Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


31st Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2005

Event Details

Previous Page


Poster Session #343
#343 Poster Session - EDC
Monday, May 30, 2005
12:00 PM–1:30 PM
Southwest Exhibit Hall (Lower Level)
107. The Effects of Using Teacher Scripts on the Efficiency of Delivering Instruction to Students at Risk for Reading Failure
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
SHAWNNA S. HELF (University of North Carolina, Charlotte), Monica C. Campbell (University of North Carolina, Wilmington), Nancy L. Cooke (University of North Carolina, Charlotte)
Abstract: Direct Instruction reading programs embrace explicit, systematic instruction and provide the critical components of instruction for students who are at-risk. Direct Instruction programs are constructed through a rigorous analysis of both the instructional design of curricula and exactly how the materials should be presented. Over 25 years of research support their various programs, components of these programs, and their presentation strategies, across students of various ages and abilities. Proponents of Direct Instruction believe that instruction should be so structured and clear that misinterpretation is impossible. To ensure tight control over the presentation, these programs provide detailed scripts for teachers to use. It is this component, the use of scripted text, that causes the most controversy and draws the most criticism. Although the scripts used in Direct Instruction programs are rigorously tested in combination with other design features, there have been no studies that specifically examine the impact of teacher scripts on the efficiency of delivering instruction using Direct Instruction programs. This presentation will report the findings of a single-subject study (i.e., multiple baseline across participants) that examined two methods of teacher presentation support (i.e., scripted vs. non-scripted) to determine which allowed students to more quickly reach mastery of reading skills.
108. Effects of Teaching Your Child to Read in 100 Easy Lessons on a Preschooler's Reading
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
KARI GEESMAN (Gonzaga University), Colleen E. Kormann (Gonzaga University), Leiza Mandi (Gonzaga University), Randy Lee Williams (Gonzaga University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Teach Your Child to Read in 100 Easy Lessons on the beginning reading skills of a four-year-old preschool boy. This program is phonetically-based, scripted, highly sequenced, fast paced, and included systematic review and practice. A multiple baseline design across three sets of sounds and words was used to evaluate the reading program. With the implementation of the intervention, Teach Your Child to Read in 100 Easy Lessons, the child increased his accuracy of letter sounds and words read. The procedure was practical in terms of time, money, and effort.
109. The Effects of Direct Instruction on Beginning Reading Skills of a Kindergartner
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
RANDY LEE WILLIAMS (Gonzaga University), Tiffany Florez (Gonzaga University), Janelle Babinski (Gonzaga University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study to evaluate the effects of Direct Instruction program, Teach Your Child to Read in 100 Easy Lessons, on the beginning reading skills of a five-year-old kindergarten boy. This program is phonetically-based, scripted, highly sequenced, fast paced, and included systematic review and practice. A multiple baseline design across three sets of sounds and words was used to evaluate the reading program. With the implementation of the intervention, Teach Your Child to Read in 100 Easy Lessons, the child increased his accuracy of letter sounds and words read. The procedure was practical in terms of time, money, and effort.
110. The Effect of Negative Reinforcement on a Student's Decoding Accuracy
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
CHANG-NAM LEE (Whitworth College)
Abstract: This poster session will present a data-based study with an A-B-A-B design that investigated the effect of negative reinforcement on a student’s decoding accuracy. Prior to the study, the student had shown performance deficits due to “attention” problems when he did not show any evidence of skill deficits. His frequent errors negatively influenced his comprehension of the text. During the baseline and the treatment phases, using a Direct Instruction Corrective Reading program (which include “decodable” texts), the student first learned all the prerequisite skills to decode each text and then read the text. Then the researcher asked comprehension questions. During the negative reinforcement phase, the student was instructed that he would have to reread the text if he made more than a certain number of errors. If he made fewer errors, he did not have to reread it. The measure was “the percent of words read correctly.” The implication of the result will be discussed.
111. Teaching Sight Words to an Adult with Moderate Cognitive Impairments
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
LAURA E. RINDERKNECHT (University of Toledo)
Abstract: The ability to quickly read sight words helps improve a reader’s fluency and ultimately comprehension. The current single-subject research design looks at how an adult with moderate cognitive impairments who was never taught to read increased her sight word vocabulary. This extends the utility of using experimental analysis to determine appropriate instructional components to increase academic learning. In an assessment phase, a short assessment was conducted through experimental analysis of three sight word teaching methods. The best treatment was determined based on the level and trend of the data of the three test conditions. During an instructional phase, the best treatment was implemented across individual sets of words through a multiple baseline design. After mastery, data was collected on maintenance to examine word retention. Results add to the existing literature on how assessment of possible teaching strategies can aid in treatment selection, and in turn, increase performance. In essence, data was used to impact teaching and learning of sight words for an adult with moderate cognitive impairments.
112. The Effects of Peer Tutoring on Sight-Word Acquisition, Maintenance, Reading Fluency and Comprehension for Urban Learners
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
LEFKI KOUREA (The Ohio State University), Gwendolyn Cartledge (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: This study examined the effects of total class peer tutoring on the sight-word acquisition, maintenance, reading fluency and comprehension of six urban African-American students at risk for reading failure. Five of the students were assigned to the second grade and one to third grade. The students tutored their partners on sight words three times per week for 30 minutes each session for 17 to 20 weeks. Initially, only the targeted six students participated in peer tutoring. At the sixteenth week, the whole class participated in peer tutoring. A multiple baseline design across students was used to investigate the effects of the intervention over the four dependent variables. Data analyses showed that all students increased the number of sight words learned over baseline levels. Five of the six target students demonstrated high levels of sight-word retention of more than 89% during bi-weekly assessments. All students increased their reading fluency and comprehension over baseline levels. Greater gains were observed for fluency and comprehension on passages that included the tutoring sight words. More modest gains in comprehension and fluency were found in passages that did not contain words taught in the tutoring sessions.
113. Comparing Three Whole Word Recognition Techniques on Children's Cumulative Word Recognition Learning Rates
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
LINDSAY M. NIST (The Ohio State University), Laurice Joseph (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: The purpose of this poster presentation is to present a systematic replication study of comparing three whole word recognition techniques on the cumulative word recognition learning rates of three fifth grade children. Three fifth grade children were children who were referred by their classroom teacher as needing additional assistance with word recognition skills. Three whole word recognition techniques consisted of a less challenging ratio of interspersed unknown targeted words with known words flash card drill, a more challenging interspersal ratio of known to unknown targeted words flash card drill, and a traditional flash card drill of targeted unknown words. An alternating treatment design was employed to study differential effects of instruction. Dependent measures consisted of cumulative number of words recognized and cumulative learning rates.Results were consistent with previous findings that measured cumulative spelling performance (Cates et al., 2002). Specifically, results of the current study revealed that traditional flash card drill of targeted unknown words produced higher cumulative learning rates of words recognized. This finding has implications for making decisions as to which type of whole word technique is most efficient to use if your goal is to help children recognize as many words as possible during a given instructional time period.
114. Considering Comprehension Levels When Conducting an Experimental Analysis of Reading Interventions
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
GARY L. CATES (Illinois State University), Kelly Thomason (Valley View School District 365U)
Abstract: Brief experimental analyses (BEA) were conducted using two different dependent variables to evaluate the effectiveness of reading interventions. Specifically reading rate (words read correctly per minute) and mean reading comprehension levels for six students with reading difficulties were obtained using six different reading intervention/intervention combinations. These interventions included contingent reinforcement, listening passage preview, repeated reading, listening passage preview with contingent reinforcement, repeated reading with contingent reinforcement, and repeated reading with listening passage preview. Results suggested that no one intervention was best for all students regardless of the dependent variable used to measure effectiveness. In addition, the two dependent variables resulted in the same conclusion for only three of the six students. Discussion focuses on student-treatment interactions, measuring student reading performance, matching treatments to students, and directions for future research.
115. Small Group Reading: Effects on Student Active Engagement, Responding, Progress, and Teacher Praise Rates
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
MARY B. VEERKAMP (University of Kansas, Juniper Gardens Children's Project), Howard P. Wills (University of Kansas, Juniper Gardens Children's Project), Julie Stopulos (University of Kansas, Juniper Gardens Children's Project), Debra M. Kamps (University of Kansas, Juniper Gardens Children's Project), Carmen Arreaga-Mayer (University of Kansas, Juniper Gardens Children's Project), Mary Abbott (University of Kansas, Juniper Gardens Children's Project)
Abstract: This study used the Multiple Option Observation System for Experimental Studies-MOOSES (Tapp, Wehby, & Ellis, 1992) to obtain data for 96 second and third grade students during reading instruction over the course of three school years. One half of the students were enrolled in experimental schools involved in early screening and intervention for students at risk for reading failure, while the other half of the students were enrolled in control schools. Intervention consisted of small group (3-6 students) reading instruction using phonics driven curricula three to five times per week, in addition to core reading instruction. Differential effects favoring the experimental group were noted for frequencies of academic compliance (response opportunities) and teacher praise compared to the control group means. Also noted were differences in the percent of intervals spent actively engaged in reading aloud, with students spending more time actively engaged in reading aloud in experimental schools than comparison schools. Corresponding longitudinal student outcome data will be reported based on assessments using the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills-DIBELS (Good & Kaminski, 1998), a curriculum based measure of fluency. Note: All observers and assessors were trained to 80%+ reliability on a minimum of two occasions.
116. Improving the Literacy Skills of an Eighteen-Year-Old with a Learning Disability
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
KIKO RUSSELL (University of Toledo), Ralph Gardner III (The Ohio State University), Theresa Hessler (The Ohio State University)
Abstract: This is a data-based study involving a 18 year old African American student who reads and writes at an early elementary school level (i.e., 2nd grade). The student was interested in improving his literacy skills so that he could continue to pursue a promising athletic career. The experimenters along with the student developed an intense literacy program focused on reading and later writing skill development. The program included Direct Instruction Corrective Reading program, fluency training, and culturally relevant reading material (high-interest – low level). Journal writing with corrective feedback was also used to improve his writing skills. Data will be presented on the development of reading skill and writing skills. The data shows increased fluency and accuracy. The data also shows significant improvement on standardized tests. The student was able to read his first book and can more easily communicate with peer through email. The academic improvement has increased his ability to be successful in the classroom and allows him to maintain his athletic career ambitions.
117. Examining Approaches To Improve Oral Reading Fluency
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
AMY C. SCARBOROUGH (Georgia State University), Laura D. Fredrick (Georgia State University)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of four skill-based strategies repeated reading (RR), listening passage preview plus RR, echo reading plus RR, and pencil tapping plus RR in combination with two performance-based strategies performance feedback and student graphing on the oral reading fluency of three second grade students. The brief analysis indicated equal effectiveness of all four skill-based strategies for all three students. Being the most parsimonious, RR was further examined by measuring and reporting generalization, the first read of unpracticed passages during the testing phase. The results of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of skill-based strategies in combination with performance-based strategies for increasing oral reading fluency on both practiced and unpracticed passages.
118. A Comparison of Three Group-Based Reading Fluency Interventions
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
JOHN C. BEGENY (Syracuse University), Jennifer M. Silber (Syracuse University)
Abstract: Recent national education statistics reveal that approximately one-third of US students read below the basic level by fourth grade. It has also been noted that typical reading instruction practices neglect reading fluency, which has been highlighted as a critical component in teaching individuals to read. Because of the large number of low-achieving readers in the typical classroom, group-based reading programs are important to consider since they can save teachers time and resources compared to individualized interventions. The primary purpose of this presentation is to report the differential effects of three group-based reading fluency interventions (repeated readings, listening passage preview, and learning difficult words in isolation via board-work practice). Participants included three third-grade children from an urban school in central New York. An alternating treatments design was used to examine the relative effects of the interventions on students’ words read correctly per minute (WCPM). Results suggested that for two of the students, repeated reading was the most beneficial group-based reading intervention, whereas for one student the listening passage preview intervention resulted in the largest WCPM gains. Limitations, implications, and future research questions related to this study will be presented.
119. The Effects of a Group-based Reading Intervention on Students’ Academic Engaged Time
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER M. SILBER (Syracuse University), John C. Begeny (Syracuse University)
Abstract: National education data reveal that approximately one-third of US fourth graders read below the basic level. Further, these data show that reading deficits are particularly prevalent for minority students. One way to address students’ reading problems is to design instructional strategies that allow them to be more actively engaged. Indeed, students’ opportunity to respond and be actively engaged during instruction has been shown to be positively correlated with student achievement. The primary purpose of this presentation is to report the effects of a group-based reading fluency intervention on students’ on-task behavior. In this study, 12 third grade minority students from an urban school in central New York participated in a group-based reading intervention. Students’ active engaged time, passive engaged time, total engaged time, and cumulative duration of active engaged time were measured during typical classroom reading instruction (provided by students’ regular classroom teachers) as well as during the group-based reading intervention (implemented by experimenters). Results indicated that students’ average engaged time on all measures were significantly higher during the group based reading intervention. Students also made academic gains as a result of the group-based intervention. Limitations, implications, and future research questions related to this study will be presented.
120. Generating Reading Interventions Through Experimental Analysis of Academic Skills: Demonstration and Evaluation of Long-Term Outcomes
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
MICHAEL PERSAMPIERI (University of Nebraska-Lincoln), Edward J. Daly III (University of Nebraska-Lincoln), Merilee McCurdy (University of Nebraska-Lincoln), Valerie J. Gortmaker (University of Nebraska-Lincoln)
Abstract: This report demonstrates the application of experimental analysis methods for identifying reading fluency interventions for two elementary school students (4th and 5th grade) referred for reading problems. For each student the experimental analyses examined use of rewards, instruction, and a treatment package containing both reward and instructional components across difficulty levels to determine the condition which led to the most efficient increases in reading fluency for each student. Based on the experimental analyses, individualized reading packages were developed that required a minimum of supervision. These interventions were carried out over time during normal instructional routines and progress monitoring data were gathered to determine the effects of the interventions. Progress monitoring data using generalization reading materials were collected for rewarded and non-rerewarded probe performance to determine trend over time. Results will be discussed in terms of how practitioners can use experimental analyses of academic skills within a broader response-to-intervention framework. Also, recommendations for future research in this area are made.
121. An Examination of Performance Gains and Trainings to Criterion at Different Levels of Oral Reading Fluency
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
BRIAN K. MARTENS (Syracuse University), Derek D. Reed (Syracuse University)
Abstract: Approximately 70% of the Nation’s fourth graders continue to function at or below the basic level in reading (NCES, 2004). For students who have already developed phonological awareness and sight-word vocabulary skills, oral reading fluency is “an essential link between word analysis and comprehension of text and is considered a necessary tool for learning from reading” (Chard, Vaughn, & Tyler, 2002, pp. 401-402). This study evaluated the effects of a fluency-based, after-school reading program on immediate gains in performance and number of trainings required to reach a criterion with 15 low-achieving 2nd and 3rd grade students. Training procedures consisted of phrase drill error correction, listening passage preview, and repeated readings along with goal setting, charting, and token reinforcement. Results indicated that as pre-training oral reading fluency levels increased, the magnitude of training gains as well as the number of trainings required to reach criterion decreased. Taken together, the results suggested that an optimal entry level for oral reading fluency in terms of maximizing gains and minimizing trainings to criterion was approximately 50 WCPM. The implications of these results for using sequentially-matched material for reading instruction will be highlighted.
122. Visual Goal and Progress Stimuli and their Affects on Students Reading Fluency Growth Rates
Area: EDC; Domain: Theory
ADEE REED (Utah State University), David E. Forbush (Utah State University)
Abstract: “National longitudinal studies show that more than 17.5 percent of children in U.S. schools will encounter reading problems in their first three years of schooling” (National Reading Panel Progress Report, 2000). In the book Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children, Snow, Burns and Griffen identify obstacles that account for the majority of early readers’ problems. A primary obstacle identified is difficulty understanding and fluently applying the alphabetic principle or sound symbol code, which over time results in significantly reduced reading fluency levels. One method supported by the National Reading Panel (NRP) for increasing fluency rates among readers is completion of repeated oral readings. Repeated oral reading have been found to show clear improvements among students across age and reading levels and appear to be most pronounced for poor readers. The NRP recommends that repeated readings be coupled with guidance and feedback but do not provide specific direction on either. Preliminary investigations suggest that feedback in the form of visible goal and jump stickers on reading stimulus materials positively affect students’ reading fluency rates. The purpose of this poster session is to display and describe the application and outcomes of these interventions for poor readers.
123. Comparison of Two Error Correction Procedures Within a Precision Teaching Framework During Learning to Read Words
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ANGELA GALVIN (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Ed Langford (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Michelle Harrington (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Matthew L. Israel (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center)
Abstract: At the Judge Rotenberg Center the implementation of much of the reading curriculum is based on the principles of Precision Teaching. This includes conducting multiple assessment timings with students on the reading of words until they reach a high rate-per-minute correct and a low rate-per-minute incorrect within each of a number of curriculum steps. This study examined how two different types of error correction methods affected retention of the proper pronunciation of words learned in a reading task. Curriculum material was from the Michael Maloney series Teach Your Children to Read Well and was presented in a number of timed tests one minute in length. One group of students was corrected during each timing, just as an error occurred. The other group of students was corrected at the end of each timing. Both groups received the same verbal correction procedure, but at different times. Subjects were similar in age and IQ. Both groups were tested on the material two weeks after mastery had been achieved to determine how their retention differed.
124. Addressing Concerns Related to “No Child Left Behind” and the Oral Reading Fluency Performance of Highly Diverse Fourth-Grade Students: A Cooperative and Coolaborative Teacher Training Model
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
WILLIAM J. SWEENEY (University of South Dakota), Doug Robbins (Smith Elementary School, Sioux City Community Schools), Jenny Wetz (Smith Elementary School, Sioux City Community Schools), Lauri Powell (Smith Elementary School, Sioux City Community Schools), Rise Tracy (Smith Elementary School, Sioux City Community Schools), Susan R. Sweeney (Smith Elementary School, Sioux City Community Schools), Paul Malanga (University of South Dakota)
Abstract: This demonstration project summarizes data related to the effectiveness of repeated reading techniques combined with daily goal setting to build oral reading fluency with fourth-grade students. This reading fluency demonstration project was a combined effort of a School of Education at The University of South Dakota with the Sioux City Community Schools to address some of the mandates of the federal governments 2001 amendments to the Elementary and Secondary School Act (i.e., No Child Left Behind or NCLB) as well as the reading performance of students enrolled in one of its elementary schools with a large population of academically at-risk students. Additionally, this demonstration project was designed to provide preservice special education teachers the opportunity to employ fluency-based procedures with Precision Teaching curriculum-based assessment techniques. Each year, approximately 60 to 65 fourth-grade students from three regular education classes work with 10 to 15 provide preservice special education teachers/tutors from the university. The preservice special education teachers/tutors worked with the students’ in-groups of 2 to 3 for roughly 45 minutes focusing on basic reading skills. The teacher/tutors met with their groups two days a week on average for approximately five weeks. The experimental design used is a behavioral dynamics (Cooper, 2004) approach that emphasizes an analysis of fluency celerations and learning pictures common to Precision Teaching programs. Precision Teaching measurement procedures are employed to evaluate the repeated readings procedures and assess the effectiveness of the teacher/tutor’s reading instruction. Results showed substantial fluency improvements with multiplying learning pictures for oral reading passages. The implementation of these procedures are effective at improving the student's reading fluency, are cost effective in terms of time and resources, and take little time to administer. Implications for classroom instruction and adoption of repeated reading procedures for both students academically at-risk and teacher training are discussed.
125. The Effect of Performance Rate on Retention
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
MICHELLE HARRINGTON (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Robert W. Worsham (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Ed Langford (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Matthew L. Israel (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Angela Galvin (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center)
Abstract: This study examined how performance rates at mastery affected retention of material. Subjects worked on a curriculum of graded vocabulary words, using precision teaching methodology, until they were able to read the words aloud at a certain rate-per-minute correct during each of a series of one-minute timings. The subjects were divided into two groups, one of which worked toward a high rate final aim and the other which worked toward a lower rate final aim. After two weeks each group was tested on retention of the materials. Data on differences in retention are presented for the two groups to see whether final rate-correct-per-minute had an effect on retention.
126. Retention Knowledge after Multiple Parts of Curriculum Practice
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
EMILY BURKE (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Michael J. Santopietro (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Sean Bresnahan (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center), Matthew L. Israel (Judge Rotenberg Educational Center)
Abstract: Two groups of students from the Judge Rotenberg Center worked on a series of vocabulary SAFMEDS. SAFMEDS is a fluency based method which is an acronym for “say all facts one minute each day shuffled”. It is a structure to use, which specific curriculum is then implemented into. Students that participated in the study were between the ages of 16 and 20. One condition of students worked through a curriculum of learning how to say the word, learning the definition of a word, and learning how to use the word correctly in a sentence. The second condition of students worked only on learning how to say the word and learning the definition of the word. Students in one condition were matched in ability to the students in the other condition. Students worked on the curriculum three to five times a week doing at least three one-minute timings a day. Frequency data were then plotted on the standard celeration chart. After students completed the SAFMED curriculum, the materials were removed for one month and then a check for retention was completed. Another retention check was completed again three months later. The study showed that the students who worked on the full curriculum of SAFMEDS had greater retention knowledge.
127. Increasing Acquisition of Target Vocabulary Words through Manipulation of Correction Procedure
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
NIRVANA PISTOLJEVIC (Teachers College, Columbia University), Grant Gautreaux (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: A multiple baseline and multiple probe across participants design was utilized to investigate the effects of manipulating the correction procedure on acquisition and the use of grade appropriate vocabulary in students functioning several grade levels below same age peers. Students A,B and C were 14 year-old 8th grade students, functioning several grades below same age peers. Students A and C were females, while student B was a male, all diagnosed with behavior disorder. Students attended a classroom implementing Comprehensive Application of Behavior Analysis to Schooling (CABAS®) model of instruction in a public middle school for at risk youth. This procedure was implemented to bridge the gap between students’ limited verbal repertoires and vocabulary required for the 8th grade level according to New York State Standards. The target words were selected from the pre-baseline probes as not being in any of the students’ repertoires. Students’ work was graded with target vocabulary words, which created an establishing operation for them to look up the words in the provided glossary in order to find out what grade they have received. After being exposed to each of the 4 sets of 5 words, 3 positive and 2 with negative connotation in each set, students were given an opportunity to use the words in correcting other students work. In addition, students were probed on whether they have acquired the words in the academic repertoire, by asking them a definition and if they can use them in the sentences. The results showed a functional relationship between the manipulation of correction component and acquisition of target vocabulary words. In addition, students acquired the target words in academic repertoire as well. Number of different words and number of sentences used has increased with implementation of the procedure.



Back to Top
Modifed by Eddie Soh