Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


31st Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2005

Event Details

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Poster Session #187
#187 Poster Session – DDA
Sunday, May 29, 2005
12:00 PM–1:30 PM
Southwest Exhibit Hall (Lower Level)
74. Behavioral Problems and Self-Concept in Siblings of Children with Developmental Disabilities
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
HYUN-MI MUN (Daegu University, South Korea), Sang Bok Lee (Daegu University, South Korea), Jujin Oh (Daegu University, South Korea), Hyo Jung Jun (Daegu University, South Korea), Min A. Park (Daegu University, South Korea), Min Kyu Son (Daegu University, South Korea)
Abstract: The present study investigated the psychological adjustment of siblings of children with developmental disabilities in comparison with siblings of normally developing children in the domain of behavioral problems and self-concept. Fourty siblings of children with developmental disabilities and fourty siblings of typically developing children participated in the study. The results showed that siblings of children with developmental disabilities displayed higher rate of behavioral problems than siblings of the typically developing children. In self-concept, siblings of children with developmental disabilities showed higher scores in their negative self-concept compared to the control group.
75. Analysis of Functional Communication Training Across Treatment Type and Behavioral Function
Area: DDA; Domain: Basic Research
JOHN F. LEE (University of Iowa), Jay W. Harding (University of Iowa), David P. Wacker (University of Iowa), Wendy K. Berg (University of Iowa)
Abstract: We evaluated outcomes across two functional communication training (FCT) conditions: FCT and FCT with a choice component (FCT + Choice). We also evaluated the effects of the FCT conditions across positive and negative reinforcement functions. Participants were 16 children (average age 4 years) with developmental disabilities who displayed destructive behavior (e.g., aggression, self-injury). All assessment and treatment procedures were conducted in the children’s homes with parents serving as therapists. All procedures were videotaped for data collection and analysis. Interobserver agreement was assessed across 30% of sessions and averaged 97%. All children received both FCT and FCT + Choice conditions within a reversal design. 8 children received positive reinforcement programs and 8 children received negative reinforcement programs based on functional analysis outcomes. Results showed (a) that, overall, treatment was effective in reducing destructive behavior across children, (b) there was little difference in the reduction of destructive behavior between FCT and FCT + Choice, (c) that reductions in destructive behavior were similar across positive and negative reinforcement functions, and (d) that treatment outcomes were generally similar across both treatment type and behavioral function.
76. An Analysis of Interspersed Requests During Functional Communication Training
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
LISA C. WINBORN-KEMMERER (Portland State University), David P. Wacker (University of Iowa), Jay W. Harding (University of Iowa), Wendy K. Berg (University of Iowa), John F. Lee (University of Iowa), Muska Ibrahimovic (University of Iowa)
Abstract: An Analysis of Interspersed RequestsDuring Functional Communication TrainingLISA WINBORN-KEMMERER, David P. Wacker, Jay W. Harding, Wendy K. Berg, John F. Lee and Muska IbrahimovicWe evaluated the effects of interspersed requests within a functional communication training (FCT) program on the problem behavior of a 3-year-old boy with developmental delays. Assessment and treatment procedures were conducted in the child’s home with the mother serving as therapist. Treatment data were evaluated within a reversal (ABCBC) design. Inter-rater agreement was assessed across 30% of all sessions and averaged 97%. Functional analysis results showed the highest percentages of problem behavior were observed during the escape condition. During treatment, FCT was implemented across two conditions to reduce problem behavior maintained by negative reinforcement. During the first FCT condition, Carl was required to complete one task request (pick up 1 block) and then mand to earn a 1-min break. This was repeated until he completed 3 task requests. During the second FCT condition, Carl was required to complete all 3 task requests (pick up 3 blocks) before manding for a break. Treatment results indicated lower percentages of problem behavior when Carl was required to complete all 3 task requests before manding for a break then when task requests were interspersed throughout the session.
77. Using Video Prompting to Teach Daily Living Skills
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CHATURI EDRISINHA (University of Texas, Austin), Jeffrey S. Sigafoos (St. Cloud State University), Mark O'Reilly (St. Cloud State University), Helen Cannella (St. Cloud State University)
Abstract: We evaluated the use of a video prompting procedure for teaching three adults with developmental disabilities to make popcorn using a microwave oven. Training, using a 10-step task analysis, was conducted in the kitchen of the participant’s vocational training program. During baseline, participants were instructed to make popcorn, but were given no further instructions or prompts. Video prompting, which consisted of first watching a video clip of each step being performed and then giving participants the opportunity to imitate, was introduced in a multiple-probe across subjects design. Following acquisition, video prompting was removed. Maintenance in the absence of video prompting was assessed at 2, 6, and 10 weeks. Two of the three participants acquired the task when video prompting was introduced and maintained the skill after video prompting was withdrawn. We conclude that video prompting may be an effective instructional strategy for teaching daily living skills to adults with developmental disabilities.
78. The Effects of a Toilet Training Program in a School and Home Setting with Children Diagnosed with Developmental Disabilities
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
ELIZABETH A. HILL (Bancroft NeuroHealth), Melissa Torpey (Bancroft NeuroHealth), Philip N. Hineline (Temple University), Sage Schmidt (Camden City School District), Wanda Brooks (Camden City School District), Kima McGee (Camden City School District), Kristin DiNovi (Bancroft NeuroHealth), Megann Czekalski (Bancroft NeuroHealth)
Abstract: The effectiveness of a toilet training program used to decreased incontinence was examined in a school and home setting. Three children diagnosed with a developmental disability participated in the study. The study examined the effects of a combination of features identified in previous toilet training studies: a DRO (Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior), DRA (Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior), Auditory Stimulus (Wet-Stop Alarm), and Correction Procedure were used in reducing incontinence and increasing appropriate voids. The second phase of the study was to consist of staggering treatment into each subject’s home. However, once treatment was implemented and successful in the school setting, rates of toileting successes increased in the second setting during the baseline condition, thus thwarting an across-settings feature of the multiple-baseline design. Results indicated an average of 73.4% reduction in incontinence in the school setting, and an average of 76.4% reduction in the home setting for the participants. In addition, the agreement coefficients across subjects were 100% during both baseline and treatment conditions in the school setting.
79. The Use of Prompt Fading in Vocational Training of a 15-Year-Old Girl with Autism
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
JESSICA SURETTE (Melmark New England), Lisa Dunn (Melmark New England), Michael Mims (Melmark New England)
Abstract: Researchers in this case study assessed the effectiveness of using a sequence board to train a 15 year-old girl with autism on how to complete a vocational task. The student presented with a dependence on prompting from staff to complete the sequence. Through successive trials using the sequence board, the researchers were able to fade verbal prompting and use gestural cues alone to the sequence board to have the student complete the task. The data--displayed graphically--shows that number of prompting decreased, and percent accuracy at completing the task increased with the introduction of the sequence board.
80. Behavioral Interventions to Reduce the Rumination of Persons with Development Disabilities
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
DAVID MCADAM (University of Rochester), Lynn Cole (University of Rochester)
Abstract: Rumination is one of the most commonly occurring eating disorders in persons with mental retardation. This behavior consists of the regurgitation of food with the person either rechewing or reswallowing their vomitus. Chronic rumination has been associated with a variety of medical problems including aspiration pneumonia, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, esphagitis, malnutrition, dental problems such as tooth decay, and weight loss. In severe cases, ruminative vomiting can be life-threatening. Therefore, researchers have examined the efficacy of a variety of behavioral interventions to reduce the rumination of persons with developmental disabilities. The purpose of this poster is to review the behavioral intervention packages (e.g., time-out, overcorrection) that have been used to reduce the rumination of persons with developmental disabilities. Data will be presented on the number of studies that conducted a functional analysis or assessment, trends in the use of punishment-based interventions across time, and the number of studies in which programming for generalization was conducted. Additionally, the published literature will be examined to determine whether or not confident conclusions can be reached about the operant variables (e.g., social attention, automatic reinforcement) typically maintaining the rumination of persons with developmental disabilities. Recommendations for future research and best clinical practice also will be provided.
81. The Confounding Effect of Stimulus Size on a Duration-Based Measure of Preference
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
VANESSA RODRIGUEZ-CATTER (The Ohio State University), James A. Mulick (The Ohio State University), Eric Butter (Children's Research Institute, Columbus, OH)
Abstract: Differences in duration-based measures may not reflect differential preference across stimuli and may be an artifact of stimulus properties (e.g., size). A duration-based preference assessment was conducted with an individual with mental retardation. The results of the assessment yielded a preference hierarchy with duration of item interaction ranging from 13.37% to 71.6% and throwing responses per minute ranging from 3.82 to 8.73. A subsequent assessment was conducted using an ABCBC design. During baseline, the top-ranked item (large item) and the second-to-last ranked item (small item) from the preference assessment were freely available. In phase B, attempts to throw the large item were blocked. Small-item throwing was not blocked. These contingencies were reversed in phase C. Data revealed that throwing and approach responding during baseline was comparable across items with differences in duration of contact, only. During B and C, approach responding decreased substantially for the blocked item. Approach responding and duration of contact increased for the non-blocked item well above baseline levels only for the small item. These data suggest that throwing was the preferred activity for this individual. Differences in duration of stimulus contact were related to differences in stimulus size and not a measure of stimulus preference.
82. Genneralization of Social Skills Training for an adolescent with Cornelia de Lange Syndrome
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MEGHAN MOORE (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Melanie DuBard (Kennedy Krieger Institute), Louis P. Hagopian (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: Many children with developmental disabilities display deficits in their ability to relate or interact with others socially. When these areas are identified, children are referred for social skills training which typically occurs in a group format through a school program or other agency. Although social skills training is an accepted treatment, there is little data to suggest the skills are generalized outside the training situation. This is in part due to the difficulty associated with taking data in more naturalistic settings and with the potential idiosyncratic events that occur in these settings such as less control over external variables. Julie was referred to an inpatient unit for the treatment of aggression and property destruction. She also presented with severe social skills deficits. Specific areas identified for treatment were beginning and ending a conversation, playing a game, listening, ignoring distractions, self-control, introducing yourself, and asking for help. Baseline ratings for all skills were in the poor to average range. Following social skills training involving didactic instruction, role-play, and modeling, Julie’s ratings for all skills were in the above average to excellent range. Interobserver agreement data were collected for a minimum of 88.57% of sessions with an average of 72.9% reliability.
83. Competing Items: Functional Reinforcers or Substitutable Reinforcers?
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
TRACI M. BROWN (Kennedy Krieger Institute), David E. Kuhn (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Abstract: Interventions to decrease the frequency of aberrant behaviors often use competing items as either the primary intervention, or to enhance the effects of other treatment components. Ostensibly, competing items provide some form of stimulation that competes with that associated with the functional reinforcer. Given that competing items are likely highly preferred as well, one question is whether the competing items function as reinforcers for aberrant behavior as well. The current investigation examined this possibility with a 17-year old male, diagnosed with Autistic Disorder and Severe Mental Retardation whose aggressive behavior was maintained by access to preferred toys. Following an FCT plus extinction treatment evaluation targeting aggression, competing items were introduced to help facilitate schedule fading. Prior to and following the schedule fading, analyses were conducted to determine whether the competing items also functioned as reinforcers for aggression. Results of that analysis demonstrated that the participant would not engage in aggression to access the competing items. Furthermore, schedule fading was able to progress to the terminal goal with the availability of the competing items. Two observers collected data for 39% of sessions yielding interobserver agreement coefficients averaging 97%.
84. Globe Dislocation in a Woman with Dementia and Down Syndrome
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
JAMES KUHAGEN (Northern Virginia Training Center), Yan Jin (Northern Virginia Training Center), Theodore A. Hoch (Northern Virginia Training Center)
Abstract: People with Down syndrome are more prone to develop dementia and do so at an earlier age than the general population. Additionally, a high percentage of people with dementia develop co-morbid depression. In this study, we present a B-A-B design to suggest that episodes of globe dislocation in a subject with dementia and Down syndrome were an element in the phenomenology of putative depressed mood secondary to dementia. The subject was a 58 year-old woman with pre-existing inappropriate sensory behaviors maintained by automatic reinforcement. Concurrent with a new diagnosis of dementia, the client evidenced signs of secondary depressive features. Symptoms remitted in response to Sertraline, which was then discontinued. However, depressive symptoms returned and the client dislocated the globe of her right eye. Non-contingent elbow splints were ordered to prevent recurrence. When Sertraline was re-introduced, symptoms again remitted and elbow splints were faded within a two-week period. The client continued to receive Sertraline with no further episodes of globe dislocation, lending support to the hypothesis that this behavior may have been an atypical expression of underlying depressed mood. Possible competing explanations were also discussed.
85. The Effects of Function Based and Tangible Reinforcers on Engagement in Occupational Therapy Activities within a Self-Control Training Paradigm
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
SUSAN A. PARKER-SINGLER (Southern Illinois University), Mark R. Dixon (Southern Illinois University)
Abstract: Refusal to participate in needed rehabilitation activities might be conceptualized as impulsive choice making. Here, an individual with acquired brain injury may be more likely to choose an immediate but smaller reinforcer of escape from a demanding occupational therapy exercise compared to a delayed larger reinforcer of greater independence and increased quality of life (e.g. ability to walk, work, live at home, etc). This study assessed the effects of function based and tangible reinforcers within a self-control training procedure utilizing an alternating treatment design. Participants initially demonstrated impulsive behavior, by choosing the small immediate reinforcer, however, during self-control training this preference shifted to the progressively delayed reinforcer, thus demonstrating self-control.
86. Use of Positive Reinforcment to Increase Appropriate Social Interactions of a 15-Year-Old with PDD Primary Area (Required)
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
TIFFANEY ESPOSITO (Melmark New England)
Abstract: Abstract: A descriptive analysis was conducted to identify relative preference of social interactions of a 15-year old girl diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder, living in a private residential program. The descriptive analysis suggested that social interactions were un-preferred relative to independent activities. A functional analysis was then conducted, consisting of 5 conditions (a) natural positive interaction (b) verbal praise (c) ignore/brief answer (d) verbal and tangible reinforcement, and (e) required. The target behavior was spontaneous staff interaction. The participant exhibited high rates of the target behavior in the verbal and tangible condition and low rates in the ignore/brief answer condition. An intervention was implemented using a reversal design, which indicated that with high rates of positive reinforcement and access to tangibles, the frequency of spontaneous staff interaction increased. These results confirmed the hypothesis that by manipulating the consequences of verbal interactions through the use of positive reinforcement in a structured environment will result in an increase in the behavior.
87. The Effects of Positive Reinforcement as a Treatment for Food Selectivity in an Adolescent Boy with Autism
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
MARGARET ARMSTRONG (Gonzaga University), Anjali Barretto (Gonzaga University), Nicole E. Newman (Gonzaga University), Constance Lehan (Gonzaga University)
Abstract: In this study we examined the effects of positive reinforcement to increase acceptance of non-preferred food items with a 12 year old autistic boy. The study was conducted in the participant’s classroom and all data were recorded and scored by his classroom teacher. Two meals were evaluated daily at school across two contexts. Treatment was evaluated via a multiple baseline design with built in reversals across both contexts. The follow-up procedure and parent training sessions were conducted in his home during a scheduled meal times. Data were collected using an event recording system and an independent observer achieved 100% agreement on over 33% of all sessions across all phases. Results showed an increase in acceptance of non-preferred food items from near zero levels to 100% acceptance across all settings. Outcomes will be discussed in terms of application of treatment of food selectivity in classroom settings.
88. Special Education and Multidisciplinary Work in Institutional Settings
Area: DDA; Domain: Service Delivery
PATRICIA PLANCARTE (FES Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Patricia Ortega (FES Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Hugo Romano (FES Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México)
Abstract: The handicaps in the special education domain obey to different causes related to dynamic and complex interactions. The analysis of these interactions require to converge in many fields of knowledge and methodologies for the professional applied work. In this context, It is necessary to carry out efforts for many professionals whose actions have to be demarcated according with the definition of multidisciplinary team. It is with this purpose that all professional participants are trying to influence the individual problem solution as a whole. This means that all professional actions should be leaded toward the specific subject characteristics in accordance with the professional field and its own disciplinary object. The main objective of this study is to explain the psychology professional work in the special education field and the multidisciplinary actions carried out in the National University of México. The participants were fifteen retarded children between the ages of two and eight. The kids were assisted by the Psychology, Medicine and Optometry Services, passing trough three stages: initial assessment, treatment and follow-up sessions. The results, described for each professional intervention, make evident the importance of the multidisciplinary work in special education, and how these actions positively affect the retarded children integral interventions.
89. Increasing Tolerance for Wearing Socks and Underwear
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
SEAN P. MURPHY (Bancroft NeuroHealth), Frances A. Perrin (Bancroft NeuroHealth)
Abstract: Dixon, Rehfeldt, and Randich (2003) discussed procedures for increasing self-control by gradually increasing the length of delay-to-reinforcement interval preceding a highly preferred reinforcer. In the current study, the tolerance or self-control for wearing socks and underwear was increased and problem behavior while wearing socks and underwear decreased. The participant was a 14-year-old boy diagnosed with autism and impulse control disorder. The participant wore socks and underwear for zero seconds and engaged in high rates of ripping and disrobing socks and underwear throughout all baseline sessions. When all attempts to rip or disrobe were blocked and a discriminative stimulus was provided immediately, the participant appropriately requested to remove socks and underwear and the rates of ripping and disrobing decreased. The length of delay prior to the presentation of the discriminative stimulus was systematically increased resulting in the length of time the participant wore socks and underwear without engaging in ripping or disrobing to increase. Interobserver agreement data were collected during 33% of sessions. The mean agreement for all measures was 100%.
90. The Effects of 30-Minute Sessions in Determining the Function of Problem Behavior
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CAMILLE DANIELS (Caldwell College), Frances A. Perrin (Caldwell College), Patrick R. Progar (Caldwell College)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of extending session time to 30 minutes from 10 due to inconclusive findings in the functional analysis. The participant was a 14-year-old girl, diagnosed with autism and impulse control disorder residing at a neurobehavioral stabilization unit for the assessment and treatment of aggression, self-injury and disruption. A demand assessment consisting of 30-minute sessions with academic and vocational demands were conducted and compared with a control condition. Inter-observer agreement data were collected for 31.25% of sessions with mean reliability 97.8%. The results of the assessment suggested that escape from task serves as a reinforcer for problem behavior. These findings suggest that longer exposure to the contingencies may result in a clearer function of problem behavior when standard functional analyses are inconclusive.
91. Use of a Differential Reinforcement Procedure in the Treatment of Food Selectivity
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
JAYME MEWS (University of Iowa), Joel Eric Ringdahl (University of Iowa), Tory J. Christensen (University of Iowa), Eric Boelter (Kennedy Krieger Institute)
Abstract: A ten-year-old male diagnosed with autism was evaluated for food selectivity during a series of consecutive outpatient visits over the course of 10 days. A paired choice assessment was conducted to identify positive reinforcers. In addition, a series of baseline conditions were conducted to identify preferred and non-preferred foods. A treatment analysis was conducted using Differential Reinforcement of Appropriate Behavior (DRA) to increase compliance with mealtime requests (i.e., increase the variety of foods consumed) and decrease food selectivity. Further, a fading technique was incorporated into this treatment. The fading technique consisted of five steps: holding a fork with a non-preferred food, non-preferred food to lips, non-preferred food to tongue, non-preferred food in mouth, and a non-preferred bite. Interobserver agreement was collected for at least 20 percent of the participant's sessions; the mean agreement was not less than 80 percent across sessions.
92. Analyzing Separate and Interrelated Functions for Stereotypic and Destructive Behavior Displayed by Individuals with Autism
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
AMANDA ZANGRILLO (Marcus Autism Center), Michael J. Schafer (Marcus Autism Center), Michael Kelley (Marcus Autism Center), Wayne W. Fisher (Marcus Autism Center), Amber Jones (Marcus Autism Center)
Abstract: Individuals diagnosed with autism may engage in both “essential” behaviors (e.g., stereotypy and other repetitive behaviors) and “associated” problem behavior (e.g., aggression and self-injurious behavior [SIB]). Results of previous research suggest that characteristic behaviors of autism and other destructive behaviors may be maintained by the same function, different functions, or interrelated reinforcement contingencies. In the current study, we first conducted two separate functional analyses. The first analysis targeted behaviors that are characteristic of autism. The second analysis targeted other destructive behaviors. Results suggested that the behaviors were maintained by automatic reinforcement and positive reinforcement in the form of access to tangibles, respectively. Next, we conducted function-based treatment analyses for each function. Results suggest that individuals with autism may develop behaviors with multiple functions and that separate treatments may be necessary for maximal reduction of problem behavior.
93. Using Music to Reduce Hand Mouthing in a Child with Retts Disorder
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
HAKAM M. KAIR (Shafallah Center for Children with Special Needs), Kerry Sabin (Shafallah Center for Children with Special Needs)
Abstract: We used music in a music therapy sessions to reinforce appropriate hand engagement in a child with retts disorder who engaged in severe hand mouthing behavior. The thrapist co-played music with the child while she was using her hand appropriatly and withheld participation in playing music if the child hand mouths. Baseline data for hand mouthing was collected and. Procedures were developed and applied and intervention data will show grat reduction in hand mouthing behavior.
94. Training Parents to Treat Noncompliance in Children with Developmental Disabilities Using Guided Compliance
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTINE M. BENNETT (Western Michigan University), Linda A. LeBlanc (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: This study evaluates the effectiveness of guided compliance when implemented by parents of children with developmental disabilities. The guided compliance procedure used in this study is comprised of three steps: a command, a gestural prompt (restating the command while pointing or motioning towards the desired response), and a physical prompt (restating the command while physically guiding the child through the task). A non-concurrent multiple baseline design across participants is being used to evaluate the effectiveness of the procedure on child compliance. Participants include three children (ages 2-9) and one primary caregiver per child. A clearly-delineated Behavioral Skills Training (BST) model is used to train parents individually. Instructions and modeling are in the form of a Microsoft PowerPoint® presentation with embedded video vignettes that show each parent the procedure. The parent then participates in live rehearsal with a confederate while the primary investigator provides immediate feedback on performance. Following the parent training phase, each parent implements the procedure with her child in treatment, generalization, and follow-up phases. In addition to data on child compliance, procedural integrity data is being collected to provide detailed information regarding parent implementation of the procedure.
95. Combining Video Modeling with Least-to-Most Prompting in Teaching Daily Living Skills
Area: DDA; Domain: Applied Research
NATALIE MURZYNSKI (New England Center for Children), Jason C. Bourret (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Two characteristics of autism are limited attention span to environmental stimuli and a tendency to attend to stimuli that are irrelevant to the task. These hindrances make it difficult to acquire lengthy response chains. In the present study, video modeling as a supplement to least to most prompting was compared to least to most alone in teaching daily living skill. A nine-year-old boy with the diagnosis of autism participated in the present study. An alternating treatment design with replication was used to compare video modeling and least to most prompting. The results of the present study show that, in both sets of tasks, the participant acquired the task taught with video modeling method in fewer trials than with the least to most prompting method. From these results, it can be concluded that video modeling paired with least-to-most prompting is more effective in teaching daily living skills than least to most prompting alone.



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