Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


31st Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2005

Event Details

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Poster Session #340
#340 International Poster Session - CSE
Monday, May 30, 2005
12:00 PM–1:30 PM
Southwest Exhibit Hall (Lower Level)
47. Evaluation of Family Perception of Turkish Children's Pictures Who Live in Germany and Participated in the Joining (Integration) and Normal Instruction
Area: CSE; Domain: Theory
S. SUNAY YILDIRIM-DOGRU (Selcuk University), Cengiz Celik (Selcuk University), Suleyman Dogru (Ministry of National Education)
Abstract: In this study, it was aimed evaluation of family perception of Turkish children’s pictures who live in Germany and who benefit from care of joining (integration) and normal instruction. 371 children participated to the study as 220 girls and 151 boys with 6-12 ages. 101 of these children still continue the joining instruction. In the study, a 10 minutes pre-conversion was realised to evaluate family perception of children. The children were asked to draw a family picture.In the end of the study, girls were found more successful than boys, when the difference was looked at between drawing picture and perceiving family and also it was observed that the children who continued normal instruction were more willing and more successful than the children who continued joining instruction.
48. Diagnosis and Interventions of Educational and Social Problems Presented in a Marginal Mexican Community
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
MARCO WILFREDO SALAS-MARTINEZ (University of Veracruz, Mexico), Esperanza Ferrant-Jimenez (University of Veracruz, Mexico), Ana Estela Kay Cacho (University of Veracruz, Mexico), Dinorah Leon Cordoba (University of Veracruz, Mexico), Pilar Gonzalez Flores (University of Veracruz, Mexico), Laura Oliva Zarate (University of Veracruz, Mexico), Andree Fleming-Holland (University of Veracruz, Mexico), Jose Luis Colorado Hernandez (University of Veracruz, Mexico)
Abstract: The objective of the present study was to do a series of diagnostic evaluations and interventions in the marginal community of “Colonia revolucion” of Xalapa, Veracruz, México. Once the principal problems had been identified a group of psychologists and researches of the Universitiy of Veracruz and the State Department of Education and Culture implemented the following programs: The identifying and treating of school children with attention deficit hyperactivity through the participation and training of the (children), parents, and teachers; training adolescents in self prevention against risk factors (in substance abuse); identifying and treating kindergarden children with behaviour problems; treating asmatic children to prevent them not attending classes or quitting school; and the prevention of environmental deterioration using an educational program given to middle school students. Results obtained from each of these investigations are presented.
49. Chewing Gum: A Hard Behavior to Swallow
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
RAYMOND O. SACCHI (Washington State University), Ryan Sain (Washington State University), Thomas A. Brigham (Washington State University), Sean Greene (Washington State University)
Abstract: Improper disposal of gum in Washington State University’s Student Recreation Center costs the university $4,500 annually in maintenance worker wages and removal chemicals. A baseline of gum usage was obtained through trained observers who recorded the number of students using the facility and the number chewing gum. A baseline measure of number of pieces of gum removed and time spent removing the gum from the floors, equipment, and pool filters was obtained through charts distributed to the maintenance staff. Increased gum activity occurred on Mondays and Saturdays, and the intervention will be run on those days. A 3.5’ x 2’ receptacle with a sign reminding students to dispose of gum and telling them the cost of improper disposal in terms of equipment that could have been purchased will be placed in front to the turnstiles entering the center. After implementation of the intervention, observations of number of gum chewers, pieces of gum removed, and time spent removing gum will be obtained to determine if the intervention was effective in reducing gum usage and improper disposal. An additional series of interventions are planned if necessary.
50. Increasing Condom Use in College Students: A Modification to the Psychology 106 Program
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
RYAN SAIN (Washington State University), Raymond O. Sacchi (Washington State University), Julie Carrier (Washington State University), Thomas A. Brigham (Washington State University)
Abstract: Sexually transmitted diseases continue to be a major problem in the United States. The CDC estimates that more than 830,000 people were infected with Chlamydia in 2002 alone. Research has shown that condoms are one of the most effective methods for preventing the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. However, research has shown that condoms are still rarely used, especially among the highest risk populations. This study explores the effectiveness of a 16 week peer instructed sexual decision making skills course compared to a control group. Additionally, the current study explored the effectiveness of an additional intervention imbedded in the same course. Results of the study indicate that the additional intervention did little increase the effectiveness of the 16-week intervention. Further results indicate that the 16-week intervention was successful as a whole at decreasing unsafe sex acts when compared to a control group.
51. Teach the Drivers Well: Using Positively Reinforcing Signs to Impact Motorists’ Behavioral Safety
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
THOMAS G. SZABO (Imagine! Colorado)
Abstract: Empirical studies investigating the impact of positive reinforcement versus aversive control on behavioral safety have been conducted over the last half-century. An exciting avenue of current research interest is the use of signs to generate safe practices. Coercive signs that warn of naturally and artificially derived consequences for unsafe behaviors abound throughout modern culture, whereas fewer signs offer positive reinforcement for safe behavior. At a cultural level, little is known as to the potential benefits of signs offering positive reinforcement for accepted safe practices. Study 1 examines the role of hand-held signs that provide positive reinforcement for driving within the posted speed limit in a residential neighborhood. Study 2 contrasts the effects of signs offering positive and negative reinforcement on drivers’ speed compliance. Results suggest that speed compliance increased using signs based on positive reinforcement. Follow-up studies are indicated to compare longevity and generalization of speed compliance to both sets of conditions.
52. Programmatic Approach to Source Separation of Household Organic Residuals
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
BENJAMIN VAN HANDEL (Northern Michigan University), Paul Thomas Andronis (Northern Michigan University)
Abstract: Over 200 million tons of garbage is produced annually in the United States. Of this, approximately 45% is recovered in some fashion, i.e. recycling, composting, or waste to energy. The remaining 100 million tons travels to landfills, where it stays to slowly decay. As the remaining capacity at existing sites diminishes, and both the costs of permitting and public outcries against more facilities grow, solutions to the waste problem are being sought elsewhere. Composting has been used for centuries to produce a usable soil amendment from biodegradable discards, but has not become economically feasible on a large scale; much of this can be attributed to the costs of separating waste into organic and inorganic streams. Source separation has been employed, and even subsidized, to shift the burden of separation from processors to generators, but mainly only on the pilot scale. Often, the supposedly separated streams received from participants in these projects still require further sorting. This poster details the developmental stages of a programmed guide targeted at the residential sector designed to educate naïve subjects how to properly separate organics from the waste stream. Data from developmental testing will be provided and discussed
53. Community-Based “Flashing” Applied to Cell Phone and Seat Belt Usage
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
MICHAEL C. CLAYTON (Jacksonville State University), Jeremy M. Hof (Jacksonville State University)
Abstract: Automobile crashes are the leading cause of death for those aged 5 to 34, with 45,000 (123/day) Americans killed each year. Seat belt usage and refraining from using the cell phone while driving would significantly decrease fatalities. An active prompting procedure was utilized to increase seat belt usage and decrease cell phone use among drivers exiting a university parking lot. A reversal design was used to evaluate the presentation of two signs: “Please Buckle Up, I Care” and “Please Hang Up, I Care”. The proportion of drivers complying with the seat belt prompt was high and in line with previous research. The proportion of drivers that hung up their cell phones in response to the prompt was about equal to that of the seat belt prompt. The use of a cell phone while driving increases the accident rate by 400%, and leads to 2600 fatalities each year. A procedure that reduces cell phone usage among automobile drivers is a significant contribution to the behavioral safety literature.
54. Decreasing Public Smoking Among Youth
Area: CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
LEONARD A. JASON (DePaul University), Steven Pokomy (DePaul University), Paul Turner (DePaul University), Margaret Freeland (DePaul University), Sarah Corbin (DePaul University), Mark Driscoll (DePaul University)
Abstract: This brief poster reports the results of two observational studies examining the impact of fines for youth tobacco possession on public smoking among youth. Preliminary findings are presented that suggest that when police issued warnings and tickets to reduce underage youth possession of tobacco, in both towns the number of youth smoking in public declined. The study focused on an important health behavior; application of a potentially powerful, community-wide intervention; the use of two distinct communities; and unobtrusive assessment of adult and youth smoking rates.
55. Generational Trend of Several Psychological Issues in Adolescents of Mexico
Area: CSE; Domain: Service Delivery
NORMA COFFIN (National Autonomous University of Mexico), Arturo Silva Rodríguez (National Autonomous University of Mexico)
Abstract: Generational Trend of Several Psychological Issues in Adolescents of MexicoNATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MEXICOCoffin, NormaSilva, ArturoIndustrialized countries have developed statistics in Economy for many years. Efforts have taken place in order to standardize economic measures, such as unemployment data. However, very small attention has been focused in terms of temporal trend on social and psychological issues. Therefore, the potential of these studies becomes a research methodology that rarely has been exploded by the Mexican Behavioral scientists. In contrast, broad ranges of social and economic changes have emerged. Hence, this methodology let us realize and observe toward psychological disorders in our adolescents are being directed through time. Our major goal should be to improve the efficiency and efficacy of the prevention programs in Welfare and Health areas. Time- trends studies allow us to identify the non-studied and non-answered topics, which are immersed in every problematic area, pointing out what must be changed to help and prevent common disorders during Adolescence. The present study has collected in 4 different generations (over 3000 participants), of adolescent students (Secondary level), in different cities of Mexico for the last 14 years. The psychological issues were: Study Habits, Phobias, Depression, Drug Abuse, Aggression, Family Conflicts, Anxiety, Sexual Information & Assertive Skills. The results clearly show significant differences among generations. Thus, while Study Habits and Phobias remain stable in time, trends of other areas show significant differences: some of them worsened, like Sexual Information and Drug Abuse (no matter how many resources and efforts have been improved in the last years, in order to prevent disorders). Results show the importance of analyzing, existing or new data, through this Methodology.
56. "Pick of the Litter:" Quantifying an Environmentally Harmful Behavior
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
PHILIP K. LEHMAN (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University), Ian J. Ehrhart (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University), Angela Krom Fournier (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University), Takashi Hirota (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University)
Abstract: In order to define the nature and extent of littering behavior on the New River in Southwest Virginia, we conducted a content analysis of the litter from a .5-mile section of shoreline that is heavily used for recreation. Twenty volunteers spent two hours collecting the litter. The litter was then transported to a location where it was sorted into 10 categories, and placed in a life-size bar graph with 3-foot wide bars. This was done to measure the total surface area of shoreline covered by each category of trash, and gain a quantitative measure of its negative visual impact. In descending order, the totals for the ten categories were: 1) alcoholic beverage containers and packaging: 183 sq. ft., 2) non-alcoholic beverage containers and packaging: 96 sq. ft., 3) miscellaneous metal: 81 sq. ft., 4) food-related items: 81 sq. ft., 5) miscellaneous containers: 78 sq. ft., 6) clothing: 60 sq. ft., 7) automotive-related items: 54 sq. ft., 8) camping and sporting goods: 39 sq. ft., 9) general miscellaneous: 32 sq. ft., 10) miscellaneous paper and reading materials: 10 sq. ft. Implications of the findings will be discussed, along with potential interventions to reduce future litter.
57. Encouraging Dog Waste Disposal through Public Posting and Waste Disposal Sites
Area: CSE; Domain: Applied Research
WILLIAM J. WARZAK (University of Nebraska Medical Center), Jeff May (Westside Schools), Brad Dufrene (Mississippi State University)
Abstract: Dog waste in communities is host to a number of health hazards to humans including infections, parasites, and diseases. Excessive dog waste may also be aesthetically displeasing for a community. Behavioral strategies including prompting (i.e., signs), modeling (i.e., demonstration of bag usage for dog droppings), decreasing response effort, (i.e., providing bags and waste receptacles) and reward (i.e., financial remuneration) have all been used to increase pro-social community behaviors (Jason, Zolik, & Matese, 1979). The present study used a small n design to demonstrate the effectiveness of a local community effort, an Eagle Scout community service project, to reduce dog waste in an urban community park. An A-B-C (baseline – signage – receptacles) design (with follow-up) was used to assess the effectiveness of placing dog waste receptacles in an urban community park popular for walking dogs. Baseline date indicated that approximately 30% of dog walkers picked up after their dogs prior to intervention. Post-signage approximately 40% of dog walkers picked up after their dogs. The introduction of receptacles (and bags) increased the rate of pick-up to approximately 66%. At one month follow-up dog waste pick-up persisted at approximately 60%. The data suggest that providing signage, bags, and receptacles reduces the amount of dog waste in an urban community park popular for walking dogs.



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