Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


31st Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2005

Event Details

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Poster Session #188
#188 Poster Session - EAB
Sunday, May 29, 2005
12:00 PM–1:30 PM
Southwest Exhibit Hall (Lower Level)
96. SET or LeT? A Test of Two Models of Timing
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
JOANA ARANTES (University of Minho), Armando Machado (University of Minho)
Abstract: To contrast the Scalar Expectancy Theory (SET) and the Learning to Time (LeT) model, pigeons learned two temporal discriminations: On Type 1 trials, they learned to choose a red key after a 1-s signal and a green key after a 4-s signal; on Type 2 trials, they learned to choose a blue key after a 4-s signal and a yellow key after either a 8-s signal (Group 8) or a 16-s signal (Group 16). Then the birds were exposed to signals ranging from 1 to 16 s and given a choice between the green and the blue keys, the keys associated with the same 4-s signal. Whereas SET predicted no effect on choice of the test signal duration, LeT predicted that preference for green would increase monotonically with the signal but faster for Group 8 than for Group 16. The results were consistent with LeT, but not with SET.
97. Assessing the Devaluation Hypothesis for Negative Anticipatory Contrast
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
JERI NURNBERGER (University of North Dakota), Jeffrey N. Weatherly (University of North Dakota)
Abstract: Past research has tried unsuccessfully to test the idea that animals decrease their consumption of a low-valued food when a high-valued food will soon be available because that procedure leads to a decrease in the value of the low-valued food. We attempted to test this idea by first producing this negative contrast effect in a treatment group and then testing whether rats in this group learned a new behavior less quickly when the low-valued food served as the reinforcer for the new task than would control rats that had not been displaying contrast. No differences were present. We then conducted an induction procedure (i.e., produced an increase in responding for the low-valued food) and repeated the testing procedure. In this preparation, the treatment animals performed the task at a higher rate (consistent with previous results). These findings thus suggest that contrast and induction occur for different reasons. Whereas contrast does not result in a decrease in the value of the low-valued food, induction results in an increase in its value.
98. Haloperidol, Multiple schedules, and Different Reinforcers
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
DORIS B. MARTINEZ (University of Lamar), Mario Serrano (Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones en Comportamiento), Carlos F. Aparicio (Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones en Comportamiento)
Abstract: Previous studies suggest that dopamine activity determines the reinforcing value of stimuli. The anhedonic hypothesis suggests that by blocking dopamine activity the reinforcing value of primary stimuli is eliminated. On the other hand, the motor hypothesis suggests that neuroleptics interfere with the initiation of movements that are necessary for the emission of instrumental behaviors. The present study was designed to assess these hypotheses. A multiple schedule with two variable interval components was used to manipulate the contextual stimuli, and the type of reinforcer (liquid sucrose and food pellets). Assuming that food is a more potent reinforcer than liquid sucrose, as it has been shown in several studies, it was expected that haloperidol will extinguish the reinforcing value of liquid sucrose faster than that of the food. On the other hand, if haloperidol has a generalized suppressing effect upon the motor system, then it will suppress lever pressing for both liquid sucrose or food reinforcers. These possibilities were explored with rats that responded to multiple schedules for several sessions until stability was reached. Then, four doses of haloperidol (0.04, 0.08, 0.16 and 0.24 mg/kg) were assessed (ip) over a 12-day period.
99. Assessing Agonists and Antagonists of Dopamine in Dynamic Choice Situations
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
JORGE ARTURO BALDERRAMA TRAPAGA (Universidad Veracruzana), Carlos F. Aparicio (Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones en Comportamiento)
Abstract: Research in neuroscience suggests that dopamine (DA) determines the reinforcing effects of primary stimuli such as food. This idea received support from data showing that DA antagonists (e.g., haloperidol) suppress operant behaviors maintained with positive reinforcement. Paradoxically, the same effect has been obtained with DA agonists (e.g., d-amphetamine), questioning the role of DA in determining the reinforcing value of positive stimuli. The present study used the generalized matching law (Baum, 1974) to estimate the effects of d-amphetamine and haloperidol on food reinforcers; particularly, on sensitivity to reinforcement. A variable reinforcing environment was modeled by arranging seven reinforcer ratios to occur in two levers within the same session. A local analysis was conducted to determine the effects of these drugs on choice behavior. As it was predicted, response distribution favored the lever associated with the highest probability of reinforcement. The drugs affected total response output, but they did no affect sensitivity to reinforcement. The discrimination that rats established between the rich and the lean levers was not affected by d-amphetamine, nor was it affected by haloperidol. The implications for a general model of anhedonia will be discussed.
100. Foraging in Multiple Patches with Differing Travel Requirements and Prey Densities
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
FELIPE CABRERA (Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones en Comportamiento), Carlos F. Aparicio (Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones en Comportamiento)
Abstract: Optimal foraging behavior involves the detection of different prey densities among patches dispersed within an environment. One of the main interests of this topic is to study the organism’s choice of when to leave a patch and travel to another patch. In this study rats foraged for food in an environment that included two, four, or eight patches that differed in food densities. To travel from one place to another, rats had to climb barriers of different heights. The results showed that the rats’ foraging strategy varied as a function of prey density; the richer the patch the longer the residence and giving-up times in it. The proportion of obtained preys in the first try increased as a function of the rate of depletion, indicating that the entries to the lean patches were controlled by the time elapsed from the last capture.
101. Changes in Within-Session Contrast: Does Exposure to a DA Agonist or Antagonist Alter Habituation?
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
SESHANAND CHANDRASHEKAR (Illinois State University), Catherine Brown (Illinois State University), Shannon Ross (Illinois State University), Yuliya Borre (Illinois State University), Valeri Farmer-Dougan (Illinois State University)
Abstract: Multiple schedule behavioral contrast is an inverse relationship between the rate of responding in one component of a multiple schedule and the conditions of reinforcement in the other component (McSweeney and Weatherly, 1998). Positive contrast is said to occur when an increase in responding during occurs in the constant (contrast) component when the conditions of the other (variable) component worsen .McSweeney & Swindall (1999) suggest that within-session changes in operant responses occur because subjects sensitize and thus habituate to the reinforcer. Changes in reinforcer value, size or rate within a session may alter habituation, and thus increase or decrease responding. This change in responding may account for the contrast effect. If this is true, than drugs which alter the arousal state of the animal should increase or decrease sensitization to the reinforcer, and thus either attenuate or intensify the contrast effect. This is the focus of the present set of experiments. The experiments manipulated arousal using a general dopamine agonist of ephedra+caffeine, and a dopamine D2-antagonist, haloperidol. As expected, differential effects on within session responding were found.
102. Behavioral Economics: The Effects of Access-Time to a Food and of Qualitatively Different Foods on the Performance of Brushtail Possums (Trichosurus Vulpecula) Under Fixed-Ratio Schedules
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
THERESE MARY FOSTER (University of Waikato, New Zealand), Catherine E. Sumpter (University of Waikato, New Zealand), William Temple (University of Waikato, New Zealand)
Abstract: Fixed-ratio schedules are often used as the basis of generating demand curves to examine the degree of need for a commodity. These are generated by increasing the numbers of responses required to gain access to the commodity and plotting the amount consumed against the number of responses required (the analogue of price). Given the concentration on behaviour and consumption over a whole session the patterns of responding during the sessions are rarely presented. Data will be presented, here, showing the patterns of behaviour of Brushtail Possums responding for both different access-times to a food and for quantitatively different feeds over a range of fixed-ratio schedules. The data are similar to those from domestic hens, although somewhat more variable. Cumulative records show that post-reinforcement pauses generally decreased and running response rates generally increased with decreases in access-time and with decreases in the preference value of the food.
103. Acquisition of Identity Matching in Pigeons with a Multiple-Sample-Location Training Procedure
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
YUSUKE HAYASHI (University of North Texas), Manish Vaidya (University of North Texas)
Abstract: When learning a conditional discrimination, pigeons may learn to respond on the basis of the configuration of the stimuli rather on the basis of a programmed conditional relation between sample and comparison stimuli, essentially turning the conditional discrimination into a simple one. Wright (1997) and others have suggested that this “preference” for configural-pattern learning may be the reason for failures on tests of generalized identity matching, and that breaking up the configural patterns may lead to positive outcomes on tests with generalized identity matching. In the current study, we sought to block (as opposed to break up) configural-pattern learning by training three conditional discriminations in a multiple-sample-location training procedure. Two naïve pigeons were taught three simultaneous conditional discriminations with a procedure in which samples could appear on any of the three keys (left, center, and right) and comparisons appeared on the remaining two keys. The results show that both subjects acquired the conditional discriminations with some difficulty. The data will describe patterns of acquisition and the results of tests with novel stimuli in detail.
104. Win-Shift-Lose-Stay Choices Between Delayed Reinforcers by Pigeons
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
TAKU ISHII (Keio University, Japan), Takayuki Sakagami (Keio University, Japan)
Abstract: Pigeons chose between two identical white response keys in a discrete-trial procedure. In each trial, a single peck on either key was reinforced by food presentation following a signaled delay. The duration of the delay was one second on one key and nine seconds on the other. Because this assignment of the delays was reversed after each trial, pigeons’ win-shift (choosing the opposite key of a previous choice that resulted in a 1-s delay of reinforcement) and lose-stay (choosing the same key as a previous choice that resulted in a 9-s delay of reinforcement) choices were reinforced after a 1-s delay. When the pigeons made win-shift choices in five or more successive trials, the assignment of the delays was not reversed probabilistically in one trial, and thereafter the reversal of the assignment restarted, so that the pigeons had opportunities to make lose-stay choices. These patterns of choices cannot be accounted by the idea that their choices are determined by the values of each key, which in turn are determined by delays of reinforcement associated with each key. Rather, the patterns indicate that pigeons’ choice and its consequence in a previous trial served as discriminative stimuli for a next choice.
105. EAHB-SIG Student Paper Award Winner: Precurrent Behavior and Mediation of Delayed Matching-to-Sample: Systematic Replication of Extension
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
DAVID W. SIDENER (Lafayette College)
Abstract: Although “memory” research and theory often come under the domain of cognitive psychology, these areas may also be seen as being open to radical behavioral interpretations. Delayed matching to sample (DMTS) preparations have often been used to study performance that involves the occurrence of behavior some time after the presentation of a relevant stimulus, or what is typically called short-term memory (STM). The current study involves three experiments that provide evidence for the role of overt behavior in the mediation of DMTS performance in five-year-old children. Experiments 1 and 2 support the assertion that sample-specific, differential mediating behavior (in the form of key presses) may facilitate performance in a DMTS task with delays of up to 15 seconds. Experiment 3 examined the effectiveness of two forms of hand positioning as the mediating response forms: sample specific hand positions that remained visible to the participants and those that were not visible to the participants during the delay interval. Results are consistent with interpretations of memory that involve behavioral mediation rather than mediation that requires a unique “mental” process. Faculty Advisor: Jack Michael (Western Michigan University)
106. Dishabituation and the Prisoner's Dilemma Game: The Effect of Reinforcement Variability on Animals Learning Self-Control Skills
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
LAUREN MENGEDOHT (Washington State University), Frances K. McSweeney (Washington State University), Benjamin P. Kowal (Washington State University), Benjamin L. Lawson (Washington State University), Roberta Varao (Washington State University)
Abstract: The current study examines the effects of variability on animals learning self-control. The subjects were 4 racing homer pigeons, 3 female and 1 male, maintained at approximately 85% of their free-feeding body weights. All subjects were experimentally naïve prior to training. Subjects played an iterated prisoner’s dilemma game (IPD) against a computer using a tit-for-tat strategy. Subjects chose cooperation or defection in the initial links. In the terminal links subjects had to respond on the key they selected in the initial link to receive reinforcement. After the first phase ruled out side biases, variability for reinforcement was introduced in the terminal links. The reinforcers were presented on a FI or VI 5-sec, FI or VI 15-sec, FI or VI 30-sec schedule. For 2 subjects variability was introduced for cooperation responses and for 2 subjects variability was introduced for defection responses. Similar to previous research, using pigeons and the IPD, some subjects showed a preference for cooperation. Results show that response rates decreased quickly when reinforcers were repeatedly presented without variability (F [11,33] = 2.92, p<.05).
107. A Behavioral Assessment of Alcohol Risk Management Practices in Fraternity Party Settings
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
KRISTIN A. WILLIAMSON (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University), Matthew G. Cox (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University), Patrick Rhodes (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University), Kent E. Glindemann (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University)
Abstract: This study investigated adherence to the alcohol risk-management policies of Greek-life social organizations at a large university. The following alcohol risk management policies were evaluated at two parties for each of eight fraternities: a) ban on drinking games, b) ban on providing alcohol to guests, c) providing food and nonalcoholic beverages when alcohol is present, d) using a guest list to determine who can attend, e) requesting proof of age, and marking those over or under 21, f) presence of a “sober” crew, and g) provision of sober transportation. Two independent observers made observations throughout the evening to determine compliance with these policies. The inter-rater reliability (percent agreement) for all measures was .90 or above. Results indicated: a) alcohol was provided to guests at 87.5% of parties; b) food and non-alcoholic beverages were provided only at on-campus parties (n = 4, 25%); c) IDs were checked at 68.8% of parties, with only 20% marking over/under; and d) while 81.2% used a guest list, only 18.8% consistently turned away guests who were not on the list. These results indicate relatively poor adherence to alcohol risk management policies. The implication of these findings for reducing intoxication in party settings will be discussed.
108. Behavioral Contrast in a Group Foraging Paradigm
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
JAMES D. DOUGAN (Illinois Wesleyan University), Valeri Farmer-Dougan (Illinois State University), Seshanand Chandrashekar (Illinois State University), George Mucher (Illinois State University)
Abstract: Behavioral contrast is an inverse relationship between the rate of response in one component of a multiple schedule and the rate of reinforcement provided by the other component. Typically, contrast is studied with individual rats. The present experiments extended the traditional contrast design into a group foraging paradigm. Groups of 5 rats simultaneously “foraged” for food in a large open-field environment containing two feeding stations. Rates of reinforcement at the feeding stations were varied. The rats showed both positive and negative contrast effects, both as a group and as individuals. The results support other recent attempts (such as the ideal free distribution) to extend traditional operant analysis to group foraging paradigms.
109. A Continuing Search for the Malevolent Pigeon
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CHRIS M. SCHAUB (Temple University), Stefanie Horvath (Temple University), Christopher J. Perrin (Temple University), Frank Castro (Temple University), Andrew V. Deming (Temple University), Philip N. Hineline (Temple University)
Abstract: In 1997, Andronis, Layng, and Goldiamond reported an experiment entitled "Symbolic Aggression in the Pigeon." Their "perpetrator birds" pecked a switching key that increased the work requirements for "target birds" in an adjacent chamber, although this resulted in no direct benefit to the perpetrators. Several control procedures supported the designation of "symbolic aggression," whereby the pecking of a key was taken as an arbitrary substitute for directly attacking the other bird. To date, no published experiments have replicated this work.The present follow-up experiments attempt to improve upon the original procedures by eliminating the use of transparent panels, interposed between the two chambers, as switching keys. Those panels may have recorded direct aggressive movements toward the neighboring bird as if they were arbitrary responses. We use conventional switching keys that can be moved around within the chamber. The perpetrator birds reliably reduce their own work requirements when in the target chamber, wherever the switching key is located. When they have access to those keys in the perpetrator chamber, affecting the work requirements of a target bird next door, they show clearly distinct switching patterns. However, to date these have been oscillatory – sometimes increasing and sometimes decreasing the neighbor’s work requirement.
110. Behavioral Economics of Relative Reinforcer Efficacy: Food and Booze
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CARLA H. LAGORIO (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire), Mark Remiker (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire), Bob Bourgeois (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire), Nicole Zeug (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire), John R. Smethells (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire), Travis Ray Smith (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire), Gregory J. Madden (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire)
Abstract: Demand curves were examined in 12 rats responding for either food or alcohol. Relative consumption at each fixed ratio value was used to predict behavior in a concurrent choice condition. The purpose of the study is to test the behavioral economic prediction regarding reinforcer efficacy.
111. Where's The Treat? An Exploration of the Click/Treat Relationship
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
RACHEL DUNHAM (University of North Texas), Pam Wennmacher (University of North Texas), Jesus Rosales-Ruiz (University of North Texas), Chad Scott Hunter (University of North Texas), Ami L. Miller (University of North Texas)
Abstract: A controversy exists among many animal trainers about schedules of reinforcement, in particular about whether it is necessary to deliver reinforcement after every click or if it is acceptable to click and sometimes not deliver reinforcement. This latter schedule of clicking and not delivering reinforcement is often confused with intermittent reinforcement. This research investigates the effects of clicking after each behavior but only treating after every other click and the effects of an FR 2 schedule of reinforcement (clicking and treating after two behaviors) on the maintenance of target training of dogs. A reversal design was used with two dogs. The click-click-treat method was implemented during condition A and the FR 2 schedule was implemented during condition B. Results in progress.
112. Pavlovian Blocking and Activity Anorexia
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
W. DAVID PIERCE (University of Alberta), Anna-Maria Biondo (University of Alberta), C. Donald Heth (University of Alberta), Spencer D. Proctor (University of Alberta), James C. Russell (University of Alberta)
Abstract: An animal model of activity anorexia has been developed wherein food deprived rats participate in excessive wheel running leading to a life-threatening reduction in food intake and body weight. The present experiment explored whether pairing of a novel food (CS) with wheel access (UCS) would block the usual suppression of chow intake induced by wheel running. Forty-three male JCR:LA-cp (lean) rats were assigned to one of four groups and placed on food restriction (20 g, 90 min/day). Over the first three days, animals received either beef or chicken treats; during this time, two groups (Beef-Wheel and Chicken-Wheel) had wheel access for 22.5 h/day while the other groups (Beef-No-Wheel and Chicken-No-Wheel) remained in home cages. For Days 4-6, all animals had wheel access, and received a compound of beef treats and laboratory chow. On Day 7, all animals were tested for consumption of chow. All animals self-starved and showed exponential increases in running. On the test, Beef-Wheel and Chicken-Wheel animals consumed less chow than Beef-No-Wheel and Chicken-No-Wheel animals. Contrary to the blocking hypothesis, chow intake remained suppressed even for animals that had a history of pairing novel food with wheel running.
113. Delayed-Matching to Sample Task in Children Exhibiting Symptoms of Depression
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
CHRISTIAN LYNCH (University of Arkansas, Little Rock), Brian M. Kubacak (University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences), John J. Chelonis (University of Arkansas, Little Rock), Ronald L. Baldwin (University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences), Mark C. Edwards (University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences), Merle G. Paule (University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences)
Abstract: Delayed-matching to sample (DMTS) procedures are widely used to assess short-term memory (STM) in both humans and animals. Here, we applied such a procedure to the study of visual STM in children exhibiting symptoms of depression. DMTS performance with children exhibiting symptoms of depression (n=16) was compared with that of controls (n=34). Depressed children either had t-scores greater than 59 on the Child Depression Inventory or met DSM-IV criteria for depression based on the NIMH DISC-IV structured interview. For the DMTS task, subjects had to remember a sample stimulus over delays of 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 or 32 s and select it from 3 choice stimuli. Correct choices resulted in the delivery of a nickel reinforcer; incorrect choices were followed by a 10 s timeout then another trial. Depressed children earned fewer nickels and were less accurate at most of the longer delays, being significantly impaired at the 16 and 32 s delays. Depressed children also were slower in making observing responses and in making choice responses at longer recall delays. These findings suggest memory impairments and attention deficits in children exhibiting symptoms of depression.
114. Web-based behavior analysis for the children with developmental disabilities in Korea
Area: EAB; Domain: Service Delivery
YUNHEE SHIN (Daegu University, South Korea), Won R. Lee (Daegu University, South Korea), Weon Ok Koo (Daegu University, South Korea), Mihyang Choi (Daegu University, South Korea)
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to explore the characteristics of challenging behavior for the children with developmental disabilities by the web-based recording system in the HOMI, providing all the one stop on-line educational service from referral, medical service, assessment, individualized educational plan, to evaluation. Thirty teachers at the Koryung Rehabilitation Center in Korea as the participants of the study daily recorded a hundred children's challenging behaviors using the web-based recording system in HOMI to find out the frequency, type and tensity of the challenging behaviors. Furthermore, it investigated if there's any distinctive difference in findings according to the age or gender group.The system was designed to help teachers and parents educating children's challenging behaviors by web-based recording system easily access the system and efficiently morniter, record, and preserve all the information and data related to children from the past. So they analyze their children's challenging behaviors, and it could be used as the precious resources of educational supports and family supports. Based on the web based behavior analysis, developing and implementing the best intervention program will be provided the children by the teachers and their families.The results of the study revealed that the specific high gravity of challenging behaviors was the behavior area of excretion, aggression, and crying according to the frequency analysis.The behavior analysis by the gender distinction showed that the more extraordinarily challenging behaviors occurred in the female group than the male group. According to age group, the children under 13 years old than other showed high occurrence in the challenging behaviors.
115. Rate-Building, Goal-Setting and Roller Skaters
Area: EAB; Domain: Applied Research
TRUDY POCOCK (University of Waikato, New Zealand), Therese Mary Foster (University of Waikato, New Zealand), James McEwan (University of Waikato, New Zealand)
Abstract: A rate-building procedure was used to teach a basic roller skating skill, forward crosses, to school age children. Participants were assigned to one of three groups. Groups 1 and 2 practised forward crosses for three 1-min intervals across 10 sessions, while a third control group completed only the first and last session. Participants in Group 2 were also set a goal of 60 correct forward crosses per minute. All skaters were asked at the conclusion of the last session what goal setting tactics, if any, they had used. Results from this experiment will be presented.
116. The Effect of Rate of Stimulus Presentation on Human Adult Responding Under a Peak-Interval Trials Procedure
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
DAPHNA EL-ROY (Eden II Programs), Amy Tan (Townsend Harris High School), Nancy S. Hemmes (Queens College, City University of New York), Bruce L. Brown (Queens College, City University of New York)
Abstract: Adults’ performance under Fixed-Interval (FI) reinforcement schedules has been hypothesized to be affected by self-generated counting or similar time-correlated behavior. Concurrent number-reading tasks have been used in previous research to prevent counting but participants have also reported counting the very stimuli intended to prevent counting. In this study, undergraduate Psychology students exposed to an FI 20s LH 40 s schedule for typing “win” on a computer keyboard, were concurrently required to pronounce three-digit numbers that appeared on a computer screen. Unreinforced 60 s probe trials were interspersed among FI trials, under a Peak-Intervals (PI) trials procedure. Probe trials allowed for the examination of performance before and after the FI value elapsed. In a previous study (El-Roy, 2004, Experiment 2), both rate of stimulus presentation (two rates) and number structure (sequential and random) were manipulated and results varied across participants. In this study only rate was manipulated and all numbers were random. In an initial phase, participants were exposed to one rate, and in the subsequent phase, to the rate from the previous phase and to two additional rates, a slower one and a faster one. Similarly to prior findings, the source of stimulus control varied across participants in this study.
117. Some Determinants of Toddler Response Allocation
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
PAIGE M. MCKERCHAR (University of Kansas), Rachel H. Thompson (University of Kansas), Catherine Cote (University of Kansas)
Abstract: Parents and professionals working with toddlers are challenged with arranging environmental conditions to promote appropriate responses (e.g., compliance) and discourage inappropriate responses (e.g., destructive behavior). This study evaluated the effects of several commonly recommended procedures on toddler response allocation, within a concurrent-operant arrangement. Data were collected on the frequency of simple responses (e.g., stacking). Interobserver agreement was collected during a minimum of 28% of sessions and averaged 98% (range, 78% to 100%) across participants. Preliminary results showed that praise alone was not effective in increasing the target response for the two participants. For one participant, the delivery of an edible was effective only when combined with descriptive praise. For a second participant, the desired performance was produced with instructions, general praise and delivery of an edible. Although these results are preliminary, they suggest that praise alone may be insufficient to produce desirable changes in toddler behavior.
118. A Behavioral Economic Analysis of the Illusion of Control while Playing Roulette
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
JEFFREY E. DILLEN (Southern Illinois University), Jennifer A. Benne (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: Previous research has demonstrated that subjects will pay additional money to obtain the ability to have “illusory control” despite the fact outcomes in gambling are random. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of increasing cost magnitude on the purchasing behavior of “illusory control”. Fifteen participants playing a table-top version of Roulette were allotted the opportunity to either have the dealer place their chips or place their own chips during each of the following four costs: 1 chip, 2 chips, 5 chips, and 10 chips. The cost orders were randomly determined within and across participants (i.e. 15 blocks of 4 costs). Variations in price of control systematically altered consumption. These results are discussed in the context of “shattering the illusion of control,” behavioral economics, together with future treatment implications.
119. Effects of Instructional Situations with Different Modes of Presentation Under the Execution in a Test of Knowledge
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MARIA AVALOS (Universidad de Guadalajara, Mexico), Pablo Covarrubias (Universidad de Guadalajara, Mexico), Carlos Martinez Munquia (Universidad de Guadalajara, Mexico), Sucel Moran (Universidad de Guadalajara, Mexico), Antonia Padilla (Universidad de Guadalajara, Mexico), Julio Varela (Universidad de Guadalajara, Mexico), Idania Zepeda (Universidad de Guadalajara, Mexico)
Abstract: The objective of the investigation was to analyze the effect that different modes of presentation of content under the execution in a test of knowledge. Two groups of forty students (from 9 to 11 years old, and from 18 to 21 years old) participated. Five experiments were designed, each with to pretest, to period of self-training and to post-test. Five subjects from each population were assigned to one of five experiments that varied the modality of information presentation. Each experiment implied one of the following linguistic modalities: reading; listening; observing. Three subjects from each population (control groups) were exposed to different content in the self-training session. The data were analyzed in two senses: in terms of the difference of the percentage of successes between the pretest and postest of each subject in each one of the groups, and in terms of the difference of the percentage average among experiments.
120. Transfers of Sexual Arousal Functions in Acquired Brain Injury
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
JONAH D. MARTIN (Center for Comprehensive Services, Inc.), John M. Guercio (Center for Comprehensive Services, Inc.)
Abstract: Sexually inappropriate and deviant behaviors are frequently observed and discussed within the population and literature of Acquired Brain Injury. The significance to effective treatment for these non-adaptive behaviors is of great importance. Therefore, the treatment of sexually deviant behavior in adults with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) is addressed via Relational Frame Theory. A sample of adults with ABI who display an array of sexually deviant behavioral patterns will be presented. Their sexual arousal was measured through the use of galvanic skin response and heart rate. Additional dependent measures, specifically standardized sexual deviance questionnaires, were further used to assess the efficacy of treatment. Assessments of these individuals were conducted in the presence of appropriate, neutral, and inappropriate sexual cues to determine level of arousal. Participants were subsequently administered a matching-to-sample paradigm that promoted acquisition of more appropriate relational frames towards sexual stimuli. Feedback on the aforementioned physiological cues was provided to facilitate acquisition of the appropriate frames, as well as to attempt to impact some of these responses measured in self-reports.
121. "Response" Equivalence: Formation of Untrained Response Chain Using the Stimulus Equivalence Paradigm
Area: EAB; Domain: Basic Research
MASANOBU KUWAHARA (Osaka Kyoiku University, Japan), Akio Matsumoto (Osaka Kyoiku University, Japan), Hiroto Okouchi (Osaka Kyoiku University, Japan)
Abstract: Twelve undergraduates were exposed to a series of procedure which are analogous to one used by the stimulus equivalence experiments. Touching a white circle on a monitor 9 or more times within 3 seconds (A1) produced two kana-nonsense syllables (B1 and B2) on some trials, whereas touching the circle 1, 2, or 3 times within 3 seconds (A2) produced same effects on other trials. Then choosing one of the two syllables was reinforced according to the responding on the preceding sample component (i.e. AB relations). During BC training, one of two kana-nonsense syllables (B1 and B2) used by the AB training was presented. Touching it produced three white circles. Then one of two different sequences of responding to the circles (C1 and C2) were reinforced depending on the syllable had been presented (i.e. BC relations). Finally, the test for untrained relations was conducted, like a stimulus equivalence study (i.e. BA, CB, AC, CA relations). In all tested relations, 11 of 12 undergraduates showed 85 to 100% of predicted test performance, which were consistent with trained relations. These results suggest that the untrained response chain (i.e. AC, CA) was established using the stimulus equivalence paradigm.



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