Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


31st Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2005

Event Details

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Poster Session #341
#341 Poster Session - DDA
Monday, May 30, 2005
12:00 PM–1:30 PM
Southwest Exhibit Hall (Lower Level)
58. The Effects of Supervisor Feedback to Group Home Staff on the Behavior of Clients with Severe Intellectual Disabilities and Behaviour Disorders
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
KAREN CHARTIER (Lake Ridge Community Support Services), Dan Fishman (Lake Ridge Community Support Services), James J. Reaume (Lake Ridge Community Support Services), Maurice Feldman (Brock University)
Abstract: This poster examines the effect of supervisor feedback to 30 group home staff on the behaviour of 6 clients with severe intellectual disabilities (ID) and behavior disorders. While previous studies have shown a relationship between supervisor observations and feedback on staff behavior, oftentimes the effects on client behavior are not reported or demonstrated. In this study, supervisors observed interactions between clients and frontline staff, and provided feedback to staff on the quality of interactions observed. The supervisor and the consulting behaviour therapist, using an observation record observed client behaviour. Interobserver agreement was 92%. An ABAB reversal design was used over 25 months, in which the behavior therapist only-feedback condition alternated with behavior therapist + supervisor-feedback condition across two different supervisors (same behavior therapist, staff and clients). We found that supervisor feedback increased the number of staff-client engagements and clients’ positive client behavior, and decreased client negative behavior, as compared to feedback from the behaviour therapist.
59. Can the Vineland Communication Subscale Predict Instruction-Following for Children with Developmental Delays
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER R. THORSTEINSSON (University of Manitoba), Lysianne D. Kolt (St. Cloud State University), Garry L. Martin (University of Manitoba), Dickie C. T. Yu (St. Amant Research Centre), Sara M. Spevack (University of Manitoba)
Abstract: We examined the relationship between the Vineland communication subscales and compliance to instructions, with and without gestures, in eight 2-year-old children with developmental disabilities. The children were sorted into two groups according to high or low communication scores on the Vineland communication receptive and expressive subscales. Compliance to instructions with and without gestures was observed through videotapes of parent-child interactions in the home. It was hypothesized that children with higher communication scores would show higher rates of compliance to instructions without gestures than children with lower communication scores, but rates of compliance to instructions with gestures would not differ between groups. A strong, positive correlation was found between the Vineland communication subscales and compliance to instructions. The group with high Vineland communication subscale scores complied nearly twice as often to instructions than the group with low Vineland communication subscale scores. When instructions were provided with gestures the groups complied at an equal rate. We derive from these results a recommendation for parents of children with developmental disabilities to include gestures when giving instructions, and a recommendation that the Vineland assessment be used to identify children for whom special training for instruction following may be required.
60. Analysis of a Child´s Cognitive Achievements as a Function of the Mother’s Teaching Strategies Using a Multidimensional Observational System
Area: DDA; Domain: Basic Research
CARMEN QUINTANA (University of Guadalajara), Emilio Ribes Iñesta (University of Guadalajara), Luis Arroyo (University of Guadalajara), Laura Correa Patiño (University of Guadalajara), Eduardo Montes (University of Guadalajara), Ivette Rosa Vargas (University of Guadalajara)
Abstract: We present longitudinal data on the observation of the cognitive development of one child as a function of the teaching strategies applied by her mother. A 29 to 54-month-old child and her mother were filmed in a free-play situation at home. The recordings were analyzed with a categorical system developed to observe patterns of mother-child linguistic interactions and their relations with specific settings. We discuss the possible relationship of those patterns with the achievement of cognitive skills in different episodes.
61. The Effects of Repeated Readings and Prediction on the Reading Performance of Students with EBD
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
SHEILA R. ALBER-MORGAN (University of Southern Mississippi), Ellen Ramp (University of Southern Mississippi), Christa Martin (University of Southern Mississippi), Lara Anderson (University of Southern Mississippi)
Abstract: This study examined the effects of repeated readings and repeated readings plus a prediction strategy on the reading fluency and comprehension of four middle school students with emotional/behavioral disorders. Data were collected in the students’ self-contained classroom three days each week over the course of 12 weeks. Data collectors worked individually with each student for approximately 10-15 minutes per session. Mean IOA, assessed on 23% of the experimental sessions, ranged from 98% to 100% for each student. A multiple baseline across students design demonstrated a functional relationship of repeated readings and repeated readings plus prediction on number of words read correctly and incorrectly by each student. During baseline, mean correct words per minute ranged from 38.8 to 91.6. The reading fluency of all four students substantially increased during repeated readings and continued to increase when prediction was added. The mean number of correct words per minute ranged from 95.6 to 133.7 during repeated readings, and 117.0 to 154.5 during repeated readings plus prediction. At the end of the experiment, the average gain across students was 59.4 correct words per minute. This study supports and extends the findings of repeated readings research to middle schools student with emotional and behavioral disorders.
62. Maintaining Mands Using a Graduated Multiple-Schedule Arrangement
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
BECKY KELSO (Marcus Autism Center), Daniel B. Shabani (Marcus Autism Center), Henry S. Roane (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Functional communication training (FCT) is a common treatment for aberrant behaviors exhibited by individuals with mental retardation. Following a functional analysis, the individual is taught an alternative communication response that serves the same function as the aberrant behavior. This typically involves continuous reinforcement for the alternative response and often times results in undesirably high rates of responding. Individuals may request reinforcers at rates that are not practical for caregivers to maintain. The purpose of the current investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multiple schedule arrangement in maintaining rates of the alternative response at a level more practical for caregivers to maintain. Results indicated that the multiple schedule arrangement was effective in reducing responding to a low and stable rate.
63. A Multielement Treatment for Reducing Challeging Behavior in a Boy with Brain Injury: A Case Study
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
LISA DUNN (Melmark New England), Heather Mercier (Melmark New England)
Abstract: This study assessed the effectivness of using a variety of different procedures in combination with each other to decrease challeging behavior in young boy with anoxic brain damage with autistic features. Pervasive developmental disorder and a seizure disorder. Descriptive analysis indicated that his challeging behavior was maintained by a duel function; escape from demands and access to tangibles. A multicomponent intervention including differential reinforcment extinction, punishment and functional communication. The data is displayed graphically, demonstrating the effectivness of treatment
64. The Facilitation of Reinforcement Schedule Thinning Using a Discriminative Stimulus
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
JOHN DAVIS (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Kyong-Mee Chung (Kennedy Krieger Institute), SungWoo Kahng (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Denise Kurek (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Brian Crawford (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Monica Gaines (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Functional analyses conducted on individuals with developmental disabilities often suggest problem behavior to be positively reinforced by access to preferred activities. Treatments that are effective in reducing problem behavior typically include a phase during which the reinforcement schedule is altered. In many instances, a discriminative stimulus is used to signal the availability or unavailability of reinforcement (i.e., S+ or S-) to facilitate reinforcement schedule thinning. In the present study, we examined the effectiveness of using a discriminative stimulus to signal the absence of reinforcement (e.g., a wristband) in a 15-year-old male with autism and moderate mental retardation. The treatment consisted of extinction and DRA for compliance (FR1). During reinforcement schedule thinning, the amount of time in which he had access to his preferred activities was gradually decreased. The participant wore a wristband, which was removed while he had access to his preferred activity. The results showed that problem behavior increased when he did not have the wristband during the periods in which he did not have access to his preferred activities. These data suggest that the wristband functioned as a discriminative stimulus (i.e., S-) that was integral in the thinning of the reinforcement schedule.
65. An Application of Herrnstein's Matching Law in the Failure to Eliminate Severe Behavior Disorders: The Need for Extinction
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MAUREEN LACERTE (Nashoba Learning Group), Michael F. Dorsey (Vinfen Corporation), John Stokes (Melmark New England), Michael J. Cameron (Simmons College)
Abstract: A review of those studies published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis over the past twenty years that present treatment options for maladaptive behaviors often demonstrate a failure to eliminate the target behaviors from the repertoires of the individuals treated. The current study reviews these articles with respect to their use of an analogue functional analysis diagnostic procedure to evaluate the maladaptive behaviors and identify those reinforcers responsible for their maintenance. Results indicate that, while many behavioral treatment procedures are highly successful in significantly reducing these targeted behaviors, the critical component absent from many studies is the elimination of access to those reinforcing stimuli identified as serving as positive reinforcers for the target behaviors. As such, the procedures under investigation often do not include a treatment component of extinction in their overall treatment package. The present study discusses these issues relative to Herrnstein’s Matching Law, both with respect to positive as well as aversive treatment procedures and the effect on behavior of having those original maintaining variables available the in subject’s environment during otherwise effective behavioral interventions.
66. Destructive Behavior Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement: Hypothesis Testing and Treatment
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MANDY TRIGGS (Kennedy Krieger Institute), David E. Kuhn (Kennedy Krieger Institute), April Stachelski (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Automatic reinforcement refers to a contingency where a behavior produces its’ own reinforcer. This contingency is most commonly observed with stereotypic and self-injurious behavior. Based on the results of functional analyses, clinicians may interpret results as the behavior functions to produce some form of sensory stimulation. With a few exceptions, little research has demonstrated destructive behaviors, other than SIB, to be maintained by automatic reinforcement. In the current study, high rates of disruptive behavior, in the form of toy destruction, persisted during an FCT treatment evaluation for behavior maintained by access to tangibles. Hypotheses were tested that the 8-year-old boy diagnosed with Conduct Disorder and Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder would destroy his toys independent of social contingencies. Additional preferred toys were identified that were designed to be taken apart and reassembled (unbreakable). Subsequent analyses demonstrated that noncontingent access to breakable toys was associated with high levels of destructive behavior and minimal appropriate interaction. Conversely, noncontingent access to unbreakable toys was associated with zero levels of disruptive behavior and high levels of appropriate interaction. Unbreakable toys were introduced into the FCT treatment evaluation and treatment efficacy was demonstrated. Reliability data were collected during 67.2% of sessions and averaged over 90%.
67. Functional Communication Training
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CARRIE JO MCMILLAN (The Learning Tree, Inc.), Jackie Scott Kines (The Learning Tree, Inc.), Robert A. Babcock (Auburn University), Robert W. Montgomery (Reinforcement Unlimited), Jerre R. Brimer (The Learning Tree, Inc.)
Abstract: The presenters propose to teach functional communication to two children diagnosed with Mental Retardation and Autism. The two children are both seven years old, and one is female and the other is male. The ABLLS will be used to evaluate each child before teaching begins to decide which areas of language to focus on. One presenter proposes to teach spoken language/sign language to a nonverbal child. The other presenter proposes to teach spoken language to a nonverbal (with some echoics) child. Both incidental teaching and discrete trial teaching will be used in the teaching process. Both presenters will evaluate the effect of the acquisition of functional communication on maladaptive behaviors.
69. The Application of Brief Preference Assessments in a Clinic Setting
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
AMANDA MARLIN (Gonzaga University), Jennifer Neyman (Gonzaga University), Anjali Barretto (Gonzaga University)
Abstract: We conducted a series of brief preference assessments and manipulated the presence of attention and demands when the participants had access to the item. Hypotheses regarding the function of problem behavior were developed during the brief preference assessments and tested during the brief functional analysis. Assessment and treatment data will be presented for 3 participants. Interobserver agreement data were collected for at least 33% of the sessions and averaged 90%. Results of the brief preference assessments were useful in developing hypotheses regarding the function of problem behavior and were confirmed during the functional analysis. Outcomes will be discussed in terms of the utility of brief preference assessments in developing hypotheses.
70. Assessment and Treatment of Food Selectivity in A Child Diagnosed with Autism
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
DEBORAH L. BORDEN-KARASACK (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Melanie DuBard (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Julia T. O'Connor (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Children diagnosed with autism may display aberrant eating habits such as food refusal or texture selectivity that severely restricts their daily caloric intake (Ritvo & Freeman, 1978; Farrell, Amari, & Hagopian, 1996). A review of the behavioral literature shows little systematic evaluation and treatment of this problem behavior with caregivers of children who do not meet medical necessity criteria for admission to feeding programs. In this study, a child who participated outpatient behavioral services for the assessment and treatment of aggression was observed during school and home observations to eat a very limited diet. In subsequent interviews, his mother confirmed he exhibited an aberrant eating pattern but was not at risk for malnutrition. Baseline data were collected on food refusal defined as head turns and disruptions when foods from the four food groups were presented (Ahearn, Castine, Nault, & Green, 2001). A multiple baseline across food groups design was used to evaluate the treatment which consisted of shaping and reinforcement for compliance. At baseline, George accepted very few bites of fruit and vegetables. Initial treatment sessions resulted in an increase in acceptance. Interobserver agreement data was collected for 33% of sessions with a minimum of 80% reliability across behaviors.
71. Use of a Full-Session DRL Contingency to Decrease Problem Behavior Associated with Task Transitions
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
KENNETH W. ATKINS (Marcus Autism Center), Henry S. Roane (Marcus Autism Center), Michael E. Kelley (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: A full-session differential reinforcement of low rates (DRL) schedule is one in which reinforcement is delivered if a response rate is at or below a criterion level. In the current investigation, a full-session DRL was used to decrease the occurrence of problem behavior that was associated with transitions between academic tasks. Results of an initial assessment showed that destructive behavior (self-injury and aggression) was more likely to occur when it produced access to the participant’s high-preference activities. An extinction procedure was next implemented in which the participant did not receive contingent access to preferred activities following destructive behavior. This procedure produced large increases in the occurrence of destructive behavior. Thus, the extinction procedure was augmented to include a DRL contingency in which the participant received post-session access to preferred activities following a session in which destructive behavior did not exceed 80% of its level during extinction. Results of DRL analysis produced an overall reduction of 70% relative the extinction-only condition. Reliability data were collected with two independent observers for over 20% of sessions and averaged over 90%. Results are discussed in terms of using DRL schedules to moderate against extinction-induced behavior.
72. Conditional Probability Analyses as a Method to Identify Response-Response Relations: Implications for Assessment and Treatment
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
TIA PANEET (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Stephanie A. Contrucci Kuhn (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Louis P. Hagopian (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Interventions that target precursor behavior (behavior that has been demonstrated to precede the problem behavior) have been effective in reducing problem behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities. There are several potential advantages in targeting precursor behaviors. By targeting precursor behaviors, potentially dangerous problem behaviors could be avoided. In addition, if behaviors occur in a response chain, targeting earlier behaviors in the chain may be more effective in reducing responding in later links of the chain than directly targeting the terminal response. One method of determining the probability of an event (e.g., problem behavior) given another event (e.g., precursor behavior) is through a conditional probability analysis. In the current investigation, the conditional probability of self-injurious behavior (SIB) given the occurrence of self-talk was calculated for an individual with autism and severe mental retardation who displayed severe SIB (e.g., had sustained multiple nose and arm fractures as a result of SIB). Results indicated that the probability of SIB given the occurrence of self-talk was much higher than the probability of SIB alone, self-talk alone, and the chance co occurrence of self-talk and SIB. Next, an intervention targeting self-talk consisting of verbal interruption (i.e., counting to 10) was implemented. Results demonstrated reductions in self-talk and SIB. Reliability data were collected for at least one third of sessions and averaged above 80%.
73. Effects of DRO and Enriched Environment on Ripping
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
SEAN P. MURPHY (Bancroft NeuroHealth), Frances A. Perrin (Bancroft NeuroHealth)
Abstract: Ringdahl, (1997) found that when problem behavior persisted in the absence of social consequences, it was necessary to analyze the underlying idiosyncratic variables within an enriched environment in order to design the most effective treatment. In the current study, the ripping behavior of a 14-year-old boy diagnosed with autism and impulse control disorder was examined. The results of an analogue functional analysis suggested that ripping was maintained by automatic reinforcement. An assessment of three enriched environment variations and an assessment of differential reinforcement of other behavior with enriched environment were conducted to design the most effective treatment. Three variations of enriched environment were tested: single item enriched environment, multiple items enriched environment, or rotating items enriched environment. Interobserver agreement data were collected during 29% of sessions. The mean agreement for all measures was 96%. Results showed that when enriched environment was implemented alone, the participant’s rate of ripping continued at a high rate, but when multiple stimulus enriched environment was implemented in addition to differential reinforcement of other behavior the participant’s rate of ripping decreased.
74. The Evaluation of Trigger Words as Possible Precursors to Problem Behavior
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CAMILLE DANIELS (Bancroft NeuroHealth), Patrick R. Progar (Caldwell College)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine a trigger word as a possible precursor to problem behavior. The participant was a 14-year-old girl diagnosed with autism and impulse control disorder residing at a neurobehavioral stabilization unit for the assessment and treatment of aggression, self-injury and disruption. Anecdotal reports from parents indicated that use of the word “no,” resulted in high rates of problem behavior. An assessment was conducted comparing contingent use of the word “no” to a control condition. In the test condition an escape was provided contingent upon problem behavior that occurred following the therapist saying the word “no.” Inter-observer agreement data were collected for 25% of sessions with total agreement averaging 97.5%. Results indicated high rates of problem behavior occurred following the word “no” in the test condition. No problem behaviors occurred in the control condition. These findings suggest that clinicians may need to look to other variables in the environment that may elicit problem behavior.
75. A Comparison of Two Stimulus Fading Methods during Initial Acquisition of Identity Matching
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
AMANDA BANISTER (Marcus Autism Center), Joslyn Cynkus (Marcus Autism Center), Michael E. Kelley (Marcus Autism Center), Wayne W. Fisher (Marcus Autism Center), Shukriti Kathuria (Marcus Autism Center), Aphrodite Foundas (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Children diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) often have difficulty making discriminations between and among two-dimensional pictures or stimuli. In this investigation, we compared two stimulus-fading procedures for establishing initial identity matching. In the size condition, we faded the size of the distracter stimuli (i.e., increasing their size in each fading step by 1/10th the size of the target stimuli until the target and distracter stimuli were the same size). In the contrast condition, we faded the level of contrast of the distracters (starting with black cards as distracters and then increasing the contrast in 10 (approximately) equal steps until the contrast was equal for the target and distracter stimuli). Reinforcement (praise and later edibles) was delivered contingent on correct responding. Results indicated that the discriminations during the first several fading steps were more accurate for the stimuli in the size condition relative to the contrast condition. However, these differences disappeared as fading progressed and both procedures produced mastery level discriminations with the terminal stimuli in about the same number of sessions. Finally, reversals were conducted to demonstrate that edible reinforcement was necessary to maintain accurate responding.
76. Examining Relations Between Patient Characteristics and Functional Analysis Outcomes
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
LISA M. TOOLE (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Katharine Gutshall (Kennedy Krieger Institute), David M. Richman (University of Maryland, Baltimore County), Iser Guillermo DeLeon (Johns Hopkins University)
Abstract: Functional analyses have revealed that the problem behavior of individuals with developmental disabilities is often sensitive to varying environmental outcomes. However, little is known about how those behavior-environment relations emerge or why certain individuals are likely to be sensitive to one sort of outcome rather than another. As a small step towards examining those questions, we reviewed nearly 800 data sets published over a 10-year period to find relations between various subject characteristics and the outcomes of functional analyses of problem behavior. Among other results, we observed that individuals with extremely limited verbal abilities had problem behavior that was almost twice as likely to be maintained by automatic reinforcement than by any other category and the likelihood of automatic reinforcement in these individuals was far more likely than in individuals with more sophisticated verbal repertoires. Related patterns were observed with regard to cognitive disability, as the proportion of individuals whose problem behavior was maintained by socially mediated reinforcers rose in direct relation to increases in cognitive abilities. These results are discussed in terms of their comparison to the general distribution of function as reported in large-scale epidemiological studies and their implications for arranging functional analyses.
77. Exploring the Utility of Biofeedback for Decreasing Inappropriate Behavior in Adolescents with Acquired Brain Injury
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
PAMELA A. TIBBETTS (Southern Illinois University), Danyl M.H. Epperheimer (Center for Comprehensive Services/ The Mentor Network)
Abstract: This poster discusses the effects of using biofeedback to assist individuals with acquired brain injury in self-managing their behaviors during stress provoking situations. Adolescents with acquired brain injury attending a residential treatment program received weekly biofeedback sessions. Data were collected on measures of physiological responses, as well as frequency of inappropriate behaviors, including physical and verbal aggression. Results suggest biofeedback has great value in assisting individuals in self-managing their own behavior when exposed to stress eliciting stimuli.
78. The Current Status of Behavior Analysis and Special Education in Singapore
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
RANGASAMY RAMASAMY (Florida Atlantic University)
Abstract: There are 20 Special Education Schools in Singapore that are run by ten "Voluntary Welfare Organizations" catering to over 4000 children with different disabilities. These schools come under three categories namely, Schools for Children with Intellectual Disabilities, Schools for Children with Physical and Multiple Disabilities, and Schools for Children with Sensory Disabilities. For the purpose of this study, the researcher selected all 12 Schools for Children with Intellectual Disabilities to identify the use of behavior principles in those schools to teach students with intellectual disabilities. Review of the Ministry of Education documents indicated that these schools have full time psychologists on campus all day long. These individuals conduct assessment tests and also work with students and classroom teachers during behavioral outbursts. To identify their involvement in assisting teachers, the author interviewed 20 special education teachers that teach in these schools who were also enrolled in an undergraduate Intellectual Disabilities class at National Institute of Education in Singapore. Majority of these teachers indicated that they lack training in behavior analysis approach. When specifically asked about their practice to pinpoint a target behavior, and come up with intervention techniques, they all said that they rely on their school psychologist. When asked about their psychologists training in behavior analysis, 90% of them said they are not aware of their psychologist’s training. To avoid these teachers over reliance on their psychologists and to improve these teachers’ basic knowledge in applied behavior analysis, the researcher is developing a course to teach them during the spring semester in one of these schools to apply their learnt skills with the students on a day to day basis. Data will be collected and analyzed to show how these teachers learned some basic behavior principles and their comfort level in applying these principles to work with students with intellectual disabilities.
79. Collateral Effects of Intensive Behavioral Treatment of Severe Problem Behavior in Young Children
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
NICOLE B. CARMAN (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Patricia F. Kurtz (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine), Michelle D. Chin (Kennedy Krieger Institute), John M. Huete (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: While the efficacy of functional analysis-based interventions for severe problem behavior exhibited by young children with developmental disabilities has been demonstrated (e.g., Kurtz et al., 2003;Wacker et al., 1998), few studies have assessed collateral treatment effects. In the present study, function-based interventions were developed for 10 children receiving intensive outpatient services for self-injury and other problem behaviors. All children achieved a reduction in targeted problem behavior of at least 75% from baseline; reliability data were collected for all participants. To assess collateral effects of treatment, parents completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), and the Parenting Stress Index prior to treatment (pre) and at discharge (post). Paired sample t-tests were conducted to examine changes in the pre and post scores of these measures. Significant differences were found only for ABC Total Score, ABC Irritability Scale score and ABC Inappropriate Speech Scale score, although trends and means indicated improvements across all collateral measures for both parents and children. Although based on a small sample size, this preliminary analysis suggests that function-based treatments may hold additional benefits for children and parents.



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