Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


31st Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2005

Event Details

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Poster Session #189
#189 Poster Session - EDC
Sunday, May 29, 2005
12:00 PM–1:30 PM
Southwest Exhibit Hall (Lower Level)
122. The Use of Fading Procedures to Teach Academic Readiness Skills
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CHERYL MARTINEZ (Quality Behavioral Outcomes), Ellen Talbot (Pleasanton Unified School District)
Abstract: Reinforcement alone combined with escape extinction procedures for inappropriate behavior does not guarantee increased cooperation during non-preferred activities (i.e., academic work). Various strategies such as pairing procedures and behavioral momentum are recommended to prepare children with autism for academic work during discrete trial sessions. This involves the adult interacting with the child in a playful manner for a period of time prior to presenting the academic tasks. However, limited studies have been conducted on how much interactive play is necessary before readiness skills are determined. The present study demonstrates how a 4-year old child with autism benefited from a fading procedure by gradually introducing interactive play with non-preferred (i.e., academic) activities.
123. The Effects of Physical Activity on Classroom Performance
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
KATIE HILDEBRAND (Pennsylvania State University), David L. Lee (Pennsylvania State University)
Abstract: Previous research suggests that students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) require a high level of environmental stimulation to maintain focus. These students often experience difficulty attending to academic tasks. The purpose of our research is to examine the effects of embedding stimulation (e.g., color or physical activity) on academic responding within classroom-based academic tasks for students with ADHD. In Study One we used a multiple-baseline design to assess the effects of embedding color into a simple mathematics task. Results suggested that added color increased the rate of math problem completion and decreased problem behavior. Based on these results, a second study was designed to further assess these effects. For Study Two an alternating treatment design will be used to assess performance and behavior in two conditions. The traditional condition will be a typical teacher-designed assignment. In the intervention condition, requests to complete a brief physical activity will be embedded into traditional assignments (e.g., walk over and touch the whiteboard). The results of these studies will be discussed in terms of (a) using activity and novelty as reinforcers and (b) activity as a possible establishing operation that affects the potency of other reinforcers typically available in classrooms for children with ADHD.
124. Further Examination of Task Interspersal Procedures on Task Selection
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
SHAWN BRYANT (New England Center for Children), Daniel Gould (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: This study sought to replicate the effect on student choice and ranking of assignments obtained by Wildmon, Skinner, and McDade (1998) by interspersing additional easy problems into mathematics word problem assignments. Eighty-three students were given packets with a consent form, a control worksheet with 8 target problems, an experimental worksheet with 8 target problems plus 3 additional easier interspersed problems, and a questionnaire to rank the assignments for time, effort, difficulty, and preference. A time limit was used, and participants that finished before the time limit were excluded from the final analysis. IOA was taken on 50% of all packets, and IOA averaged 100%. The majority of students ranked the experimental worksheet as taking less time (55%), less difficulty (59%), requiring less effort (67%) and as their homework choice (59%). Further analysis revealed that participants were more likely to rank the 2nd worksheet in the packet as taking less time (67%), less effort (76%), as less difficult (74%) and as their homework choice (68%), regardless of which worksheet was 2nd in the packet. Since there were 27 experimental-last packets and only 15 control-last packets kept in the final analysis, the percent of students favoring the experimental worksheet was artificially inflated.
125. The Effects of High-p Sequences on Homework Completions
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
RACHEL WANNARKA (Pennsylvania State University), David L. Lee (Pennsylvania State University)
Abstract: With the increasing focus on academic standards, homework has become one avenue for teachers to provide students with practice at important concepts. However, some students refuse to complete homework and never become proficient at important skills. What is needed is a method to increase homework completion that is (a) effective, and (b) easy to implement. The literature on high-probability request sequences may provide teachers with such a method. Prior research suggests that completing a series of three very brief requests/tasks with a high-probability of compliance just prior to a task/request with a low-probability of compliance increases compliance to the low-p task/request. High-probability (high-p) task/request sequences increase the level of reinforcement for a given response class, making completion of nonpreferred tasks more likely. The effects of this procedure have been demonstrated across self-care, communication, and in-class academic assignments. The purpose of this study is to extend the work on high-p sequences to homework assignments. A reversal design will be used to assess the effects of adding a series of 2-3 preferred (high-p) math problems just prior to a nonpreferred (low-p) math problem on homework completion and accuracy. Results will be discussed in terms of utility of the procedure for independent assignments.
126. Varying Problem Effort and Problem Completion Rates: The Interspersal Procedure and Student Assignment Choice
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
ERIC BILLINGTON (Shaping Responses Plus), Christopher Skinner (University of Tennessee, Knoxville), Natalie Cruchon (Knox County Schools)
Abstract: The discrete task completion hypothesis suggests that, when given assignments comprised of multiple discrete tasks, these discrete tasks are reinforcing events (Skinner, 2002). The current paper consists of two studies investigating the interaction of relative response effort and relative problem completion rates (RPCR) on student assignment choice. In both experiments, students were exposed to two pairs of mathematics assignments. Assignment Pair A included a high-effort assignment containing 18 long 3-digit x 2-digit multiplication problems with all numerals in each problem being equal to or greater than four and a moderate-effort assignment that contained nine long problems and nine interspersed moderate 3-digit x 2-digit problems with numerals less than four. Assignment Pair B contained similar assignment sheets, the exception being that the high effort assignment contained six additional 1-digit x 1-digit problems interspersed following every third 3-digit x 2-digit problem. A logistic regression model was employed to assess the influence of RPCR on probability of assignment choice. The analysis showed a significant main effect for RPCR in Experiment One (QW=7.8534; df=1; p=0.0051) as well Experiment Two (QW=13.3743; df=1; p=0.0003). RPCR and the predicted probabilities of student assignment choice are compared to Herrnstein’s matching law and the generalized matching equation.
127. Increasing Learn Unit Presentations to Decrease Inappropriate Behaviors in a Five-Year-Old Boy
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
MARIETTA A. PAPAGAPITOS (Columbia University Teacher's College), JoAnn Pereira Delgado (Columbia University Teacher's College)
Abstract: This study attempted to replicate Kelly (1995) and Martinez (1996), in which increased learn unit presentations were found to decrease aberrant behavior in boys with autism. We used a single-baseline ABA design in which we increased the number of learn unit presentations to a five-year-old boy diagnosed with autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, in which the dependent variable was the number of assaults, throws, and climbs emitted in the classroom during each school day. We found that the student's assaults and throwing demonstrated a descending trend during increased learn units and, after initially ascending during the second baseline, decreased to below previous baseline levels. Climbing behaviors also decreased after treatment to below baseline levels, though not as dramatically as assaults and throws.
128. Compliance Training and Positive Peer Reporting in the Pre-School Classroom: A Case Study
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
KRISTIN N. JOHNSON-GROS (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Mark D. Shriver (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Bill Longo (Clarkson Family Place)
Abstract: Compliance training packages initially developed for parent training to reduce noncompliant and aggressive behavior in young children have demonstrated some promising outcomes when used in classrooms. It is not uncommon, however, for children with a history of noncompliance and aggressive behavior to also exhibit social skill deficits and poor peer relationships. Improved compliance and calmer behavior following implementation of compliance training may not have an effect on a child’s social skills and positive peer relationships. This study utilized a multiple baseline across behaviors design to evaluate the effects of compliance training on a child’s compliance and social behaviors. A teacher was taught to implement a compliance training package with a 4-year-old male in a pre-school setting who was exhibiting frequent noncompliant and aggressive behavior. Immediate improvements in compliance and negative social behaviors were noted. However, improvements in positive social behaviors and positive peer interactions were not seen. A positive peer reporting (PPR) intervention was then implemented. Results of the PPR on social behaviors are presented. Inter-observer agreement data were collected throughout the study and averaged above .90. Treatment integrity data were also collected. Implications of this study when consulting with teachers to improve children’s compliance and social behaviors are presented.
129. The Effects of Response Cost and Rewards on the Compliance and Disruptive Behavior Leading to Inclass Timeout for Two Preschool Children with Disabilities
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
KIMBERLY P. WEBER (Gonzaga University), Patrick Mulick (Gonzaga University), Thomas Ford McLaughlin (Gonzaga University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to decrease the inappropriate social behaviors and increase the compliance to verbal instructions for two preschoolers with behavior deficits. One was a 3-year-old female and the other was a 5-year-old male. The study was conducted in a self-contained preschool classroom in a rural school district in the Pacific Northwest. The two behaviors measured were compliance and noncompliance with adult requests and the number of times that each child had to be sent to inclass timeout. The results showed an increase of compliant behavior and a decrease in the number of times that either participant had to be sent to inclass timeout for noncompliance. The benefits of employing data-based evaluation procedures with preschool children with disabilities are discussed.
130. A Class-Wide Intervention for At-Risk Students
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
STEPHANIE THORNE (University of Kansas), Nicole Heier (Douglass Elementary School), Cheryl Utley (Juniper Gardens Children's Project), Lisa J. Bowman-Perrott (Juniper Gardens Children's Project)
Abstract: This poster will present data on a comprehensive class-wide intervention. The study was implemented in 1 classroom including 1 student who was identified and assessed as being at risk for antisocial behavior. The primary goal of the intervention was to decrease the frequency of inappropriate behaviors and to increase academic engaged time in the classroom by adding positive behavioral support components to the existing postive behavior support program. A (B-A-B) design was implemented to evaluate behaviors during the treatment phases. Reliability was taken on 22% of the data, with a range of 80-98%. Using an ecobehavioral data collection system (MS-CISSAR), results indicated that inappropriate behaviors decreased from 12.90 per 30 minute block compared to 53.23 during reversal. On task behavior improved to 87.10% during the re-implementation of intervention compared to 54.04% during reversal.
131. The Effects of a Token Economy System Specifically Targeting Academic Performance for Students with Severe Behavior Disorders
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ED LANGFORD (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Patricia Rivera (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Joseph Trawick (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Candy Mcgarry (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Matthew L. Israel (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center)
Abstract: This poster will examine the effectiveness of a specific token economy system based on points on students’ academic and behavioral progress. All students attended the Judge Rotenberg Center, a residential treatment facility for individuals with severe behavior disorders. Baseline data were collected using a general token economy system where the students received the majority of their points for passing various DRO contracts targeting the absence of negative behavior. They also received some points for completing various academic and self-management projects. Students lost points for not passing their contracts or not completing their academics and/or self management projects. All students were switched to a specific token economy system where all their points were earned for completing academics. When students earned points for their academics they were eligible to purchase rewards outlined in various DRO contracts which again targeted the absence of negative behavior. We measured the number of curriculum steps passed pre- and post-intervention. Using standard celeration charts we also show results of this specific token economy system on students’ inappropriate behaviors.
132. Effects of a Comprehensive Classwide Intervention on Student’s Academic Engagement and Frequency of Problem Behaviors
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CHERYL UTLEY (Juniper Gardens Children's Project), Lisa J. Bowman-Perrott (Juniper Gardens Children's Project), Stephanie Thorne (Juniper Gardens Children's Project)
Abstract: Implementing behavioral classroom interventions are critical to decelerating inappropriate behaviors of students with problem behaviors. This data-based presentation will present the effects of a comprehensive classwide intervention on the anti-social behaviors of an at-risk elementary student. The primary goal of the behavioral intervention was to decrease the frequency of inappropriate behaviors and to increase academic engaged time in the classroom. An A B-A-B design was implemented to evaluate behaviors during the treatment phases. Reliability was taken on 22% across all phases of the intervention. Using the MS-CISSAR ecobehavioral data collection system, the results indicated that inappropriate behaviors decreased from 12.90 per 30 minute block compared to 53.23 per 30 minute block during the reversal phase. On task behavior improved by 87.10% during the reimplementation of the intervention compared to 54.4% during reversal.
133. Use of a Classroom-Wide Intervention to Increase On-Task Behavior
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CARON ELLZEY (Syracuse University), Brian K. Martens (Syracuse University), Leah K. Brzuszkiewicz (Syracuse University)
Abstract: To increase on-task behavior, a classroom-wide intervention was developed, implemented and evaluated using a brief experimental analysis. The subjects of this study were 12 students, six to nine years of age, placed in a special education classroom with one teacher, and one teacher’s assistant (12:1:1). Abridged data series, similar to those discussed by Martens and colleagues (1999), were used to compare a baseline condition to an intervention test condition. The intervention consisted of a work-station model in which students were grouped according to skill level and instructionally matched tasks were assigned for each group. Results of the experimental analysis indicated that the intervention successfully increased rates of on-task behavior for all of students in the classroom. Implications for structuring special education classrooms to maximize student learning are discussed.
134. Increasing Appropriate Circle-Time Sitting of a Student With Autism in an Inclusive Setting
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
KATRINA A. FALLON (Advances Learning Center), Katherine A. Johnson (Advances Learning Center), Matthew Mosher (Advances Learning Center)
Abstract: A six-year-old girl with autism was taught to sit appropriately during circle time in an inclusive Kindergarten classroom. Tokens were delivered for appropriate sitting. Systematic increase in number or tokens and then length of interval to earn a token increased her appropriate sitting to 90% of all 5-second intervals in a 20-minute circle-time. Maintenance probes showed consistent maintenance of the skill following the removal of the token system.
135. Smiley Faces and Spinners: Effects of Self-monitoring of Productivity with an Indiscriminable Contingency of Reinforcement on On-task Behavior and Academic Productivity
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ROBIN LUDWIG (The Ohio State University), Michelle A. Anderson (The Ohio State University), William L. Heward (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: This study extended previous research on self-monitoring by implementing self-monitoring as a classwide system with typically developing kindergarten students. During a daily, 25-minute independent seatwork period each student self-monitored his or her academic productivity by marking an X over a “smiley face” symbol on a self-monitoring card each time a section of work was completed. Immediately following the seatwork period, each student got to spin a spinner which landed on a number from 3 to 8, indicating one of the numbered sections of academic work written on the board for that day. The experimenter then checked that student’s self-monitoring card to see if the number was marked as complete. If it was, the experimenter then checked the seatwork to determine if the student had actually completed the work. If the student had completed the randomly determined section, he received a small trinket prize (e.g., sticker, penny candy). Results show that classwide self-monitoring combined with the indiscriminable reward contingency can be an effective tool for increasing both on-task behavior and academic productivity for kindergarten students. Although the results show inter-subject differences in the amount of behavior change across conditions and considerable variability within phases by individual students, the mean percentage of intervals of on-task behavior and number of written academic responses per minute for all eight target students were higher in the self-monitoring with indiscrimable contingency condition than during baseline.
136. The Effect of Goal Setting and Self-Generated Feedback on the Class Preparation Behaviors of Japanese Children in the Classroom
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
YUKI DOJO (Kwansei Gakuin University, Japan), Junko Tanaka-Matsumi (Kwansei Gakuin University, Japan)
Abstract: We examined the effect of goal setting and self-generated feedback on children’s class preparation behavior for 2 months in two second grade classrooms in a Japanese public elementary school. Children in Class A (n = 30) were intervened with goal setting, while those in Class B (n = 30) were intervened with goal setting and self-generated feedback. During baseline, we counted the number of children achieving target behaviors without intervention. Three target behaviors were (a) ”I will tidy up what I used in the previous class,” (b) “I will prepare the material for the next class,” and (c) “I will push the chair under the desk during recess.” Consistent with the Japanese educational practice emphasizing homogeneity and group orientation, the same behavioral goals were set for each child on a “Target Behavior Card” placed on the child’s desk. In addition, children in class B monitored their target behaviors and were trained to give self-generated feedback with a checkmark for each target behavior performed. As a result, the number of children archiving the target behaviors with both goal setting and feedback increased by 48% during intervention in comparison to 41% of those with only goal setting, relative to their baselines.
137. The Effects of a Daily Report Card on Classroom Behavior for a Middle School Student
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
BETTY FRY WILLIAMS (Whitworth College), Nicholas Edwards (Whitworth College), Daniel Pecka (Whitworth College)
Abstract: The purpose of this intervention was to determine if a 13 year-old boy with a behavior disorder could benefit from self-evaluation through a daily report card in a life skills classroom. Each period the researchers filled out a report card. After the period was over, the researchers then had the boy fill out an identical report card in which he graded himself based on his behavior during the period. The report card evaluated completion of work, time on task, social behavior, and cooperation with the teacher. Each category was rated on a scale from 1-5. The student was given praise and occasionally given candy for matching scores between the report card the researchers filled out and the report card he filled out. By the end of the study the student had doubled his behavior ratings from baseline. The student’s work was completed more often, he spent more time on task, and the teacher did not have to correct his behavior as often.
138. Comparing and Improving the Performance of University Faculty on Two Teaching Models
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
MARCO WILFREDO SALAS-MARTINEZ (Universidad Veracruzana), Victoria Baruch (Universidad Veracruzana), Martin Ortiz Bueno (Universidad Veracruzana)
Abstract: The present study was implemented to compare and to improve the academic performance of university faculty in two models of education: flexible and traditional. Thirty and five professors and one hundred forty students of the faculties of the Minatitlan-Coatzacoalcos campus of the Veracruzana University answered a survey to evaluate several aspects of the faculty’s performance in two models of education: class activities, study program, evaluation procedures, teaching techniques, instructional tools, student’s participation, motivation procedures, and application of behavior analysis principles. Faculty received feedback based on student evaluations, as well as guidelines for improving their performance. A follow-up survey was administered to the same students a month after their faculty received feedback and guidelines. The results show that the professors who used the flexible model obtained higher percentages academic performance than the ones who thought with the traditional model. In addition the feedback improved the faculty’s performance in both models.
139. Student Research at Gonzaga University
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
THOMAS FORD MCLAUGHLIN (Gonzaga University), Kimberly P. Weber (Gonzaga University), K. Mark Derby (Gonzaga University), Anjali Barretto (Gonzaga University), Randy Lee Williams (Gonzaga University)
Abstract: The basic data presented are the publication and presentation data authored by students from Gonzaga University's behaviorally-based Special Education Program. These data were blocked from 3 to 5 year periods (e. g. 1978-1980, 1981-1985, 1986-1990, 1991-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2004). The overall student publication and presentation outcomes indicated that student puvblications and presentations were highest during 2004-2004 (number of publications and presentations= 48). Student publications ranged from 0 to 20 for the other four designated time periods. Gonzaga University's Special Education Program's students published in such peer reviewed journals as Child & Family Behavior Therapy, Corrective and Social Psychiatry, International Journal of Special Education, B. C. Journal of Special Education, Education and Treatment of Children, Reading Improvement, Remedial & Special Education, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Behavior Modification, Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, Behavioral Interventions, Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, Jounral of Behvioral Education, and Psychology in the Schools. Presentations were made at the Northwest Association for Behavior Analysis, Council for Exceptional Children, and The Annual Virginia Beach Conference on Behavior Disorders and the Association for Behavior Analysis.
140. Retention in the Association for Behavior Analysis: What Do Student Members Say?
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
GWEN DWIGGINS (The Ohio State University), Jamie Hughes (Developmental Disabilities Consultant, P.C.), Rachel S. F. Tarbox (Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Inc.), Pamela G. Osnes (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: Data from the Association for Behavior Analysis show that it is not uncommon for student members to fail to join ABA as full members following their graduation from their degree-granting programs. This presentation will provide an analysis of the results of a survey that was sent to all student members of the Association for Behavior Analysis in April 2004 by a subcommittee of ABA’s Education Board. The survey was designed to acquire information that could be used by ABA to develop methods to encourage post-graduation retention of former student members. 200 student members responded to the questionnaire. Their suggestions to increase student involvement at the annual convention will be highlighted. Demographic information including program, degree, primary focus area and field of interest were collected and will be presented. Additionally, the questionnaire collected information regarding the intent of student members to obtain certification by the Behavior Analysis Certification Board (BACB). Recommendations will be offered to promote the continued retention and participation of student members in ABA as student’s transition from their educational training programs into the workforce.



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