Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


31st Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2005

Event Details

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Poster Session #338
#338 Poster Session - AUT
Monday, May 30, 2005
12:00 PM–1:30 PM
Southwest Exhibit Hall (Lower Level)
1. Effects of Behavioral Checklist on Student’s Learn Unit Rate and Aberrant Behaviors
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KARI SASADA (Teachers College, Columbia University), JoAnn Pereira Delgado (Teachers College, Columbia University), R. Douglas Greer (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: Two 5-year-old students who were diagnosed with autism participated in this study. Those two students were identical twins and attended a special education kindergarten classroom in the suburb of a metropolitan area. During baseline, the students emitted high rates of aberrant behaviors including throwing objects, assaulting teachers, and climbing on tables. Non-compliance usually co-occurred with those aberrant behaviors and both of the student’s rate of instruction (on-task behavior) was low due to non-compliance, usually emitting socially inappropriate behaviors at the same time. Behavioral checklist was implemented to gain compliance and to provide visualized sheet working towards reinforcement as a consequence of completing instructions for both students. As the result of the intervention, both of the students showed great increase in rate of the total learn units (academic task) completed and decrease in socially inappropriate behaviors.
2. Using Fluency-Based Instruction to Improve the Bilateral Coordination and Functional Play Skills of a Child with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HEIDI CALVERLY (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Krista Zambolin (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Michael Fabrizio (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting)
Abstract: Children with autism often have difficulty completing tasks that require fine motor dexterity, such as snapping snaps, doing up buttons, stringing beads, and playing with a wide range of toys. This poster shows the progress a young child with autism made in improving his fine motor abilities, specifically bilateral coordination, and the effect that this improvement in motor skills had on his functional play skills. Data were collected on all intervention sessions and showed an increase in rate and accuracy across skills.
3. Using Direct Instruction to Teach a Non-Vocal Student with Autism to Read Through Discrimination Training
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
KELLY J. FERRIS (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Michael Fabrizio (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Celeste Marion (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting)
Abstract: This poster will present data on teaching a non-vocal 8-year-old boy with severe autism to read using direct instruction curricula and scripts modified so that they required no vocal output on the student’s part. We will present sample scripts, cumulative data demonstrating his progress through the curriculum, and a list of component skills he needed to benefit from the modified instruction.
4. Implementing an Attending Program to Decrease Learn Units to Criterion
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
SHIRA EISENBERG (Teachers College, Columbia University), Dolleen-Day Keohane (Teachers College, Columbia University), Jennifer Longano (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: This study measured the effects of implementing an attending program on the number of learn units to criterion for the identification programs of two autistic students in a CABAS® run classroom for students with disabilities. Both students emitted high numbers of learn units to criterion on there identification programs. The instructor used a pre and post design to measure the number of learn units to criterion prior to the implementation of the attending program and compared them to the number of learn units to criterion post attending program. Baseline was measured for two weeks prior to the introduction of the intervention and two weeks post. The identification programs for the first participant were discontinued during the attending procedure but were not discontinued for the second student, to determine whether this caused an effect on the attending procedures effects on the learn units to criterion. Following the attending program the students number of learn units to criterion decreased for both students from the initial pre-intervention measurement.
5. Assessing the Differential Outcomes Procedure with Children Diagnosed with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
IVY M. CHONG CRANE (Western Michigan University), James E. Carr (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The differential outcomes effect (DOE) refers to the phenomenon whereby discrimination learning is enhanced when a correct response to a specific sample stimulus is followed by its own unique reward (Savage, 2001). According to some researchers, the DOE is a consistent and powerful effect that enhances the acquisition and retention of conditional discriminations (e.g., Urcuioli, 1990). This series of experiments sought to extend research on the DOE. In Experiment 1, we examined the differential outcomes procedure (DOP) with four children diagnosed with autism across various task types commonly used in early intervention. In Experiment 2, we examined the DOP with three-choice conditional discrimination tasks. Based on phase means, in 7 out of 14 phases (3 in Experiment 1, 4 in Experiment 2), exemplars were acquired more quickly under the DOP. Although the aggregate data appear to be somewhat consistent with previous findings on the DOE, the question remains whether the current findings serve any practical value in the treatment of children with autism. The results are discussed in the context of the differences between the experiments and previous research that might have contributed to the discrepant findings.
6. Fluency Training and Skill Maintenance for Children with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
AMY SISLO (Summit Educational Resources), Amy L. Jablonski (Summit Educational Resources)
Abstract: This poster examines the effect of fluency training versus traditional maintenance programming on skill retention/acquisition for preschool children with Autism. Two groups of preschool students with autism, matched on key variables (including age, diagnosis, developmental level, and service length) will be examined. One group received fluency training once skills had been acquired in a traditional discrete-trial program, and the second group continued with discrete-trial maintenance procedures. Fluency training is a form of Applied Behavior Analysis that focuses on arranging instructional contingencies to promote high rates or responding. Discrete Trial Training emphasizes accuracy of responses that the student makes, where fluency training emphasizes rate of responding that the student exhibits. Data will be presented to show the durability of skill retention for each group.
7. Building Reading Comprehension Component Skills in Child with a Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
AMINATA DIAKITE (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Holly C. Almon-Morris (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Kristin N. Schirmer (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Michael Fabrizio (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting)
Abstract: Once a child with autism has mastered basic reading skills such as segmenting, blending, and letter-word identification, comprehension skills usually lag quite far behind most often because of the impoverished verbal repertoires of children with autism This poster outlines multiple methods of building comprehension component skills in a child with autism through precision teaching and fluency based instruction; skills targeted for development included word imaging, text reconstruction, and sentence translation. Along with data from each skill targeted, the poster will present the results of curriculum-based assessment measures used to document skill progress.
8. Reinforcing Appropriate Attending to Task Stimuli to Increase Correct Responding During Instruction Involving Visual Stimuli
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TAMAR FRANKEL (Teachers College, Columbia University), Dolleen-Day Keohane (Teachers College, Columbia University), Claire S. Cahill (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: This study examined the effects of implementing a treatment program to reinforce looking at antecedent stimuli and responding to the salient part of the stimuli on 3 students’ Personalized System on Instruction programs using a multiple baseline design across participants. The participants, a 7-year-old boy at the pre-speaker/prelistener repertoire level and two 7-year-old girls functioning at the emergent-speaker/emergent-listener levels, were all diagnosed with autism and attending a self-contained classroom employing the CABAS® educational model. The students’ weekly mean number of learn units-to-criteria before, during, and after the implementation of a program were calculated to measure the effects on their academic programs involving visual stimuli. The program, designed to reinforce attending to task stimuli, had several phases. Students were required to visually track an object under one of multiple identical cups and lift the correct cup to reveal the item. Cups with varying pictures were later presented, which required the students to find the hidden object by selecting the picture described by the instructors to increase vocal antecedent control. Results showed an educationally significant decrease in the numbers of learn units-to-criteria, as well as a relationship between reinforcing attention to the salient portion of the stimuli and the students’ learn units-to-criteria.
9. The Use of Antecedent Manipulations and Monitoring Using the Standard Celeration Chart to Reduce Problem Behavior in a Child with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KRISTA ZAMBOLIN (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Kelly J. Ferris (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Michael Fabrizio (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting)
Abstract: This paper documents the effect antecedent manipulations had on reducing escape/avoidance behavior in a child with autism. The antecedent manipulations were monitored using the Standard celeration chart. Data shows the elimination of aggressive behavior and improved staff performance
10. Assessment of Discrimination Skills in Children with Autism: Basic Skills of "Eye Directions"
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KENJI OKUDA (Kibi International University)
Abstract: This study assessed the discrimination skills of others "Eye directions" in Children with Autism. First, the basic assessment tasks were prepared. Second, some participants were tested their performance. Third, teaching was conducted for the participants who had low performance in the tasks. And then, effectiveness of teaching procedures and generalization are assessed. Finally, the basic discrimination skills of "Eye directions" in relation to "theory of mind" are discussed.
11. Encoding Words: Part:Whole Relations and Curriculum for Children with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
DONALD E. EISENHART (Bancroft NeuroHealth), Helen C. Sykes (Bancroft NeuroHealth)
Abstract: The language of many autistic children lacks the dymanic quality of typical peers including impaired gestalt perception (part:whole reations), limited conditional discrimination, and inability to utilize phonemes in encoding novel words.The following procedure has been utilized to teach word encoding and sight word reading in two learners aged five who had received early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) for approximately eighteen months. Despite several curricular strategies (object:word correspondence, phonics, sight words)each learner presented distinct overselectivity in sight word reading and impaired encoding of novel words.The procedure utilizes letter blend cards (e.g., sn) of prefixes and suffixes which were taught expressively in isolation. Subsequently, cards were presented together to produce correct word reading based upon phonetic composition. Performance based breaks were utilized during the shaping (teaching) phase. Results indicated the acquisition of over 200 words and the demonstation of encoding of novel words with identical prefixes and suffixes.The authors propose that over exposure to whole word sight reading in curriculum for children with autism could compromise word encoding at later stages. Addtionally, part:whole perception may serve as a prerequiste to word encoding indicating the need for increaded training at the foundational stage of skill building.
12. The Use Of Written Language to Promote Academic Performance
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ALICIA MEDEIROS (Crossroads Center for Children), Rachel Frederick (Crossroads Center for Children), Helen Bloomer (Crossroads Center for Children)
Abstract: Written language as an instructional support was evaluated as an intervention for promoting academic performance in two children with a diagnosis within the pervasive developmental disorder spectrum. Both children attended Crossroads Center for Children in New York, a school incorporating techniques of applied behavior analysis. One child was enrolled in the school-age program; the other child was enrolled in the preschool program. The results will reflect the effectiveness of the relationship between written language support and academic performance.
13. Assessing Children's Progress in an ABA-Educational Program: Results from the ABLLS and the Vineland
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ROBIN P. GOIN-KOCHEL (Virginia Institute for Psychiatric & Behavioral Genetics), Dawn Hendricks (VCU Autism Center), Staci Carr (VCU Autism Center), Shirley Wiley (VCU Autism Center)
Abstract: Archival data from a private-day school for preschoolers with autism (n = 18; mean age at program entry = 44 months; 94% male) were analyzed to understand (a) how children’s skills, as measured with the Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills (ABLLS), developed longitudinally as a result of their participation in an ABA-based educational program and (b) how the ABLLS compared to the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Classroom Edition (VABS). Program coordinators had completed the ABLLS on children at baseline and subsequent 6-month intervals and the VABS at 2 time points that coincided with 2 ABLLS administrations. Items on the ABLLS were organized into 5 domains: language, social/play, academics, self-help skills, and motor skills. Pairwise t-tests revealed significant improvements between all contiguous ABLLS assessments across each of these 5 domains except for self-help and motor skills, for which significant improvements were not evidenced from the ABLLS third assessment to the fourth. Pearson correlations were used to assess the relationships between comparable domains on the ABLLS and VABS. Significant relationships were noted between all like-domain pairs (r = .757, p = .003) except between the ABLLS self-help domain and the VABS daily-living skills domain. Implications of these findings are discussed.
14. Generalized Negatively Reinforced Manding in Children with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JANET YI (California State University, Los Angeles)
Abstract: Individuals with developmental disabilities are often unable to communicate in traditional ways (i.e., vocal language) and frequently rely on challenging behaviors (e.g., aggression and self-injury) to express their needs for positive and negative reinforcement. While the area of positive reinforcement manding has been well documented and empirically validated, there is a paucity of research to support the area of negatively reinforced manding. Using a multiple baseline across participants design, this study sought to teach three children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) to replace their challenging/pre-vocal behaviors with more socially appropriate ways to request the removal of nonpreferred items. Results showed that all participants were able to learn the negatively reinforced mand response and generalized this response to other untrained items. In addition to extending the research in the area, the study empirically defined a procedure for teaching negatively reinforced manding. Moreover, teaching the mand response resulted in quality of life improvements for all the participants and their families.
15. The Effects of Timed Readings on Comprehension in a Child with Asperger’s Syndrome
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
CHRISTINA A. YOUNG (University of North Texas), Jesus Rosales-Ruiz (University of North Texas)
Abstract: Many children with Asperger’s Syndrome read well but have difficulty with comprehension or recall. This study examined the effects of the amount of time a child read on the amount of related material remembered immediately afterwards. A multiple baseline with a reversal design was employed in this study. The baseline condition consisted of timing the child for two minutes of reading followed immediately by a 20 second timing in which the child “recalled” out loud what she just read for two separate books. The next condition in Book 1 consisted of shortening the reading time to one minute and continuing with a 20 second recall-time. The preliminary results show that shortening the time required to read increases the number of relevant facts recalled by the participant.
16. Video Modeling to Increase the Verbal Behavior of an Adolescent with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
D. REED BECHTEL (Bechtel Behavioral Services), Susan J. Heatter (Sue Heatter & Associates), Tereasa Stuckey (Springhill College)
Abstract: The poster presents the use of video modeling to increase the conversational skills of an adolescent with autism. A combination sequential and multiple baseline design was used to teach the boy how to initiate varied topics of conversation with other people at the dining table during mealtimes. Generalization probes for school and community settings also are presented.
17. The Effects of Video Feedback on Mand Training in Young Children with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
BOBBI KAEPPLER (Bancroft NeuroHealth), Noelle M. Green (Bancroft NeuroHealth)
Abstract: Mand training involves capturing and/or contriving establishing operations (EO). Specifically, this entails the identification of "relevant" EO's in effect and can often be a challenge. A goal in the treatment of children with Autism is to establish and maintain multiple mands. The authors propose that teacher improvement in EO identification leads to an increase in student mands. A multiple baseline across three teachers is presented to illustrate the effects of video feedback on mand training.
18. Performance of Children Diagnosed with Autism on Progressive Ratio and Conditioned Position Response Tasks
Area: AUT; Domain: Basic Research
LENELL E. KELLEY (The Matthew Reardon Center), John J. Chelonis (University of Arkansas, Little Rock), Merle G. Paule (National Center for Toxicological Research), Eldon Schulz (University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences)
Abstract: This study compared motivation and simple visual discrimination in children ages 5 to 12 years diagnosed with autism (n=12) and control children (n=9). Motivation was measured using a Progressive Ratio (PR) task that required children to press a response lever to earn candy. The first lever press was reinforced and the number of lever presses required for each additional reinforcer was incremented by 10. Visual discrimination was measured using a Conditioned Position Response (CPR) task. For this task, the center of three press-plates was illuminated with one of four colors. The child pressed the center press-plate and then pressed the left press-plate to earn candy if the original color was red or yellow, and the right press-plate if it was blue or green. Results indicated that for the PR task children with autism tend to be slower to respond, make fewer responses, and tend to complete less of the task than controls. Results indicated that for the CPR task, children with autism were significantly less accurate, significantly slower to respond, and completed significantly less of the task than controls. These results indicate that motivation may be effected and tasks that involve complex behaviors are significantly affected in individuals with autism.
19. Verbal Intelligence and Adaptive Communication in Children with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ALLISON SERRA TETREAULT (University of Houston, Texas Young Autism Project), Courtney Ferguson (University of Houston, Texas Young Autism Project), Ehsan Bayat (University of Houston, Texas Young Autism Project), Gerald E. Harris (University of Houston, Texas Young Autism Project)
Abstract: While research has demonstrated a relationship between adaptive behavior and intelligence in children with autism, it has not been examined specifically within the language domain. In addition, very little research has explored the relationship between subjective and objective accounts of language ability. Among 42 children with autism, the current study looked at the correlation between parent reports of child communication ability (Communication Domain on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales) and an objective measure of verbal intelligence (Verbal Subtest on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence – Third Edition) across a one-year time interval in which each child received discrete trial ABA. At initial testing, it was found that the two scores correlated significantly. In addition to offering evidence of convergent validity for the two measures of language ability, it was found that when the sample was analyzed longitudinally, the strength of the correlation increased, indicating that child treatment may lead to greater accuracy for parent’s perception of child language ability. Implications for the diagnosis and treatment of autism are discussed.
20. Establishing Mands Using a Physical Prompt Procedure with Fading on a Child with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KRISTINA WILLIAMS-MASIBO (Gonzaga University), Piaget G. Pauli (Gonzaga University), Kimberly P. Weber (Gonzaga University)
Abstract: A multi-probe design across behavior was used to increase the usage of signed mands with a child diagnosed with Autism. The researchers selected the participant based on her limited vocal responses, moderate aberrant behavior, and ability to imitate motor movements. The procedure used to develop the mand responses included fading physical prompting from a full to no prompting. Inter observer agreement data were recorded on every session with agreement of 100%. Results for increased independent sign usage in a mand condition were obtained for all of the signs taught. During the study aberrant behavior was also studied and the results showed a significant decrease as child acquired mands.
21. Teaching Elementary Abstract Concepts and How to Construct Basic Sentences to Children with Autism Using the Reading and Writing Program
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MARI SASAKI (Sophia University), Yoshiaki Nakano (Sophia University), Maiko Miyazaki (Nakayoshi Kids Station), Akiko Kato (Nakayoshi Kids Station), Takahiro Yamamoto (Sophia University)
Abstract: We developed the Japanese Reading and Writing Program based on the original R&W Program developed at UCLA to help developmentally disabled children improve functional communication skills using solely visual stimuli (Lovaas & Lovaas, 1999). “Reading” means responding to written instructions by selecting pictures, objects, persons etc., and “writing” means responding vice versa. Sasaki, Nakano, Kato & Yamamoto (2003) reported that a 4-year-old child with autism acquired 20 items of “reading” and “writing” labels within 3 months. We expanded the R&W Program to further teach such tasks as elementary abstract concepts, how to construct basic sentences, etc. In this study, we applied the expanded R&W Program to two 4-year-old children with autism who had difficulties in using vocal language, as a part of an early intensive behavioral intervention. We analyzed outcomes of 80 weeks intervention by numbers of tasks and items the children mastered. We also analyzed rates of stimulus generalizations from 2D to 3D objects, from actions in pictures to actions in vivo, etc. Social validity questionnaires were administered to parents and therapists who taught them. We discussed how to expand their “reading” and “writing” skills acquired in treatment settings to their natural environment.
22. Using a Textual Prompt to Establish Sequellic Responding with a Child with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
SARA J. PAHL (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting), Lesley Lucas-Pahl (Fabrizio/Moors Consulting)
Abstract: This poster will show that despite after a series of interventions that created little or no change, the implementation of a texutal prompt increased the effects of high rates of responding for answering personal questions with a school-aged boy with severe autism. Textual prompts included partial to full answers to personal questions. The use of textual prompts decreased the number of instructional sessions to aim and displayed little drop in rate of performance when the prompt was removed.
23. The Use of Marionets for the Generalization of Skills in Children with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
ANA PASTOR SANZ (Centro Al-Mudaris), José Julio Camerero (Centro Al-Mudaris), Teresa Lara (Centro Al-Mudaris), Rosa Cuesta (Centro Al-Mudaris), Sandra Roman Cerezo (Centro Al-Mudaris), Vanesa Soldado (Centro Al-Mudaris)
Abstract: The generalization of skills is one of the specific objectives that we take into consideration when we design programs for children with autism. The use of marionets presents the opportunity to teach under natural contingencies that facilitate the generalization of skills. We taught five children with autism to follow a series of tasks presented by a marionet. Through a structured story narrated by the marionet, the children had to respond to motor imitation, following instructions, matching identical objects, and to social questions.
24. The Effects of an Auditory Trainer on the Speech Sound Acquisition of Children with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
LAURA M. HUTT (New England Center for Children), Beth O. Bellone (New England Center for Children), Jaime Cohen (New England Center for Children)
Abstract: Seven children with autism and moderate to profound phonological disorders received speech intervention, with and without an auditory trainer, a wireless system with a microphone to amplify the speech signal and headphones to receive the signal and reduce background noise. Target isolated sounds or sounds-in-words were derived from assessment, counterbalanced across participants, and trained using an alternating treatment design. Only one of seven participants met criteria for words trained in the auditory trainer condition with no improvement demonstrated in the condition without the auditory trainer. One child initially achieved rapid improvement in the target sound trained with the auditory trainer, however a marked decline in performance was noted and mastery criteria were not achieved in either condition. The remaining five children showed no significant difference in acquisition with or without the auditory trainer. Interobserver agreement was collected for 35% of sessions with an average agreement of 82% (range, 50 – 100%). Results suggest that most children with autism would not benefit from use of an auditory trainer during speech acquisition training, however further research is needed to replicate these results with a greater number of participants.
25. From Secluded to Included: Teaching a Child with Autism to Use a Time-Out Chair
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
MELISSA A. FOTI HOFF (Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center), Rena Sorensen-Burnworth (Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center), Jamie M. Lentz (Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center)
Abstract: Intensive outpatient treatment was conducted with an 11-year-old female diagnosed with autism. Patient entered treatment after being removed from her educational placement due to significant aggressive behavior. Functional assessment of behaviors indicated multiply maintained behavior with escape and tangible as the primary functions. However, a secondary attention function (primarily physical attention) precluded the use of block and redirection strategies and dense reinforcement schedules were not effective in consistently reducing problem behavior. Effective treatment strategies included the use of a padded room time-out and a dense reinforcement schedule which were successfully faded to the independent use of a time-out chair and intermittent and token reinforcement over the course of 7 months. Behaviors were reduced from a baseline rate of 11 aggressions per hour to zero for more than 3 months.
26. Promoting Independence in School Settings for Children with Autism Using Tactile Prompting
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
HEATHER M. ANSON (Eastern Michigan University), James T. Todd (Eastern Michigan University)
Abstract: Verbal responses, gestures and other physical stimuli are often used to prompt attention to the teacher, group responding, and engagement by children in independent activities in the classroom. However, these stimuli are often intrusive. In the current study, unobtrusive vibrating pagers were used to discretely alert children that they were misbehaving or acting in an improper way, thus reducing the amount of disruptions the children and their teachers created in their classrooms. The children were then able to learn more naturally with less interference from more overt prompts. Specifically, five male children, between 4 and 7 years old, who attended a regular education preschool or regular education first grade classroom, participated. All participants were selected from Central Valley Autism Project, INC (CVAP, INC). An ABAB design was used in which periods of traditional prompting were alternated with periods of tactile and traditional prompting. The data showed that tactile prompting was successful in replacing traditional prompting for attention to teacher and independent activities. However, tactile prompting was not successful in replacing traditional prompting during group responding activities.
27. Comparison of Teaching Procedures when Assessing Rate of Acquisition of Discrimination Skills in Children with Autism
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER MUSOLFF (Barber National Institute), Robert Gulick (Barber National Institute), Thomas P. Kitchen (Barber National Institute), Phillip J. Belfiore (Mercyhurst College)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare two teaching procedures, No-No-Prompt and Errorless Learning in the discrete trial format. Although much research has been conducted to test the effectiveness of the Errorless Learning procedure, there has been little done on No-No-Prompt and also on a comparison of the two procedures. Using a withdrawal design (ABCACB), the study tested the rate of acquisition of receptive discrimination skills with 3 children with autism. Each session was conducted at the Barber National Institute, where all 3 children attended school. Data collected showed that criterion was met at a faster rate using the Errorless Learning procedure than the No-No-Prompt procedure.
28. Multiple-Cue Discrimination in Children with ASD: Examining the Relationship between Adaptive Behavior and Deficits in Discrimination
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DEREK D. REED (Syracuse University), Florence D. DiGennaro Reed (Syracuse University), Laura Lee McIntyre (Syracuse University)
Abstract: Teaching discrimination skills to individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may have widespread impact to other learning environments. As such, these skills are often referred to as “pivotal behaviors” (Koegel et al., 1989). Evidence suggests that individuals on the autism spectrum often have difficulties discriminating multiple component stimuli and may exhibit stimulus overselectivity (Matthews, Shute, & Rees, 2001). More specifically, it is observed that as the complexity of a stimulus increases from one component to two, three, and four components, the frequency of response errors also increases when participants are asked to discriminate between items (Burke & Cerniglia, 1990). The present study assessed the salience and prevalence of multiple-cue discriminatory deficits in children with ASD. Six preschool children were asked to select an object from an array of 16 items when given the instruction, “Give me the (name of object)”. The participants were presented with a variety of multiple component tasks (e.g., stimuli varying in color, size, shape, and texture). Results of the discrimination tasks will be described as they relate to the children’s adaptive functioning on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Discussion will focus on implications for teaching multiple-cue discrimination to children with ASD.
29. The Relationship Between Allotted Response Time and Compliance in a Girl with Rett’s Syndrome
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
MELISSA SCOGGINS (Munroe-Meyer Institute), Susan Wilczynski (Munroe-Meyer Institute), Keery Wolf (Munroe-Meyer Institute), Joshua Needelman (Munroe-Meyer Institute)
Abstract: Rett’s Disorder is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by early normal development followed by a loss of specific skills (e.g., hand skills, interest in social interactions). A common characteristic of Rett’s Disorder is stereotypic hand movements such as hand-wringing or hand-clapping. Severe impairment in both expressive and receptive language development, psychomotor delays, and severe or profound mental retardation are also frequently present. In the present investigation, the participant was a 5-year-old girl diagnosed with Rett’s Disorder who exhibited apraxia, psychomotor delay, and frequent hand-clapping. The goal of the investigation was to determine the appropriate response time allowed for independent compliance during teaching sessions that utilized a discrete trial format. An alternating treatments design was used to assess compliance with 4 s, 7 s, and 10 s latency periods allowed for independent compliance before prompting by the experimenter. Independent compliance was defined as initiation of the required task without prompting by the experimenter within the designated time period. Conditions were 5 min in length with one task presented every 30 s. Tasks included tacts, motor imitation, intraverbals, one-step directions, and receptive identification. The 10 s condition resulted in the highest level of independent compliance. Implications of the results will be discussed.
30. Effects of Video Self-Monitoring on Teaching Performance: Enhancing Staff Discrete Trial Instruction (DTI) in Autistic Support Classrooms
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
KEVIN M. FRITTS (Barber National Institute), Brian Herman (Barber National Institute), Phillip J. Belfiore (Mercyhurst College)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of staff video self-monitoring training on the accuracy of delivering Discrete Trial Instruction (DTI) to students in an autistic support classroom. Following baseline, staff were trained to criteria in scoring, from videotapes, their DTI delivery. Specifically, staff were trained to self-monitor their (a) delivery of discriminative stimulus, (b) wait time for student response, (c) immediacy of feedback, (d) delivery of specific feedback, and (e) latency before delivery of next discriminative stimulus. The dependent measure was the accuracy of completing the total DTI trial, using a multiple baseline design across staff. In addition to accuracy of the complete DTI trial, data was also collected on each individual step of the DTI trial. Results showed that video self-monitoring increased the accuracy of DTI for staff when working in an autistic support classroom.
31. Increasing Learn Unit Presentations
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
TATIANA P. OCHOA (Teachers College, Columbia University)
Abstract: This study was conducted to test the effects of increasing the numbers of learn unit presentations during instruction on aberrant behavior (self-injurious behavior during instruction). The dependent variable was the number of occurrences of aberrant behaviors emitted for the entire session of instruction. The independent variable was increasing the number of learn unit presentations during instruction. The participants of this study were two 7-year old females who functioned at the pre-listener and pre-speaker level of verbal behavior. A multiple baseline across subjects design was employed for self-injurious behaviors and showed a functional relation between the numbers of learn unit presentations and the number of aberrant behaviors emitted during instruction. During baseline sessions, participant A emitted relatively high rates of aberrant behaviors. Participant B emitted lower occurrences of aberrant behavior, however, it interfered during the entire time of instruction. The learn unit presentations were then increased due to the student emitted high number of occurrences of self-injurious behavior which interfered with instruction. The results showed that increasing learn units decreased aberrant behaviors during instruction and it also decreased the participant's learn units to criterion. After we increased the learn unit presentations during the entire session, student A and student B emitted relatively lower occurrences of aberrant behaviors. During baseline, the learn unit presentations were decreased to the same number of learn unit presentations that were implemented in the previous baseline phase for both students. The results suggested that increasing the learn unit presentations was an effective teaching tactic for treating aberrant behaviors in a school setting for both students.
32. Efficacy of a Social Story as a Primary Intervention in Teaching Appropriate Social Behavior
Area: AUT; Domain: Service Delivery
VICTORIA A. GALLANT (Pathways Strategic Teaching Center), John C. Briggs (Pathways Strategic Teaching Center), Erik A. Mayville (Pathways Strategic Teaching Center)
Abstract: Social skill development is an essential part of the programming for children with autism. One method of teaching social skills is to use social stories (Gray, 2003). Using a multiple treatment design we evaluated the effectiveness of social stories to teach appropriate greetings to an eleven year old boy diagnosed with autism. The dependent variables were appropriate greetings paired with sustained eye contact throughout a social interaction. The independent variables were: 1.The use of social stories alone, 2. The use of social stories paired with edible reinforcers and 3.The use of social stories with systematic fading of edible reinforcer. The social story alone was not effective as an intervention, however when combined with the use of edible reinforcement the student’s social interaction skills showed marked improvement.
33. Teaching Independent Classroom Routines to Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder
Area: AUT; Domain: Applied Research
DANA SALINGER (Northwest Behavioral Associates), Amy L. Barnhill (Northwest Behavioral Associates), Melissa Liotti (Northwest Behavioral Associates)
Abstract: Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often struggle following multi-step independent classroom routines, a skill critical for success in inclusive educational environments. For the purposes of this study, the investigators plan to teach approximately 8 students with ASD to independently follow multi-step independent classroom routines in small group settings with increasing complexity using a changing criterion experimental design. Acquisition data will be visually summarized from the small group setting and generalization data from their general education classrooms will be shared as well.



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Modifed by Eddie Soh