public school district. The authors will describe how a functional behavior assessment was conducted across settings and caregivers to examine the undressing behavior of a preschool aged student with autism. A multiple baseline across behaviors was implemented to increase the likelihood the student remained in his clothes during the school day. The authors will also discuss how the undressing behavior was addressed in the home and community settings.
30. Benefits of a Summer Therapeutic Activities Program When Transitioning into the Academic School Year
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
PAIGE E. KEETER (KidsPeace), Emily C. Leayman (KidsPeace), John D. McElwee (KidsPeace)
Abstract: This poster will highlight research conducted on children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder who attended 24 days of programming at a Summer Therapeutic Activities Program (STAP) in July and August of 2004. The study will compare their transition into the academic school year after the summer hiatus when they did not attend the STAP program compared to when they did attend the full STAP program. The STAP program was created expecially for children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder and is run by KidsPeace National Centers in Pennsylvania. Seventy-two children attended this program in it's second year and funding was provided through both the State of Pennsylvania and local managed care companies.
31. Therapy Balls as Seating and Engagement in Children with Autism: A Replication
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMY SLYMAN (The May Institute), Jane I. Carlson (The May Institute)
Abstract: This multiple baseline, A-B-A-B design replicates Schilling & Schwartz (2004). The study examines the impact of seating on a therapy ball vs. a regular classroom chair on engagement in children with autism. Participants were school-aged children with autism who attend a private day-school for children with developmental disabilities. Results show that engagement levels were the same regardless of seating type and that stereotypic behavior was higher during therapy ball conditions. Engagement during therapy ball sessions averaged 67% intervals and during classroom chair sessions averaged 65% intervals. Stereotypic behavior averaged 55% intervals during therapy ball sessions and 38% intervals during classroom chair sessions. (IOA= 95%). These findings contradict the findings in the Schilling and Schwartz (2004) study.
32. Establishing Toy Play and Reinforcement in a Child with Autism: Parents as Paired Reinforcers
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ALEXIS HYDE-WASHMON (University of Houston, Texas Young Autism Project), Courtney Ferguson (University of Houston, Texas Young Autism Project), Gerald E. Harris (University of Houston, Texas Young Autism Project)
Abstract: Very little research has studied the use of parents as a resource for developing effective reinforcers for use in the behavioral treatment of children with autism. The present case study delineates the process of establishing reinforcers and toy play skills for a 2-year-old boy with autism through the use of the child's parents as a paired reinforcer. The parent was effectively established as a reinforcer and was paired with a variety of toys in an interactive parent-training procedure that incorporated discrete trial applied behavior analysis. The parent was requested to engage the child with specific toys for 20 to 30 minutes daily. Data were collected on an approach basis in which the target toys were presented concurrently with distracter toys. Evidence indicates that the child displayed an increase in approach and toy play initiation, which resulted in the toys functioning as strong reinforcers. The results and implications of using a parent to develop functional reinforcers are discussed.



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