Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


31st Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2005

Event Details

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Poster Session #85
#85 Poster Session - DDA
Saturday, May 28, 2005
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Southwest Exhibit Hall (Lower Level)
48. Parent-Child Interactions and the Matching Law in Young Children with Developmental Delay
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MAURICE FELDMAN (Brock University), Jennifer Passey (Queen's University)
Abstract: Children with developmental delay (DD) are at increased risk for behavior disorders, but little is know about how behavior problems develop. We conducted a descriptive analysis of possible reinforcement contingencies for appropriate and inappropriate behavior in 47, 2-3 year old children with or at-risk for DD. Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence observations of 1979 naturally occurring parent-child interactions were conducted in the home. Consistent with matching theory, the ratio of appropriate and problem behaviors tracked the ratio of likely reinforcement for those behaviors; the matching equation accounted for 90% of the variance in observed behavior, r = 0.95. The relative proportion of inappropriate behavior (rate of inappropriate behavior/rate of appropriate and inappropriate behavior) was 0.34. The proportion of reinforcement for inappropriate behavior was 0.32 for all potential reinforcers (match), 0.37 for positive reinforcers (attention and tangibles) (match), 0.74 for negative reinforcement (escape) (overmatch) and 0.98 for automatic (sensory) reinforcement (overmatch). The considerable absolute and proportional amount of potential early reinforcement for problem behavior, coupled with possible biological predispositions for aberrant behavior, and difficulty in learning language and other adaptive skills may contribute to the development of behavior disorders in these children.
49. Analysis of Child Positioning During Functional Communication Training
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
JAY W. HARDING (University of Iowa), David P. Wacker (University of Iowa), Wendy K. Berg (University of Iowa), John F. Lee (University of Iowa), Muska Ibrahimovic (University of Iowa)
Abstract: We evaluated the influence of positioning on a child’s manding and self-injurious behavior during functional communication training (FCT). The participant was a 3-year old girl with severe developmental disabilities who engaged in hand biting and eye pressing. All procedures were conducted in the child’s home with the mother serving as therapist. Multielement, concurrent schedules, and reversal designs were used to evaluate assessment and treatment results. Inter-rater agreement was assessed across 30% of sessions and averaged 97%. During Phase 1, a functional analysis showed an undifferentiated pattern of self-injury across test and control conditions. During Phase 2, a choice assessment showed that the child allocated her time primarily to choice areas that allowed her to obtain access to music. During Phase 3 (FCT), the parent taught the child to touch a microswitch to obtain music. We subsequently alternated the child’s positioning during FCT from a prone position to a supported position within a reversal design. Treatment results suggested that self-injury decreased across both positions, but the child was more likely to display independent manding during FCT when placed in a supported position. Results will be discussed regarding antecedent analyses conducted within reinforcement-based treatments.
50. Analysis of Mand Selection During Functional Communication Training
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MUSKA IBRAHIMOVIC (University of Iowa), Jay W. Harding (University of Iowa), David P. Wacker (University of Iowa), Wendy K. Berg (University of Iowa), John F. Lee (University of Iowa)
Abstract: We evaluated whether a child’s manding during functional communication training (FCT) would change with the manipulation of stimulus conditions. The participant was a typically developing boy, aged 1 year 10 months, who displayed destructive behavior (self-injury, aggression). All assessment and treatment procedures were conduced in the child’s home with his mother serving as therapist. Interobserver agreement was assessed across 30% of sessions and averaged 99%. The study was conducted in 3 phases. In Phase 1, a functional analysis using a multielement design showed that destructive behavior was maintained by parent attention. During Phase 2, FCT was conducted in which the child manded to obtain attention. Target mands included saying “please”, signing “please”, or touching a picture card. Results showed that destructive behavior decreased and the child typically combined vocal manding and signing. In Phase 3, a manding analysis using a reversal design was conducted to evaluate target manding when parental cues were manipulated. Results showed that in the absence of programmed cues the child performed functionally equivalent non-target vocal mands to obtain attention. Results will be discussed with respect to mand selection.
51. The Use of Interspersed Demands to Decrease Problem Behavior Maintained by Negative Reinforcement
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MICHELLE FRANK (Kennedy Krieger Institute), SungWoo Kahng (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Kyong-Mee Chung (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Divya Lamba (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Katrina Marie Zelenka (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Eduardo Moyano (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: The present study examined the effects of using interspersed demands to reduce self-injury, aggression, and disruptive behavior in a 16-year-old female diagnosed with moderate mental retardation. Interspersing requests involves presenting easy demands with a high likelihood of compliance followed by difficult demands with a low probability of compliance. Functional analysis results suggested that the participant’s problem behavior were negatively reinforced by escape from demands. Interobserver agreement was greater than 90% throughout this study. Using a reversal design, we evaluated 4 conditions: easy demands, 10 trials of difficult demands, 20 trials of interspersed demands (10 easy and 10 difficult), and 5 trials of difficult demands. Problem behavior remained low throughout the easy demand and interspersed demand conditions. The results replicated those of Horner, Sprague, O’Brien, and Healthfield (1991), suggesting that the use of interspersed demands was effective in increasing compliance and reducing problem behavior following the presentation of difficult demands. Results also extended the findings of Horner et al. by showing that it was in fact the use of interspersed demands that was effective in reducing problem behavior and not just the presentation of fewer consecutive difficult demands.
52. A Comparison of Verbal and Tangible Preference Assessment Methods
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CARRIEANNE ST. AMAND (The May Institute)
Abstract: For most students with severe disabilities, motivation to perform tasks is based on access to preferred items. The study of behavior has focused on the need for more positive reinforcement based procedures for identifying and utilizing preferences contingent on performance of desired behavior. Over the years, researchers have developed a number of different strategies to determine individual preference. Study 1 compared the utility of tangible and verbal preference assessment methodologies for identifying preferences of one 14-year old boy with Pervasive Developmental Disorder. Pretest measures included an oral naming pretest and a spoken word-to-object matching pretest. A paired-stimulus procedure (Fisher, et al., 1992) was used for both the tangible and verbal preference assessments. Results revealed similar items ranked as highly preferred using both types of preference assessment presentation methods. Study 2 was initiated to test the efficacy of both preference assessment methodologies for identifying items that would function to increase desired behavior when made contingent upon their occurrence. The same participant was used in Study 2 during which procedures used were similar to those used by Cohen-Almeida, Graff, and Ahearn (2000) in an alternating treatments design. Despite its limitations, the results of Study 2 revealed differences in rates of responding toward low versus high preference items and served to validate results of Study 1, and the need for continued evaluation of methods for determining preference in individuals with severe disabilities.
53. Self-Control Training Improves Time Spent Working In Children with ADHD
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MARGUERITE L. HOERGER (University of Wales, Bangor), Jennifer Lynne Bruzek (University of Kansas), Kelly A. Dancho (University of Kansas)
Abstract: A self-control training program was conducted for two participants diagnosed with ADHD. The experimenter presented the participants with a choice between long or short pieces of math or writing work, and collected data on the percentage of the session allocated to work. During the baseline condition, participants selected the easy work and the percentage of time allocated to working varied. During the intervention, participants received rewards for completing the longer work in a set amount of time. They both chose the longer piece of work and consistently worked for most of the session. One participant’s working patterns returned to baseline levels upon reversal. The second participant’s work persisted following the removal of rewards. The data are discussed in terms of Eisenberg’s (1992) theory of learned industriousness.
54. Assessment and Treatment of Automatically-Maintained Self-Injury: A Comparison of Contingent and Noncontingent Restraint
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
ANNA E. CHIRIGHIN (Kennedy Krieger Institute), David E. Kuhn (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Kristie L. Arnold (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Behaviors maintained by automatic reinforcement are often more difficult to treat since the exact source of reinforcement is not known. Common treatments for aberrant behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement involve identifying items that compete with the hypothesized sensory stimulation, response interruption, and response reduction procedures. The current study describes a 17-yr-old female diagnosed with profound mental retardation who engaged in high-rate self-injurious behavior independent of social consequences. Following evaluations of less restrictive procedures (e.g., response blocking and competing items), the efficacy of two treatment procedures were evaluated across the antecedent conditions of the functional analysis: noncontingent restraint (following restraint fading analysis) and contingent restraint. Treatment effects were assessed using combined multielement and reversal designs. Reduced rates of hand to head self-injury, and increases in head-banging and negative affect were associated with the noncontingent arm restraint. However, significant reductions in all topographies of self-injury and decreases in negative affect were observed with the contingent restraint. Reliability was collected during 49% of sessions and averaged over 80%. In addition to the outcome of this study, the methodology demonstrates the utility of the functional analysis arrangement in evaluating the effects of treatment of automatically maintained behavior across several environmental conditions.
55. Functional Assessment-Based Treatment During Transition to a Community Residence
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
PATRICK F. HEICK (The May Institute), Rachel Floyd (The May Institute), Alan E. Harchik (The May Institute)
Abstract: The purpose of this clinical case study was to ameliorate the challenging and life-threatening behavior of a 22-year-old man diagnosed with autism, mental retardation, and a seizure disorder. Daniel was scheduled to move to a community group home and had a history of severe problematic behaviors including aggression, self-injurious behavior, property destruction, and pica. Indirect and descriptive functional assessment methods including clinical interviews, rating scales, and direct observations were utilized. Results identified a number of likely behavioral functions and precipitating variables and function-based interventions were subsequently developed. Interventions included individualized reinforcement procedures, differential reinforcement schedules, extinction strategies, functional communication training, restitution, postponement of privileges, and restraint. Target behaviors were measured using frequency, duration, and partial-interval recording systems. An AB design compared the effects of strategies implemented at his previous placement against those currently in place within his residence and day program. Results suggested that the current intervention package was successful in decreasing Daniel’s severe behaviors as well as the use of restrictive procedures (e.g., physical restraint & PRN medication). Limitations of the current study included the inherent shortfalls of an AB design, the ambiguity of utilizing a “treatment package”, and common difficulties associated with research in applied settings.
56. Decreasing the Challenging Behavior of an Adult Male Diagnosed with Mental Retardation and Schizoaffective Disorder
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
HOLLY STEVENS (Team Evaluation Center, Inc.), Juliette Tyree (Team Evaluation Center, Inc.), Christopher L. Darnell (Team Evaluation Center, Inc.)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to decrease challenging behavior of an adult male diagnosed with Mental Retardation and Schizoaffective Disorder and increase Support Team participation. Classes of challenging behavior included verbal aggression, physical aggression, threats of physical aggression, inappropriate sexual comments, and refusal to participate in medically necessary activities. General interventions indcluded staff education and training by the behavior analysts. Specific interventions included decreasing aversive routines and properties of aversive stimuli, and increasing reinforcing properties of hygiene maintenance items and contexts. Results indicated a decrease in classes of challenging behavior and an increase in Support Team participation.
57. Evaluation of the Predictive Utility of Progressive Ratio Schedules for Establishing Concurrent Fixed-Ratio Schedules
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
APHRODITE FOUNDAS (Marcus Autism Center), Ashley Glover (Marcus Autism Center), Henry S. Roane (Marcus Autism Center), Nathan Call (Louisiana State University)
Abstract: Progressive ratio (PR) schedules have been used to establish how much an individual will respond under increasing schedule requirements (i.e., the break point) for different reinforcers. Such evaluations have been conducted in both single and concurrent arrangements. Although both methods allow for the establishment of a break point, it is unknown how these break points predict responding under single and concurrent fixed-ratio (FR) schedules. In the current investigation, a PR schedule was used to identify the break point for two reinforcers (attention and TV) under single- and concurrent-operant conditions, using physical exercise as the target response. After respective break points were established, we presented the reinforcers concurrently at their respective break point values (i.e., conc FR 16 FR 3). Results suggested that in both assessments the participant chose the highly preferred reinforcer (TV) whether it was on a single or concurrent progressive ratio schedule. Furthermore, this pattern of responding maintained when the reinforcers were presented in concurrent FR schedules. Reliability data were collected with two independent observers for over 30% of sessions and was over 90%. These results suggest that PR schedules are effective for identifying differential reinforcer value when developing treatment programs for individuals with developmental disabilities.
58. A Function-Based Treatment of Hair Pulling
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CAROLE J. CONYERS (Behavioral Services of Tennessee), Shannon L. Nichols (Behavioral Services of Tennessee), Jason W. Grosser (Arlington Developmental Center), Dennis H. Reid (Habilitative Management Consultants, Inc.)
Abstract: The effectiveness of a function-based treatment for the hair-pulling behavior of a 43-year-old female diagnosed with profound mental retardation was evaluated. After the results of a standard functional analysis indicated that hair pulling was maintained by automatic reinforcement, "glove", "hair", and "alone" conditions were compared to determine whether the behavior was maintained by the sensation of pulling hair from her scalp, or the sensation of manipulating her hair with her fingers. Sessions were conducted in which: (a) the participant manipulated loose hairs (hair condition), (b) the participant wore latex gloves on both hands (glove condition), and (c) alone sessions in which gloves were not worn and loose hairs were not available. The participant engaged in hair pulling in the alone condition, but not during the "hair" and "glove" sessions, indicating that the opportunity for manipulating her hair with her fingers was the most relevant variable. A preference assessment using hair-like objects was then conducted to assess alternative means of obtaining the reinforcing sensation of playing with her hair. The preference assessment identified several items for which the manipulation of may compete with the apparent sensory stimulation that the participant received from hair pulling. A function-based treatment program was then conducted, and the results showed that when the participant was given access to the preferred hair-like item (identified in the preference assessment), hair-pulling behavior decreased substantially. In addition, withdrawal of the preferred hair-like item resulted in increased rates of hair pulling behavior. Implications of these results are discussed with relevance to treatment.
59. A Review of Steady State Practices in JABA
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
RYAN M. ZAYAC (Auburn University), Kimberley Hays Smith (Auburn University), James M. Johnston (Auburn University), Henry S. Pennypacker (University of Florida)
Abstract: This study examined use of the steady state strategy in JABA articles over a 10-year period (1993-2002). The steady state strategy requires repeatedly exposing each subject to a condition in an effort to control or eliminate extraneous influences and obtain a stable pattern of responding that represents the full effects of that condition before introducing the next condition. This is done to facilitate a clear comparison between experimental and control conditions. Criteria for graph selection were: a) graphical display of behavioral data, b) within subject design with multiple phases, c) non-cumulative, line graph display format, and d) multiple data points in at least one phase. Preliminary results show that the steady state strategy is not being used effectively. Data represented in the articles showed excessive variability, too few data points, and trends prior to changing conditions. Better training in research methods is needed to correct this problem or we risk offering conclusions that are incorrect to varying degrees.
60. A Comparison of Indirect and Direct Methods of Functional Assessment
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
EMILY O. GARNETT (West Virginia University), Cynthia M. Anderson (West Virginia University), Ellen J. McCartney (West Virginia University)
Abstract: Functional assessment methods vary with respect to the degree of control exerted over environmental variables, ease of administration, and the degree to which data are available linking the assessment results to efficacious interventions. Previous research comparing outcomes of various methods of functional assessment has almost exclusively used the analog functional analysis as the standard for comparison. An alternative to using the analog is to use the structured descriptive assessment (SDA), which involves systematic manipulation of antecedents, but is conducted by caregivers in the natural environment. Recent research suggests that the SDA possesses excellent treatment utility and so comparing less rigorous methods of functional assessment to the SDA may provide useful data regarding the extent to which such functional assessments also are useful for developing efficacious interventions. The current study compares hypotheses derived from the SDA with the results of two methods of indirect assessment for three children exhibiting challenging behavior.
61. Context Discrimination Learning in Fragile X Mice
Area: DDA; Domain: Basic Research
ASHLEE ACKELSON (Allegheny College), Rodney D. Clark (Allegheny College)
Abstract: Currently Fmr1 knockout mice are an employed as an animal model for fragil X syndrome, the most common form of heritable mental retardation in humans. The absence of the fragil X mental retardation protein (FMRP) has been shown to be the cause of retardation. In the present study the role of the hippocampus was examined using a context discrimination procedure. the hippocampus has been shown to be important for learning, memory, the expression of stress, and in the case of fragil X the hippocampus has an increased density and morphological abnormalities of dendritic spines. this suggests the lack of Fmr1 protein may interfere with normal synaptic pruning during neuro development. In the context discrimination task, Fmr1 knockout mice and their littermates learn to discriminate two similar contexts, one of which is associated with foot shock. In the present study the Fmr1 knockouts learned at rates similar to but not exceeding their littermates throughout testing. The data indicate no difference between the Fmr1 knockouts and their littermates suggesting that learning and memory may not be completely dependent upon expression of FMRP in the hippocampus for Fmr1 knockout mice.
62. Using Yoked FT Schedules as a Control Condition to Clarify Ambiguous Functional Analysis Results
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
DAVID P. JARMOLOWICZ (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Stephanie A. Contrucci Kuhn (Johns Hopkins University), Louis P. Hagopian (Johns Hopkins University), Tia Paneet (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Robert T. Peyton (Johns Hopkins University)
Abstract: Functional analyses can be very useful in identifying the variables maintaining problem behavior. However, results can be difficult to interpret when both automatic and social functions are indicated. Recent research into the treatment of attention maintained behavior has demonstrated differential responding between contingent attention conditions and conditions where attention is delivered on a fixed time schedule based on rate of reinforcement delivery in the contingent attention condition (Lancaster, LeBlanc, Carr, Brenske, Peet, & Culver, 2004). This same procedure may also be helpful in clarifying results of a functional analysis when both automatic and attention functions are indicated. In the current examination, functional analysis results indicated automatic and social functions for three individuals. In order to clarify results of the functional analysis, a contingent attention condition (similar to the attention condition from the functional analysis) was compared to a noncontingent attention condition. During the noncontingent attention condition, a fixed time schedule of attention was delivered wherein attention delivery was yoked to the rate of attention delivered in the contingent attention condition. Reliability data were collected for at least one third of sessions and averaged above 80%. For one participant, results indicated that contingent attention was not a factor in maintenance of problem behavior and that problem behavior was most likely maintained by automatic reinforcement. For the remaining two participants, results indicated that contingent attention and automatic reinforcement maintained problem behavior.
63. Induction Carryover Effects of Escape Extinction Procedures in the Treatment of Pediatric Feeding Disorders
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MERRILL J. BERKOWITZ (St. Joseph's Children's Hospital), Annmarie Marando (St. Joseph's Children's Hospital), Ines Huggle (St. Joseph's Children's Hospital), Peggy S. Eicher (St. Joseph's Children's Hospital)
Abstract: Induction carryover effects refer to the positive influence that one treatment has on an adjacent treatment. The use of reinforcement and escape extinction procedures has been shown to be effective in treating children with feeding difficulties (e.g., Hoch et al., 1994). Only one study (Kerwin et al., 1995) indirectly examined the possible carryover effects of treatment for food refusal. In that study the participants were presented with varying amounts of food on a spoon. For some of the participants, acceptance of higher spoon volumes increased when escape extinction was implemented with the smaller spoon volumes. Another possible dimension of response effort related to eating is self-feeding. The current study examines the carryover effects, in self-fed session, of escape extinction procedures implemented only during nonself-feeding sessions. Two children admitted to an intensive day treatment program for feeding difficulties participated in the current study. Each participant demonstrated adequate self-feeding skills prior to the admission. A multiple-baseline within participants design was used to demonstrate carryover effects. Escape extinction components were systematically introduced to increase the acceptance and consumption of food during nonself-feeding sessions. The results and their implications will be provided as well as directions for future research.
64. Functionally-Based Versus Nonfunctionally-Based Treatment for Noncompliance: A Case Study
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
DANA SWARTZWELDER (University of Southern Mississippi), Heather Sterling-Turner (University of Southern Mississippi), Brett V. Mehrtens (University of Southern Mississippi), Jana M. Sarno (University of Southern Mississippi)
Abstract: Noncompliance is a commonly referred problem in many early intervention classrooms. A common treatment for noncompliance is physical guidance, although the function is usually not predetermined. The use of functional analysis would help determine the environmental factors maintaining the noncompliant behavior while increasing the likelihood of implementing an appropriate treatment. The participant was a 3-year-old male with developmental delays referred for noncompliance. The current study includes the use of a brief functional analysis to determine the environmental factors maintaining the noncompliance. Following the functional analysis, a comparison of physical guidance and time-out were implemented to determine which treatment would be most effective in reducing noncompliance.
65. Compliance Rates to Parental Prompts when Teaching Children with Developmental Delay
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
RENE HIEBERT (University of Manitoba), Garry L. Martin (University of Manitoba), Dickie C. T. Yu (St. Amant Research Centre)
Abstract: Noncompliance is one of the most frequent challenging behaviors exhibited by children with developmental delay (Walker, 1993). Berry et al. (2004) analyzed videotapes of caregivers teaching their children with developmental delay to perform various tasks using age-appropriate educational toys. Noncompliance to instructions averaged 51% across participants, even though caregiver reinforcement of compliance was high. One possibility is that the children were unable to respond correctly to the prompts provided by their caregivers. This study will examine videotapes to determine rates of compliance to vocal instructions, modeling prompts, and gestural prompts of caregivers teaching their child with developmental delay to perform various age-appropriate play tasks. These data can help caregivers to present the prompts that will be most effective for particular types of tasks, thereby increasing compliance and maximizing the child's learning.
66. Various Reinforcement Schedules with an Individual with Multiple Disabilities: Changes in Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviors
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
BRENT SMITH (The Learning Tree), Stephen Chapman (The Learning Tree), Robert A. Babcock (Auburn University), Jerre R. Brimer (The Learning Tree)
Abstract: The purpose of this presentation is to look at various reinforcement schedules used with an individual with multiple disabilities over time. The subject is a 13-year-old African-American male with diagnoses of profound Mental Retardation and Pervasive Developmental Disorder NOS. The subject has also been described as having failure to thrive. The subject is a student at a private, residential school for people with multiple disabilities and lives in a community-based group home. Various schedules of reinforcement are discussed along with staff compliance and implementation monitoring. A time line of intervention changes will be presented along with discussion of what led to each change. Data graphs will be presented on various maladaptive behaviors as well as rates of earning reinforcement.
67. Effects of Signals During Noncontingent Reinforcement
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
TORY J. CHRISTENSEN (University of Iowa), Joel Eric Ringdahl (University of Iowa), Nathan Call (Louisiana State University), Eric Boelter (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: The effects of fixed-time schedules on responding were assessed in the presence and absence of a signal. Results indicated that the signaled schedule was correlated with overall reductions in responding and quicker reductions relative to the schedule with no signal. The clinical significance of the finding will be discussed. Interobserver agreement was collected for over 20% of the sessions conducted and averaged above 90% for all measures.
68. Assessing the Convergent Validity of the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF) and Analog Functional Analyses with an Outpatient Population
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
RUTH M. DEBAR (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Theodosia R. Paclawskyj (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: In order to assess the maintaining variables of aberrant behaviors, clinicians may use indirect methods, descriptive assessments or analog functional analyses. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the convergent validity of the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF), a functional assessment checklist for individuals with aberrant behaviors and developmental disabilities. The QABF can assess the functions of problem behaviors across the following variables: attention, presentation of demands, access to tangibles, automatically reinforcement, and physical illness or discomfort. Fifty QABFs from 28 participants were examined. Participants ranged in age from 2-26, had sought assessment and treatment of problematic behaviors from an outpatient clinic, and had functional analyses that yielded a single maintaining function of their problematic behavior. The results indicate a range of agreement of 32-50% between the QABF and the analog functional analyses. It was found that there was greater agreement with target behaviors that were found to have a positive social function (e.g., attention or tangible function). Results are discussed in terms of validity concerns as well as clinical utility.
69. An Analysis of the Interaction of Preference and Texture on Food Refusals In a Young Girl
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
DANIELLE N. DOLEZAL (University of Iowa), David P. Wacker (University of Iowa), Linda J. Cooper-Brown (University of Iowa)
Abstract: Previous research has suggested that antecedent manipulations of either preference or texture may be effective for decreasing food refusal behaviors. Typically, research has shown an analysis of one of these variables in isolation. In the current investigation, we conducted an analysis of the interaction of preference and texture on the food refusal behaviors of a young girl. The participant was a two-year old girl diagnosed with Williams Syndrome, feeding difficulties, and lack of normal physiologic growth. An oral-motor evaluation suggested that soft, fork-mashed table foods were appropriate for target bites. She accepted two preferred foods (e.g., Cheddar Poppies and Cheddar Cheese) that varied in texture. Therefore, we examined the interaction of preferred versus nonpreferred flavors (i.e.,cheddar) across textures (puree and soft table foods) on her food refusal behavior. The child demonstrated decreases in food refusal behaviors with textured bite offers that consisted of a preferred flavor and increased food refusal behaviors with nonpreferred textured bites. We observed no difference across nonpreferred or preferred puree foods. Advantages of evaluating the interaction of different antecedent variables on food refusal behaviors are discussed.



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