Association for Behavior Analysis International

The Association for Behavior Analysis International® (ABAI) is a nonprofit membership organization with the mission to contribute to the well-being of society by developing, enhancing, and supporting the growth and vitality of the science of behavior analysis through research, education, and practice.


31st Annual Convention; Chicago, IL; 2005

Event Details

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Poster Session #254
#254 Poster Session - EDC
Sunday, May 29, 2005
5:30 PM–7:00 PM
Southwest Exhibit Hall (Lower Level)
109. Teachers’ Perceptions of the Effectiveness of NorthStar Program in Developing Pre-referral Interventions
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
PINDIPROLU SEKHAR (East Tennessee State University)
Abstract: NorthStar is a software program designed to assist general education teachers and student support teams (SSTs) with pre-referral interventions. Pre-referral interventions are interventions attempted with students with suspected academic or behavioral challenges before being referred for special education assessment. These services are required under the new guidelines for identifying students with learning disabilities in the state of Tennessee. Some school systems have expanded the focus of pre-referral interventions for identifying all students with disabilities in the recent past. It is in this context the NorthStar program was employed to assist SSTs in seven school districts across Northeast Tennessee. The Program consists of two major components: (a) Student Adjustment Profile (SAP) and (b) Answer Bank. The teachers typically answers questions by accessing the SAP and obtain a profile of the at-risk student. The Answer Bank portion of the program consists of resources for 24 areas of concern. For each area, teachers/SST personnel can obtain an overview of the problem area, strategies (that are indexed by grade level for appropriateness) to intervene with the problem, a list of resources (books, videos, etc.) to support interventions, and Websites that provide in depth information regarding the area of concern. Twenty nine teachers, who participated in the study, employed this tool to assist their school SSTs implement pre-referral interventions over a period of one year. The teachers were asked to rate the effectiveness and ease of using the software. Further, they rated the effectiveness and relevance of the various components of the Answer Bank and the SAP. The results of the study and teachers’ comments on the utility of the software for academic and behavioral interventions will be presented and discussed.
110. The Effects of the Learn Unit on Teaching Two Teaching Assistants the Repertoire of Instructional Decision Making
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
JENNIFER LONGANO (Columbia University Teacher's College), Claire S. Cahill (Columbia University Teacher's College)
Abstract: A delayed multiple baseline across participants design was employed to test the effects of the presentation of learn units (interlocking three-term contingency trails) on the percentage of correct instructional decisions related to student programs made by two teaching assistants. Both participants were female 1:1 teaching assistants in a CABAS® classroom. Both individuals worked with six-year old female students who were diagnosed with autism. The dependent variable was the percentage of correct and incorrect instructional decisions made by the two participants. During the baseline phase, the two participants were not required to graph or make strategic decisions, therefore no correct decisions were recorded for either participant. However, incorrect decisions were recorded when decision opportunities were missed. During the intervention phase, instruction on following the decision protocol was given in the form of learn units. An increase in the percentage of correct decisions was observed. Participant A showed mastery of making strategic decisions and Participant B was at criterion level. Findings showed learn units to be an effective form of instruction to teach the decision making process.
111. The Effects of the Collaborative Assessment Conference on Teachers’ Frequency and Type of Differentiated Instruction
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CARLA DEARMAN (University of Southern Mississippi), Sheila R. Alber-Morgan (University of Southern Mississippi), Linda Atwood (University of Southern Mississippi)
Abstract: This study examined the effects of the Collaborative Assessment Conference on the frequency and type of differentiated instruction responses of four elementary school teachers. Data were collected in each teacher’s classroom (three days each week) during a structured independent practice time that followed whole class instruction. The teachers were not told what behaviors the observers were recording. Type and frequency of differentiated instruction responses were recorded for each of the following teacher behaviors: adjusting the task level; simplifying, clarifying or chunking instruction; relating content knowledge to student’s background; modeling a skill; providing alternative activities; asking higher order questions; adjusting the environment; grouping students, providing choices, and encouraging responsibility. IOA, collected on 25% of the sessions, was over 92% for each teacher. An ABAB reversal design was used to assess the effects of the Collaborative Assessment Conference. After baseline data were collected, teachers met for one hour weekly to examine student work samples and engage in reflective conversations about their teaching. During the second baseline phase, the meetings were discontinued, and then re-established in the second intervention phase. The data demonstrate a clear and robust functional relationship of the Collaborative Conference Assessment on the frequency of differentiated instruction behaviors.
112. Expanding E-learning Service for Professionals and Paraprofessionals Working with Children with Developmental Differences in Korea
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
SANG BOK LEE (Daegu University, South Korea), Hyo-Shin Lee (Daegu University, South Korea), Sung Ae Kim (Daegu University, South Korea), Gyeong Hee Seo (Daegu University, South Korea), Chan Woong Park (Daegu University, South Korea), Heon Seon Jeon (Daegu University, South Korea), Chan Seok Byun (Daegu University, South Korea)
Abstract: This paper introduces E-learning service delivery system for professionals and paraprofessionals working with developmental differences, including each category of disability and diverse developmental problems in Korea.As a nation-wide special education project in Korea, the service delivery system purposed expanding the service areas out of the country.
113. The Use of Problem-Based Learning in the Functional Assessment Training of Preservice Special Educators
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
MICHAEL R. MAYTON (Beacon Behavioral Consultants, Inc.)
Abstract: Nine preservice special educators were first given didactic instruction and a subsequent quiz on the knowledge required to perform a functional behavioral assessment (FBA). Using a multiple baseline design, participants were pretested four days later on their knowledge and then phased into problem-based learning (PBL) sessions by groups of three, while those not in the sessions received a series of baseline probes. PBL probes were administered after each session, and a follow-up probe was administered to groups at one-, two-, and three-week intervals. Lastly, a measure of social validity regarding the PBL sessions was performed. Data revealed that PBL does indeed seem to produce significant gains above the initial didactic lecture acquisition of FBA knowledge and that final levels of knowledge, though inadequately low only four days after didactic instruction, were sustainable at adequate levels even three weeks after PBL sessions were concluded. These findings suggest that PBL instruction in FBA is a necessary conceptual bridge between the acquisition of FBA knowledge and application of that knowledge in the field. In addition, social validity measures revealed high ratings of treatment acceptability from participants.
114. Assessment of Strategic Text Analysis in Behavioral Psychology: The Evaluation, Intervention, and Process Analysis Model
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CARLOS SANTOYO (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México)
Abstract: On the basis of behavioral assessment procedures of the observational methodology, asampling and categorization strategy derived of the methodological and conceptual skills on the strategic text analysis in behavioral psychology is exposed. To relate such strategy to instructional psychology, the evaluation, intervention and process analysis model is presented. Task analysis of reading and comprehension of a scientific and empirical text in psychology produced a behavioral system of categories related on the structural properties of generic published articles. Validity procedure, system of categories and sampling procedures are presented. Some recent data derived of the evaluation of permanent products derived of analysis of text of undergraduate students of psychology are presented. Educational implications on teaching and evaluation in behavioral psychology are discussed.
115. Increasing Peer-Review Accuracy in a Computer-Aided PSI Course
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
KIRSTEN M. WIRTH (University of Manitoba), Joseph J. Pear (University of Manitoba), Toby L. Martin (University of Manitoba), Gabriel Schnerch (University of Manitoba), Heather Dawn Simister-Firth (University of Manitoba), Kerri L. Walters (University of Manitoba)
Abstract: Students in an undergraduate Behaviour Modification course taught using a computer-aided personalized system of instruction (CAPSI) at the University of Manitoba were presented with a set of rules that targeted peer-review accuracy and feedback, with a mild contingency for not following the rules. The rules were also restated in an individualized email to each student half way through the course. Archived records of the students’ responses were assessed by independent raters, and reliability checks were performed. The percentage of peer-review accuracy increased by 18% from the no-rule-semester to the rule-semester, and the differences were statistically significant. The overall percentage of substantive feedback provided by peer-reviewers did not increase; however, in the rule-semester, substantive feedback when restudies were provided occurred 23% more in the rule-semester than when passes were provided. There was a 39% increase in the percentage of restudies provided in the rule-semester compared to the no-rule semester. Neither the increase in substantive feedback or restudies assigned was statistically significant. This research has implications for developing ways to better train CAPSI peer-reviewers and test-writers, and for gaining rule-governed control over students’ peer-reviewing behaviours.
116. Computer-Based Program Instruction
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
CONNY M. RAAYMAKERS (Western Michigan University), Morgan C. Reynolds (Western Michigan University), Gregory Partlo (Western Michigan University), Eduardo A. Osorio Jones-Parra (Western Michigan University), Richard W. Malott (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: Psychology 100 (honors), 360, 460, 610, and 671 are courses at WesternMichigan University run by Richard Malott and his MA and Ph.D. students. For several semesters now, students in Malott's graduate training system have designed, implemented, and evaluated computer-based training materials for the classes. At the same time the authors were redesigning existing MS PowerPoint training modules, job aids and checklists were created to summarize some criteria for effective programmed instruction and computer-based training. The materials are created with the intent of alleviating common student mistakes and confusions observed by the T.A's of the respective courses. The materials include actual student examples (both exemplary and incorrect), which have been collected over the course of semesters. The programs have been developed according the Six Steps of Behavioral Systems Analysis, and are continuously revised for quality improvement according to students' errors on relevant quizzes and evaluation data.
117. Behavioral Strategies for Families
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
DANA SALINGER (Northwest Behavioral Associates), Jane M. Shively (Northwest Behavioral Associates), Michael D. Konkel (Northwest Behavioral Associates)
Abstract: Though the parents of children with autism often spend more time with them than any interventionist, they unfortunately often have the least access to training. This study will describe a series of workshops after which parents will be able to define basic principles of behavior, operationally define their children's behavior, implement a behavior change strategy, collect data, and evaluate results. Data on the parent participant's behavior will be summarized as pre and post test data.
118. Enhancing Pre-service Students Learning About Bipolar Disorder Via Lecturer Descriptions of Living with Mental Illness
Area: EDC; Domain: Basic Research
AMY L. SKINNER (University of Tennessee), Juliann Mathis (University of Tennessee)
Abstract: Two lecture styles were examined to determine which was more effective for enhancing content learning in college students. The same experienced guest lecturer presented information about bipolar disorder to college students in human service-related fields. Students in classes assigned to the control group received a standard, didactic lecture. In classes assigned to the experimental condition, the presenter began the lecture by informing the students that she had bipolar disorder and enhanced the standard didactic lecture by interspersing descriptions of her personal experiences living with bipolar disorder. Pre-tests and post-tests were used to compare acquisition of knowledge about the disorder across groups of students. Results showed that students who receive the personal/experiential lecture acquired significantly more knowledge about bipolar disorder than students who received the standard, didactic lecture. Discussion focuses on theories and procedures that may enhance student learning in related areas.
119. Listserv Discussions: Effects on In-Class Discussions and Student Performance
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
RYAN SAIN (Eastern Washington University), Samantha Swindell (Washington State University), Thomas A. Brigham (Washington State University)
Abstract: There has been considerable discussion of the effects of online study guide questions on examination performance (e.g. Brothen & Wambach 2001; Grimstad and Grabe 2004; Educause 2004). We experimentally examined the academic effects of an alternative form of online questions. Students responded to open ended conceptual questions on a class listserv. When students answered questions on the listserv, subsequent in class discussions, quiz and test scores all increased. Scores improved even though the material in the discussion questions may not have been covered in the quiz or examination.
120. The Effect of Mentor-Led Peer-Tutoring Sessions on Student Performance
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
DARLENE E. CRONE-TODD (Delta State University), Alicia Sattefield (Delta State University)
Abstract: Students completing undergraduate required psychology statistics courses often show deficits in completion of homework sets, and in the number of correct answers on examinations. The current study evaluates the effectiveness of an intervention using mentor- and peer-tutoring techniques. A reversal-replication design in which additional tutoring is either available (non-grade-contingent) or required (grade-contingent) is used to evaluate the effectiveness of the tutoring procedure. The dependent variables include the number of homework units completed, and scores on term tests. The data indicate that tutoring, whether required or not, is related to higher rates of homework completion and higher scores on tests. In addition, only some students attend the non-required tutoring sessions, which suggests that the examination scores and homework completion do not serve as sufficient reinforcers for attendance at non-required tutoring sessions.
121. The Effects of Handwritten and Word-Processed Guided Notes on Post-Secondary Students’ Recall and Application of Lecture Material
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
SARA C. BICARD (Mercy College), David Bicard (Hawthorne Country Day School), Hirofumi Shimizu (Hawthorne Country Day School)
Abstract: Using an alternating treatments design, this study investigated the effects of traditional handwritten and electronic guided notes on student performance in a graduate level assistive technology class. The two guided notes conditions, handwritten and word-processed, were randomly assigned for 12 class sessions. Each session consisted of a lecture with a corresponding PowerPoint presentation during which four participants hand-wrote information on guided notes printed on paper or typed information on an electronic format of the guided notes. Data were collected on the accuracy of notetaking, accuracy of recall and application of lecture material, and social validity. There were minimal differences in the participants’ performances between the two conditions. However, more participants preferred the word-processed condition. The results are discussed in relation to the existing research on guided notes.
122. Attribution of Instructionally Alterable Variables Among Preservice and Inservice General Educators
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
BARBARA MALLETTE (State University of New York, Fredonia), Gregory F. Harper (State University of New York, Fredonia), Lawrence J. Maheady (State University of New York, Fredonia), Douglas Lloyd (Silver Creek Central School District)
Abstract: SUNY Fredonia has a history of incorporating applied behavioral principles into its teacher preparation program. One measure of our success in accomplishing this is our candidates’ attitudes and beliefs regarding factors that promote or impede student achievement; specifically, we would expect our students to attribute student academic difficulties to factors within the classroom environment that are alterable. To assess the extent of our success in accomplishing this goal, a survey will be administered to candidates enrolled in the undergraduate program and to classroom teachers.The first part of the survey asks candidates to identify the instructional variables, and characteristics of teachers, classrooms, and students that are most important in determining student achievement and failure. In the second part of the survey, candidates are presented with brief case studies for which they identify the most likely causes of student difficulties described in these instances.Our hypothesis is that in the absence of the case study stimulus, both groups will accurately attribute failure to alterable variables. However, within the case study or problem solving situations, both groups are more likely to fall back on attributing student difficulty to variables that are not easily alterable, such as intelligence, poverty, and family background.
123. Pre-service Teachers’ Reflection: Comparison of the Use of Videotape and No Videotape
Area: EDC; Domain: Service Delivery
RICHARD G. WELSCH (University of Toledo), Patricia Devlin (University of Toledo)
Abstract: Preparing teachers to become reflective practitioners is increasingly the focus of many teacher education programs. The theme of teacher-as-reflective-decision-maker is included in within standards and assessment of teacher training (e.g., NCATE and PRAXIS III). This poster will present results of a current study that adds to the literature on the effectiveness and utility of increasing reflective behavior to enhance teacher proficiency. Participant in the study were 47 undergraduate and graduate-level students enrolled in two special education method courses. Within the context of these courses, students were assigned to plan and teach various lessons in their field placement. The Video-Based Reflection (VBR) condition consisted of the subjects planning and teaching a lesson which was videotaped. The students then reviewed the lesson by watching the tape before completing a written reflection. The Memory-Based Reflection (MBR) was similar to the previous condition, however the lesson was not videotaped. The pre-service teacher could use worksamples, student response data, or teacher notes that were completed during the lesson as a source for this reflection.By using a scoring rubric, it was found that VBR produced better quality reflections than MBR. The scoring rubric and inter-rater reliability will be presented.
124. The Effects of Self-Management on Teachers' Acquisition and Generalization of Desirable and Less Desirable Statements
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
NORM DAHL (University of Minnesota), Jennifer J. McComas (University of Minnesota), Anna-Lind Petursdottir (University of Minnesota), Laura Lofty (University of Minnesota), Stephani L. Bruyer (University of Minnesota)
Abstract: Didactic training, performance feedback, and self-management techniques are among the most popular approaches employed to support teachers’ use of programmatic and instructional techniques. Of these three approaches, self-management may represent the most cost-effective means of promoting teachers’ generalized use of instructional protocol. Although it is intuitively appealing to assert that behaviors subject to self-management techniques should, and do, generalize across time and contexts, empirical support for such claims is sparse. The purpose of the present study was to assess the influence of a self-management protocol (i.e., goal setting, self-monitoring, and self-assessment) on 3 preschool teachers’ generalized use of 3 classes of verbal statements delivered to children. More specifically, the present study was designed to assess (a) acquisition, (b) response generalization, (c) setting generalization and (d) temporal generalization. Results of three multiple-baseline across behaviors designs (one for each teacher) were interpreted as suggesting that the self-management protocol was associated with acquisition of desirable statements made to children, and that generalization across time, setting, or response classes was inconsistent. IOA was assessed on 30% of the sessions, with average IOA being greater than 80%. Interpretation and implications of the results are discussed.
125. The Role of Frequency in Maintenance of Desirable Teacher Statements Targeted in Self-Management Training
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ANNA-LIND PETURSDOTTIR (University of Minnesota), Norm Dahl (University of Minnesota), Jennifer J. McComas (University of Minnesota)
Abstract: The present study represents a secondary analysis of data presented by Dahl, McComas, Petursdottir, Lofy & Bruyer (2004) in an attempt to explain the role of frequency in maintenance of desirable statements targeted in teacher training. Dahl et al.’s study assessed the influence of a self-management intervention on the acquisition and generalization of teacher’s desirable statements (DS) relative to desirable and less desirable statements (LDS). Three preschool teachers could reach their goals (of emitting a ratio of 2 or 3 desirable statements for each less desirable statement) through (a) increasing the frequency of DS, (b) decrease frequency of LDS or (c) both. A multiple baseline ABA across response classes showed that self-management led to higher proportion of DSs for all three response classes in two teachers, and for one response class in the third teacher. However, maintenance was only observed in one response class with one teacher. A post hoc analysis of the data in terms of frequency revealed that the likelihood of maintenance increased with higher frequencies of target behavior during intervention. Inter-observer agreement averaged better than 80% across all sessions. The results suggest the importance of high frequency performance for maintenance.
126. Using Self-Management to Improve Implementation and Promote Sustainability of a Class-Wide Behavior Support Program in a Special Education Classroom: A Follow-Up Case Study
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
JEFFREY PISACRETA (The May Institute), Kimberly S. Thier (The May Institute)
Abstract: Training and consultation in classroom instructional and behavior support strategies was conducted with one special education teacher. The teacher demonstrated high fidelity of implementation only when the consultant conducted regular and frequent classroom observations. To improve implementation and promote sustainability of the class-wide behavior support program, the teacher was trained in self-management. Specifically, the teacher was trained to self-monitor and self-evaluate his performance, with an emphasis on the use of positive consequence strategies, a component of the program previously implemented inconsistently. Fidelity of implementation is the primary dependent variable. Additional dependent variables measured include teacher rate of office discipline referrals, and the percentage of intervals the teacher was delivering instruction, proactively monitoring, and providing statements of praise and behavior correction. In addition, student engagement (i.e., on-task) data were collected.
127. The Use of Prompting and Self-Monitoring to Increase School Staff Implementation of a Token Economy
Area: EDC; Domain: Applied Research
ERIN SELIGSON (Florida State University)
Abstract: A treatment package comprised of a tactile prompt, self-monitoring, and accuracy feedback was introduced to improve token economy implementation by three participants employed in a classroom for students with varied exceptionalities. Targeted behaviors improved for all participants and maintained when the treatment package was faded.



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