Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


31st Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2005

Event Details

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Poster Session #252
#252 Poster Session - DEV
Sunday, May 29, 2005
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Southwest Exhibit Hall (Lower Level)
73. Comparison of Delayed Matching-to-Sample Performance of Persons with and without Alzheimer’s Disease
Area: DEV; Domain: Basic Research
EUNICE G.S. GARDNER (University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences), John J. Chelonis (University of Arkansas, Little Rock), Catherine Cole (University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences), Elaine Souder (University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences), Merle G. Paule (National Center for Toxicological Research)
Abstract: One of the primary symptoms of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is impairment in short-term memory. In mild to moderate AD, memory of well-learned material is often preserved; however, new information is not adequately stored. The present study extends this research by comparing accuracy and response latencies between adults with mild to moderate AD (n=5) and adults without AD (n=12) on a delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS) task. For this task, one of seven possible stimuli was presented on each trial followed by a delay of 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 or 32 s. Participants had to press the initial stimulus and then, following the delay, choose the previously viewed sample stimulus from three choice stimuli. The AD group completed significantly less of the task, was significantly less accurate, and had longer observing and choice response latencies. The AD group’s accuracy was significantly worse at all delays and, only at the shortest delay (1 s), was the accuracy of AD group significantly above chance (33%). Results indicate that persons with only mild to moderate AD exhibit significant impairment in their short-term memory, even at very short delays.
74. The Effects of Alzheimer’s Disease on Time Perception
Area: DEV; Domain: Basic Research
EUNICE G.S. GARDNER (University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences), John J. Chelonis (University of Arkansas, Little Rock), Catherine Cole (University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences), Elaine Souder (University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences), Merle G. Paule (National Center for Toxicological Research)
Abstract: In addition to short-term memory loss, two additional symptoms that are associated with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) include diminished problem-solving ability and temporal disorientation. The present study compared temporal response differentiation, TRD, (timing ability) in adults with mild to moderate AD (n=6) and adults without AD (n=11). For the TRD task, participants had to press and hold down a response lever for at least 10 s but no more than 14 s to earn a nickel. They continued to perform this task for 10 minutes or until they earned 30 nickels. Overall, the AD group was significantly less accurate, made fewer responses, and had shorter lever hold durations than controls. The TRD performance of the AD group was not, however, any more variable than that of controls, suggesting similar timing precision, albeit of incorrect duration. The observation that persons in the AD group consistently produced shorter lever hold durations indicates that they were overestimating the passage of time. These results indicate that persons with only mild to moderate AD show marked impairment in timing ability and that the impairment may be related to an alteration (speeding up) of an internal clocking mechanism.
75. Physical Appearance and Intimate Friendship in Adolescence: A Study Using a Portuguese College Student Sample
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
RAUL CORDEIRO (Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Portalegre, Portugal), Miguel Arriaga (Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Portalegre, Portugal)
Abstract: This cross-sectional study involves intimate friendships and the perception of one’s own self, in adolescence. These factors acquire different values for boys and girls.318 students, was asked to answer a direct application questionnaire using Intimate Friendship Scale (Sharabany,1994,2000), Self-Perception Profile for College Students (Neemann and Harter, 1986) and the Family Social Notation (Graffar, 1956). Intimate Friendship are higher for girls. These values are statistically significant for Intimate Friendship with the Best Friend as well as for the Intimate Friendship, in general. Intimate Friendship and Physical Appearance, show a relationship close enough to be considered statistically significant.
76. Increasing Group Participation in an Adult with Traumatic Brain Injury
Area: DEV; Domain: Service Delivery
AMBER MAKI (St. Cloud State University)
Abstract: An adult with traumatic brain injury that resided in a neurorehabilitation hospital was having difficulties with participation in required groups. The lack of participation was hindering rehabilitation goals aimed at community placement. This paper discusses the technique used to increase this individual’s group participation by implementing antecedent manipulation, performance feedback, and positive reinforcement. Points earned for participation increased in all 18 groups.
77. An Initial Behavioral Approach to the Study of Toddler's Emotional Behavior
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
ANNE S. KUPFER (Arizona State University), Kanako Otsui (Arizona State University), Julie Lewis (Arizona State University)
Abstract: Traditionally collected longitudinal observational data of toddlers' emotional behavior were re-analyzed from a behavioral perspective. Standardized tasks were reinterpreted from an establishing operations framework and the corresponding emotional behaviors were measured with respect to latency to respond, duration of responding and whether the toddler approached or avoided the main task stimulus. Additionally, the child's ability to be redirected once an emotional response was emitted, was evaluated with respect to whether the redirection was self-redirected, environmentally redirected, or socially redirected. The subjects were selected on the basis of (1) mothers’ verbal reports of their child’s emotional behavior (i.e., standardized questionnaires) versus (2) direct observation at a later time period. The extent to which mothers’ verbal behavior correlated to observed behavior was examined as well. This analysis was conducted to determine if a pattern of emotional responding exists between children categorized as “externalizers” versus “internalizers” and whether this pattern is persistent across the child’s first three years of development.
78. Garden Atriums for People with Dementia: If You Build It, Will They Come?
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
R. MARK MATHEWS (University of Kansas), Gillian Woods (University of Kansas), Jonathan C. Baker (University of Kansas)
Abstract: There has been a recent proliferation of specialized care programs designed to serve people with dementia. Design recommendations for dementia environments have been offered in the form of "design guides" and numerous articles in scholarly and professional books and journals. The vast majority of these recommendations include reasons why the proposed spatial organization should be functional for people with dementia, with little empirical evidence to support their claims. Based on these recommendations, environmental design features (like garden atriums) have been included in a number of newly constructed facilities for people with dementia (often adding between $250,000 and $500,000 to construction costs). To date very little empirical evidence exists on the use or benefits of this type of space. A behavior mapping strategy has been conducted over a two-year timeframe in two facilities with a garden atrium for residents with dementia. Repeated observations were collected and analyzed on resident locations within each facility (resident room, corridor, commons area, or garden atrium), time of observation, and resident behaviors (not engaged, engaged in appropriate behavior, inappropriate behavior). Results show that the garden atrium areas are very rarely used by residents with dementia (fewer than 0.7% of all resident observations in one facility).
79. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Positive Incentives Program with Nursing Home Residents
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
SHASTA BRENSKE (Minnesota Veterans Home), Susan A. Parenteau (Minnesota Veterans Home)
Abstract: Research has shown token economies to be effective in reducing undesired behavior and increasing desired behaviors with many populations. At the state veterans’ home, we have used positive incentives in the form of token economies and positive reinforcement with board and care as well as nursing care residents. Some of the examples include: using a token economy to increase behaviors related to cleanliness in common area in which the resident received awards which could be exchanged for gift certificates, increasing attendance at the fitness gym by giving a resident phone cards every second day of attendance, and providing incentives for reaching a minimum criteria for bathing. We will present data that examine the effectiveness of positive incentive programs with veterans residing at the Minnesota State Veterans Home.
80. A Comparison of Interventions to Increase the Medication Compliance of Nursing Home Residents
Area: DEV; Domain: Applied Research
SHASTA BRENSKE (Minnesota Veterans Home), Susan A. Parenteau (Minnesota Veterans Home)
Abstract: Little research has been pubished in the area of behavior analysis and medication compliance. Antecedent stimuli and positive reinforcement have been used successfully to increase compliance for a variety of behaviors with several populations. We would like to compare the effects of using an antecedent stimulus versus using an antecedent stimulus plus reinforcement to evaluate it’s efficacy on getting residents to show up for medication on time. The antecedent stimulus will be in the form of an alarm signaling the resident to go to the nurse’s station to take his or her medication at the specified time. Reinforcement will be determined individually for each of the residents. We hope that this research will provide us with some indicators of a successful intervention for residents who are consistently late or do not show up for medication administration.
81. An Examination of Response Patterns in Children Utilizing Interval Schedules of Reinforcement
Area: DEV; Domain: Basic Research
JONATHAN YOUNG (University of Arkansas, Little Rock), John J. Chelonis (University of Arkansas, Little Rock), Brian M. Kubacak (University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences), Ronald L. Baldwin (University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences), Mark C. Edwards (University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences), Eldon Schulz (University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences)
Abstract: Previous studies have used either fixed-interval (FI) or variable-interval (VI) schedules of reinforcement to examine how humans respond under intermittent reinforcement schedules, and how instructions affect performance. The present study compared the performance of twelve children, ages 7 to 12 years, on a FI-20s and VI-20s schedule using the same reinforcer and minimal instructions. Children were instructed to press a response lever to receive a nickel. Each task lasted 30 minutes with a 20-minute break between tasks during which a brief intelligence test was administered. Six children were administered the FI task first whereas the other six children were administered the VI task first. The children generated a steady rate of responses across each of the three 10 minute blocks on the VI-20s schedule. The same children generated a similar number of responses on the first block of the FI schedule and the first block of the VI schedule, however, responses steadily decreased throughout the second and third blocks of the FI-20s schedule. These results indicate that differences in response rate for VI and FI schedules begin to emerge after a short amount of time has elapsed.



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