Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


31st Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2005

Event Details

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Poster Session #251
#251 Poster Session - DDA
Sunday, May 29, 2005
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Southwest Exhibit Hall (Lower Level)
49. Assessment and Treatment of Automatically-Maintained Problem Behavior
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
JAMIE HUGHES (The Ohio State University), Renee Van Norman (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: Piazza et al., (1996) demonstrated that automatically-maintained pica could be decreased to zero levels via a response blocking procedure. Next, the authors paired the response blocking procedure with a specific stimulus such that pica came under stimulus control of that stimulus and never occurred in its presence. The purpose of this study was to replicate Piazza et al. with a different topography of automatically-maintained problem behavior (toy mouthing). However, the response blocking procedure was unsuccessful in reducing toy mouthing to acceptable levels. Thus, a differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) procedure was implemented. This resulted in rapid suppression of the problem behavior. Next, the DRO procedure was paired with a specific stimulus in an attempt to establish stimulus control over the problem behavior, as in Piazza et al. However, stimulus control was not established. Possible reasons for why this study produced different results than the Piazza et al. study are discussed.
50. Single Stimulus Preference Assessment for Individuals with Profound Multiple Disabilities: Investigation of Two Procedural Parameters
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
SARA M. SPEVACK (University of Manitoba), Jennifer R. Thorsteinsson (St. Amant Research Centre), Aynsley K. Verbeke (University of Manitoba), Kerri L. Walters (University of Manitoba), Dickie C. T. Yu (St. Amant Research Centre), Garry L. Martin (University of Manitoba)
Abstract: It is important to know individual preferences when designing programs for persons with developmental disabilities, yet this presents a challenge when they are unable to communicate. A single-stimulus preference assessment is the only tool that has been shown to be effective for individuals with profound multiple disabilities. This study investigated how best to assess preferences with six individuals with profound multiple disabilities. The participants were nonambulatory and nonspeaking, ranging in age from 6 to 31 years old. Six stimuli were selected for each participant, which were presented individually. Each stimulus was presented 10 times per assessment. Approach, avoidance, happiness, unhappiness, and engagement with the stimulus were measured. Interobserver reliability on all measures averaged 96%. Two questions were considered. The first study investigated whether observing approach responses would identify reinforcers more accurately than observing approach and happiness responses. The second study investigated whether a 5s or 30s response interval in the preference assessment would be more effective in identifying reinforcers. The reinforcing effectiveness of the preferred stimuli identified by each assessment were then tested. No single assessment procedure was found to be most effective for all students. These results support the use of multiple measures in assessing preferences and identifying reinforcers for individuals with multiple disabilities.
51. Beyond Probabilities: Within-Session Analyses of Teacher-Child Interactions
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
LAURA R. ADDISON (Louisiana State University), Dorothea C. Lerman (University of Houston-Clear Lake), Debra Forde (Louisiana State University), Valerie M. Volkert (Louisiana State University), Mandy Parten (Louisiana State University), Nicole Trosclair (Louisiana State University), Tiffany Kodak (Louisiana State University)
Abstract: An extensive amount of research has been conducted on how caregivers’ behavior may influence the behavior of children. However, little research has been conducted on how children’s behavior may shape the behavior of caregivers. In the present study, we conducted a descriptive analysis of teacher-child interactions over a five-week period. The teachers and children did not have a history of interaction prior to our observations. Six children diagnosed with autism and four certified public school teachers participated. Teachers and children were placed into groups consisting of one teacher and two children. Each group was videotaped during an instructional situation. Frequency and duration data were collected on a variety of teacher and child behaviors. We examined how teachers allocated various responses across children and looked for changes in these responses over time. Conditional probabilities were calculated to develop hypotheses about the effects of children’s behavior (e.g., compliance and inappropriate behaviors) on the behavior of teachers (e.g., reprimands, escape, task variety). Furthermore, within session data was collected for several child and teacher behaviors to better understand the relationship between these child behaviors and teacher behaviors. The results for these within session analyses will be presented.
52. Comparison of PECS and Speech Generating Devices: Acquisiton and Learner Preference
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
SEUNG-HYUN SON (University of Texas, Austin)
Abstract: We compare the relative effectiveness of two modes of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) for children with autism and related developmental disabilities. The two modes were the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and Speech Generating Devices (SGDs). Acquisition of requests using the two devices was compared for 3 children with developmental disabilities in an alternating treatment design. Following acquisition phase, a choice assessment phase was implemented to determine the child’s preference for using one device over the other. Results showed comparable rates of acquisition for PECS and SGDs, but that following acquisition each child showed a definite preference for using one device over the other. Learner preference may be an important variable in selecting AAC modes for learners with developmental disabilities,
53. Evaluation of a Procedure for Fading Video Prompts
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
BERENICE DE LA CRUZ (University of Texas, Austin), Helen Cannella (University of Texas, Austin), Chaturi Edrisinha (University of Texas, Austin), Mark O'Reilly (University of Texas, Austin)
Abstract: We evaluated a video prompting procedure for teaching three adults with developmental disabilities to wash dishes. Video prompting consisted of first watching a video clip of each step being performed and then giving participants the opportunity to imitate. Video prompting was introduced in a multiple-probe across subjects design. All three participants quickly acquired the task when video prompting was introduced. Following acquisition, video prompting was removed, but performance deteriorated. Subsequently, a 4-step fading procedure was effective in maintaining performance as video prompting was withdrawn. The fading procedure involved merging the separate video clips into larger segments. We conclude that video prompting may be an effective instructional strategy for teaching daily living skills to adults with developmental disabilities. However, some learners may develop prompt dependency, which would indicate the need for a more gradual withdrawal of video prompting.
54. The Use of Differential Reinforcment in Increasing work production in a 17year old with PDD
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA SURETTE (Melmark New England), Lisa Dunn (Melmark New England), John Stokes (Melmark New England)
Abstract: Researchers in this case study implemented a DRH and a DRO procedure to determine the effect on rates of productivity and rates of challenging behaviors at work for a 17 year-old male student with pervasive developmental disorder. The researchers were the student's teachers, job coaches, and educational program coordinator. The student presented with challenging behaviors at work: inappropriate verbalizations, property destruction, and noncompliance, and his productivity level was at a low rate. Researchers sought to decrease his challenging behaviors and increase productivity by implementing first a DRH procedure, and then a DRO procedure. Graphically displayed data will show that both procedures had an effect on the student's rates of behavior and productivity, but the DRO procedure was most effective.
55. The Effects of Simplified Habit Reversal on Thumb Sucking Behavior
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
SAM STANSBERY (Pennsylvania State University), Sean D. Casey (Pennsylvania State University)
Abstract: Simplified habit reversal is a method which has been used to eliminate thumb sucking in developmentally typical children and includes training the child to recognize when thumb sucking occurs and to engage in a competing behavior when thumb sucking is detected. In phase 1 of this paper, a functional assessment was conducted within a public school setting to identify the function of thumb-sucking behavior for a 10-year-old female with a learning disability. In phase 2, simplified habit reversal techniques were implemented which included having the participant wear an adjustable wrist weight. The results are discussed and recommendations for further analysis are given.
56. An Experimental Analysis of Idiosyncratic Antecedents and Maintaining Variables for Aggressive Behavior
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
KATHERINE GILLIGAN (The May Institute), Sara A. Huber (The May Institute), Jaimie L. Hoover (The May Institute), Meredith Cochran (The May Institute)
Abstract: This study delineates an experimental analysis designed to address specific antecedents and maintaining variables of aggressive behavior in a student with developmental disabilities. An initial functional analysis was conducted with four conditions: escape demand, gain attention, escape attention and baseline. Results were differentiated across conditions (escape task: 51% of intervals, gain attention: 0%, escape attention:1%, baseline: 0%) indicating that the behavior was maintained by negative reinforcement. In vivo observation of the behavior during the analysis and an analysis of trend suggested specific antecedents that were more likely to occasion the behavior. A second experimental analysis was conducted with four conditions: novel tasks with and without correction and familiar tasks with and without correction. Results were again differentiated across conditions with the highest rates observed during novel tasks with corrections (55% of intervals) and the lowest rates during familiar tasks without corrections (4% of intervals). IOA averaged 83%. The results of the two experimental analyses suggested that the individual's aggression was maintained by negative reinforcement, but also that the individual exhibited aggression to escape specific stimuli: unfamiliar tasks and corrections by staff members. The importance of conducting a detailed assessment will be discussed as well as implications for treatment.
57. Analysis and Treatment of Aggression Maintained by Escape from Close Proximity
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MELANIE DUBARD (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Louis P. Hagopian (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Functional analysis is one method utilized when trying to determine the function of problem behavior. However, when typical functional analyses produce inconclusive results, it is necessary to evaluate potential idiosyncratic variables that may be maintaining problem behavior but are not being manipulated in functional analysis conditions. Julie was referred to an inpatient unit for the treatment of aggression and property destruction. A typical functional analysis yielded inconclusive results. After reviewing data from outside of session it was determined that Julie would often engage in aggressive behavior to avoid or escape situations and interactions where she was required to be in close proximity with other individuals. Therefore, a proximity assessment was conducted resulting in increased levels of problem behavior when Julie was interrupted and a request was made for her to move in close proximity to a therapist. Treatment involved training Julie to use a verbal response instead of aggression when she did not want someone close to her. She was exposed gradually to situations in which she would be in increasingly closer proximity to others and could earn tokens for periods of time with no problem behavior. Interobserver agreement data were collected for a minimum of 25.37% of sessions with an average of 95 % reliability.
58. Using Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior to Decrease Pica in a Developmentally Disable Individual
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
TRACI M. BROWN (Kennedy Krieger Institute), David E. Kuhn (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Abstract: Pica is a potentially lethal behavior characterized by the ingestion of non-nutritive substances. Interventions to reduce pica in developmentally disabled individuals have consisted of competing items, response blocking, response reduction procedures, and at times nutritional supplements. No research was found that required participants to identify and respond in an appropriate way to inedible objects in the natural environment. In the current investigation, a differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior (DRI) procedure was used to teach a 17-year-old male diagnosed with Pica Disorder, Autistic Disorder, and Severe Mental Retardation to identify potential pica objects and place them into a container in exchange for edible reinforcement. Initially, the participant demonstrated the ability to reliably identify (point to) items that he would otherwise ingest. Next we demonstrated that this individual chose to place pica items in a container associated with reinforcement, rather than a container where reinforcement was not available. Data also show that this individual continues to consistently identify potential pica items in his natural environment. Two observers collected data for 62% of sessions yielding interobserver agreement coefficients averaging 99%.
59. Teaching Handwriting Behavior of Chinese Characters to a Child with Mental Retardation (2)
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MASAKO TSURUMAKI (Fukushima University, Japan)
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to improve the acquisition of handwriting behavior of Chinese characters in a child with mental retardation. In the previous study (Tsurumaki, 2004), I studied the participant’s skill in acquiring the behavior to write ten Chinese characters. I used a computer-based teaching program (Tsurumaki et al., 2003) which is based on a constructed-response matching-to-sample (CRMTS) procedure. In this study, the program was modified to include observing response. Computer-based spelling program that applied either CRMTS or a delayed word-construction procedure is being used in order to teach spelling to participants with mental retardation (e.g., Dube et al., 1991; Stromer, et al., 1996). In this study, the participant was taught three Chinese characters. He was required to construct the three elements of each Chinese character in the correct order from Hiragana characters (the Japanese syllabary). After arbitrary CRMTS tasks, he was able to write them. Observing response might help developing arbitrary CRMTS behavior.
60. Using a Video Model to Increase Staff Compliance with a Modified Incidental Teaching Protocol
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CATHLEEN M. ALBERTSON (Melmark), Lauren Frederick (Melmark), Jamie Pagliaro (Melmark)
Abstract: Through didactic training, direct care professionals are often provided a rationale and strategies for teaching communication skills to individuals with developmental disabilities. The behavior analytic literature has demonstrated that didactic training is not always successful in changing staff performance in the workplace (Dyer, Schwartz, & Luce 1984). In this study, a multiple baseline design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief video model in increasing staff compliance with a modified incidental teaching protocol (adapted from Hart & Risley, 1982). Specifically, the video model demonstrated correct implementation of the incidental teaching protocol with students who used picture cards as their primary means of communicating. The teaching protocol included the following steps: 1) having the reinforcer available but out of the student’s reach, 2) using non-verbal prompts (if necessary) to shape appropriate use of the picture card, and 3) presenting the reinforcer immediately and contingent upon the student’s communicative response. Results indicated that video modeling can be an effective training method for increasing staff compliance with basic teaching protocols. The benefits of this training method (i.e., efficiency and acceptability) will also be discussed.
61. Trends in the Use of Behavioral Procedures in an Intensive Outpatient Treatment Setting
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
LINDSAY S. HAUER (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Theodosia R. Paclawskyj (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: In a discussion of the impact of functional analysis on behavioral treatment, Mace (1994) noted improved clinical outcomes associated with function-based treatments, namely a reduction in the use of more intrusive interventions. A recent review of trends in the behavioral literature (Horner et al., 2002) substantiated an increasing emphasis on instruction-based and stimulus-based procedures (81% and 43%, respectively), while punishment was used in 32% of the comparisons. In the current study we looked at the final treatment packages for clients in a neurobehavioral outpatient clinic from 1994 through 2004. Treatment packages were broken down into punishment-based, extinction-based, reinforcement-based, stimulus-based, and instruction-based procedures as per Horner et al. (2002). Results show a decreasing trend in the use of punishment as a component of treatment packages and an increase in instruction-based procedures over time (67% and 67%, respectively).
62. Assessing the Conditions that Occasion Protests of Nonverbal Children
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
JAMES W. HALLE (University of Illinois), Hedda Meadan (University of Illinois), Erik Drasgow (University of South Carolina)
Abstract: Young children with severe mental retardation or autism who cannot communicate with language use informal gestures, body movements, and non-language vocalizations to communicate (e.g., Cirrin & Rowland, 1985; Drasgow & Halle, 1995; Wetherby, Yonclas, & Bryan, 1989). The function or purpose of their communication often is limited to the same 2 basic functions described in the problem behavior literature (i.e., accessing or avoiding/escaping people, objects, or events). In the past 15 years JABA has published 100s of examples of assessing and teaching mands (requests and protests) to learners with developmental disabilities. However, this literature focuses only on problem behavior displayed by target participants. In this pilot study, we investigate the conditions that occasion escape/avoidance behavior of 3 young children with developmental disabilities and the topographies of behavior they emit. Our premise is that each child has a set of topographies (i.e., a response class) that produces a common effect on the environment and our goal was to explicate these topographies as well as to identify the environmental conditions that evoke them. We will present data for these 3 children, revealing the environmental antecedents for and the topographies of their escape/avoidance behavior. We also will describe a methodology that permits an efficient assessment of both requesting and rejecting topographies.
63. Parent and Patient Report of Stimulus Preferences: A Data-Based Comparison
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
DAVID P. JARMOLOWICZ (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Louis P. Hagopian (Johns Hopkins University), David E. Kuhn (Johns Hopkins University), Kristie L. Arnold (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Indirect measures of stimulus preference (i.e., reinforcer surveys) are commonly used in applied settings to identify stimuli to be used as reinforcers in treatment packages for individuals with developmental disabilities. Research on the predictive validity of these measures is limited.. Given the efficiency of indirect assessments, research addressing the factors that best predict the efficacy of the assessment is warranted. One factor that can influence the validity of the measure is examining who is completing the survey, the individual with developmental disabilities or a caregiver. In the current examination, reinforcer surveys were completed independently by patients and their caregivers. Items ranked as high preference on each of the surveys were included in a paired choice preference assessment (Fisher et al., 1992). Across 2 participants, stimuli identified by the patients were reliably more preferred during paired choice preference assessments. Reliability data were collected for 100% of the paired choice preference assessment sessions and averaged above 80%. Results of this analysis indicate that patients able to complete a reinforcer survey more accurately identify preferred stimuli than his/hr respective caregivers. Therefore, when appropriate patients/clients should serve as respondents for reinforcer surveys.
65. The Successful Use of Contingent Skin Shock Following Years of Positive-Only Programming: Two Case Studies Using a Multiple Baseline Across Individuals and Behaviors with Long Term Follow-Up
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
ROBERT VON HEYN (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Matthew L. Israel (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), MaryEllen Kelley (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center)
Abstract: To address the critics of the use of contingent skin-shock as a decelerative procedure, the Judge Rotenberg Center, a residential school for behaviorally disordered individuals, selected two clients and used highly structured positive-only behavior modification procedures to decelerate severe aggressive, destructive, disruptive, self-injurious and noncompliant behaviors of two recently referred clients. Positive-only programming, mostly using multiple DRO contracts, was maintained for up to 3 years before the treatment was supplemented with contingent skin shock. Prior to the use of skin shock the inappropriate behaviors had decelerated significantly but were still maintained at an unacceptably high rate and restraints were frequently necessary. Data will be presented in a multiple baseline design. Data for one individual depicts a rapid deceleration to zero rates while other showed a gradual deceleration over a period of years. In both cases the contingent skin shock procedure was gradually eliminated and both individuals maintained their gains.
66. The Development of a Digital Video Recording System Allowing Real Time Monitoring of 40 Residences Spread Throughout Southern Massachusetts Across the Internet
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
ROBERT VON HEYN (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Matthew L. Israel (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Ed Langford (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Kerri Krauss (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Jennifer Remy (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center)
Abstract: The Judge Rotenberg Educational Center operates day and residential programs for children and adults with behavior problems, including conduct disorders, emotional problems, brain injury or psychosis, autism and developmental disabilities. The basic approach taken at JRC is the use of behavioral psychology and its various technological applications, such as behavioral education, programmed instruction, precision teaching, behavior modification, behavior therapy, behavioral counseling, self-management of behavior and chart-sharing. In order to improve on the consistent implementation of the behavioral treatment a Digital Video Recording system was developed that allowed for real time viewing of all residences from one central location. With this new technology staff and client behavior could be closely monitored and near instant feedback could be provided to the direct care staff. In addition, video clips could be retrieved for up to two weeks prior to allow for the functional assessment of problematic behavior and useful as a staff training tool to view proper and improper implementation of treatment plans. The system design, cost and practical implementation of the system will be presented along with a computer demonstration.
67. The Effects and Side Effects of Signals on Target and Other Behavior During Delayed Reinforcement
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MICHAEL J. SCHAFER (Marcus Autism Center), Michael E. Kelley (Marcus Autism Center), Wayne W. Fisher (Marcus Autism Center), Amanda Zangrillo (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Functional Communication Training (FCT; Carr & Durand, 1985) is commonly used to decrease problem behavior and increase an appropriate, alternative behavior. One limitation of FCT is that levels of alternative behavior may decrease over time if the response is exposed to delays to reinforcement, which often occurs in naturalistic environments. Results of basic research suggest that introducing signals (e.g., a discriminative stimulus presented during the delay interval that signals the forthcoming, but delayed reinforcement) may attenuate response decrements that typically occur when reinforcement are not signaled. Few applied investigations have directly replicated these effects. In study 1, results of a functional analysis suggested that destructive behavior was maintained by contingent access to tangible items. Treatment consisted of FCT in which a card exchange was shaped and maintained by contingent access to tangibles. In study 2, levels of card exchanges maintained under both signaled and unsignaled delays. However, the occurrence of previously reinforced behaviors (i.e., signing and destructive behavior) occurred only during the unsignaled delay fading condition. Results suggested that the presence of the signal suppressed the emergence of other behaviors in the same response class when the reinforcement delays increased.
68. Influence of Stimulant Medication Plus Behavioral Intervention on the Results of a Functional Analysis of Elopement for a Child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
RICHARD A. GOYSOVICH (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Lynn G. Bowman (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Nicole M. Rodriguez (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: The present study examined the combined effects of pharmacological and behavioral interventions to reduce life-threatening elopement in an 11-year-old male diagnosed with autistic disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and severe mental retardation. The dosage of the stimulant medication Adderall was manipulated during a functional analysis of elopement. Initially, when no Adderall was prescribed, elopement was observed across all conditions of the functional analysis suggesting that the participant’s elopement was maintained by automatic reinforcement. Therefore, a competing stimulus assessment was conducted with the participant and a slinky, string, and blocks were identified as items with high levels of item interaction and low levels of steps taken per minute. However, as the dosage of Adderall was increased from 0mg to 30mg, responding in the analog conditions decreased to near zero levels in all conditions with the exception of the tangible condition. The competing items were then incorporated into the functional analysis across all conditions. Treatment effects of competing items were evaluated using an ABAB reversal design. Approximately 60% of sessions were conducted with two or more observers. Exact agreement for elopement was 98%. The combination of behavioral and pharmacological treatment consisting of non-contingent access to competing stimuli and 30mg of Adderall was successful in reducing elopement to near zero levels, resulting in a 98% reduction from baseline.
69. Idiosyncratic Interactions of Gender and Type of Attention in the Maintenance of Aggressive Behavior
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
ARTHUR E. WILKE (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Michelle Frank (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Iser Guillermo DeLeon (Johns Hopkins University)
Abstract: Increasingly, functional analyses are revealing idiosyncratic behavior-environment relations that are implicated in the maintenance of problem behavior. In the present study, we conducted a series of functional analyses to refine hypotheses regarding the attention-maintained problem behavior of an adolescent boy with developmental disabilities. These analyses revealed that (a) problem behavior was sensitive to verbal attention independent of gender, (b) problem behavior was differentially sensitive to physical attention from females, (c) the wearing of protective equipment by female therapists appeared to have devalued female attention, and (d) the noncontingent delivery of attention by females therapists appeared to have evoked problem behavior relative to extinction without supplemental reinforcement. These results are discussed in terms of problem behavior being sensitive to very specific forms of response products and the potential priming effects of noncontingent reinforcement.
70. Time- Versus Performance-Based Work Requirements: Assessment of Problem Behavior During Work Time
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
TERRY S. FALCOMATA (University of Iowa), Joel Eric Ringdahl (University of Iowa), Eric Boelter (University of Iowa), Tory J. Christensen (University of Iowa)
Abstract: We conducted an evaluation of various work parameters to determine which strategy would be more successful for a young man with developmental disabilities. Two conditions were conducted within an alternating treatments design: work with time-based requirements and work with performance-based requirements. Further manipulations included examinations of problem behavior during time-based work at different time requirements (i.e., 5 min, 10 min). Results of the assessment demonstrated that problem behavior was more likely to occur when work requirements were performance-based rather than time-based. Interobserver agreement was obtained during at least 20% of all sessions and averaged above 90% for all target responses.
71. The Effective Use of Seclusion Time Out and Some Techniques for its Effective Removal
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MARIANNE L. JACKSON (University of Nevada, Reno), Larry Williams (University of Nevada, Reno), Kendra Rickard (University of Nevada, Reno)
Abstract: One individual with severe developmental disabilities was treated for severe and longstanding aggression using seclusion time out. This procedure was combined with DRO, token economy, response cost and relaxation training. These procedures are used to transfer control from the time out procedure to less restrictive interventions. Results provide some suggestions for the effective removal of time out procedures while maintaining resulting behavior changes.
72. The Use of Video Modeling to Increase Social Interaction Between Two Preschool Children with Developmental Disabilities
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
ABIGAL CLINTON FERGUSON (Hawthorne Country Day School), Darci A. Fischer (Hawthorne Country Day School)
Abstract: Nikopoulos and Keenan (2004) used video modeling to increase social interaction between two autistic students. This project aims to replicate the use of the video modeling on preschool students with developmental disabilities. Generalization and maintenance are discussed.



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